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I^viaon  of  MsUibEeb 

Sectional  T.ibratv 




VOL.  IX. 







"  The  works  of  God  are  so  worthy  of  their  author,  that  besides  the  impresses  of  his  wisdom  aud 
goodness  that  are  left  as  it  were  upon  their  surfaces,  there  are  a  great  many  more  curious  and 
excellent  tokens  and  effects  of  Divine  artifice  in  the  hidden  and  innermost  recesses  of  them ;  and 
these  are  not  to  be  discovered  by  the  perfunctory  looks  of  oscitant  and  unskilful  beholders ;  but 
require,  as  well  as  deserve,  the  most  attentive  and  prying  inspection  of  inquisitive  and  well- 
instructed  considerers.  And  sometimes  in  one  creature  there  may  be  I  know  not  how  many  ad- 
mirable things,  that  escape  a  vulgar  eye,  and  yet  may  be  clearly  discerned  by  that  of  a  true 
naturalist." — Boi/le. 








"  Not  a  s/ie// 
But  shows  scjiuc  touch,  in  freckle,  stnak,  or  stain. 
Of  His  uurivaUcd  pencil."— Cowpcr. 



:>   W 



1  \\\ 



V  ^.^.r' 

S^weiby  '1.1  rt,  lull 


Genus  SPONDYLUS.  Lnni^tus. 
Tcsin  affixa,  i>i,pi/>iiriilrix,  ir  mi  id, iris,  plus  minus  aiiricti- 
lata,  rniVuitiiii  xtriatu  et  tirnlii,  runt  costata,  varie  nm- 
ricata  el  spiiiom ;  uhiboiiibiis  icqitaUbus,  area  cardinali 
permtiplfi,  plmin,  eetate  productiore,  pecuUariter  sepa- 
ratis.    Cardo  dentihus  duohm  solidis,  re/lexis  in  ntrn- 
qm  valvfl,  valide  intersertis,  ligamenUmi  in  cavHalem 
inter  se  recipleiitibns.     Impressio   muscularis   mbla- 
Shell  attached,  inequivalve,  irregular,  more  or  less  auricu- 
lated,  radiately  striated  and  ridged,  rarely  ribbed,  va- 
riously prickled  and  spined ;  umboes  equal,  peculiarly 
separated  by  a  very  large  flat  hinge  area,  more  and 
more  produced  with  age.     Hinge  with  two  solid  re- 
flected teeth  in  each  valve,  strongly  interlocking,  and 
receiving  the  ligament  between  them.     Muscular  im- 
pression sublatcral. 
The  Spondylus,  or  Thorny  Oyster,  is  one  of  the  earliest 
known  shells.    When  Aristotle  occupied  himself  with  phi- 
losophic interest  in  describing  the  animals  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean, the  -S".  (jftdaropus  lived,  as  now,  in  all  its  royal 
panoply  of  purple  and  white,  and  the  name  adopted  by 
Linnaeus  when  engaged  upon  the  grand  formula  of  nomen- 
clature which  has  become  the  law  of  naturalists,  was  that 
of  the  old  philosopher  of  Greece,  namely,  SiroVSuXos.    The 
species  added  to  this  genus  in  modern  times  are  compa- 
ratively few ;  Lamarck  numbered  twenty-one ;  Sovverby,  in 
liis  recent  monograph  in  '  Thesaurus  Conchyliorum,'  only 
thirty-four,  and  I  have  but  two  or  three  to  add.   The  species 
are  mostly  well  known  to  collectors,  all  having  an  attrac- 
tive interest  from  their  singularity  of  form  and  beauty  of 
colouring.     Their  grow'th  is  peculiar  and  extremely  irre- 
gular, varying  according  to  the  circumstances  of  their  place 
of  attachment ;  it  may  be  remarked,  however,  that  it  is  on 
the  upper  valve  that  the  shell  developes  its  truest  specific 

The  Sporiihjll  are  confined  to  no  particular  locality. 
Limited  as  they  are  in  species,  they  are  distributed  very 
generally  over  the  globe  south  of  the  latitude  of  the  Medi- 
terranean.    There  are  no  sjiecies  on  the  coast  of  Britain. 

Species  1.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  Pacificus.    Spond.  testa,  oblique  late  trigonii, 
compressd,  radiatim  tenue  imhricato-striatd  et  liratn, 


liris  subcoiitorli''Jte.rHOsis,  tenuissime  sqnamatis,  squumis 
interdumfere  obsoletis ;  rtibidd  vel  rosed,  interdmii  al- 
lidd,  minio  radiatd. 
The  Pacific  Spondylus.  Shell  obliquely  broadly  tri- 
angularly compressed,  radiately  finely  imbricately  stri- 
ated and  ridged,  ridges  somewhat  twistedly  flexuous. 
very  finely  scaled,  scales  sometimes  almost  obsolete; 
ruddy  or  rose-coloured,  sometimes  whitish,  rayed  with 
Ilab.  Lord  Hood's  Island,  Pacific  Ocean ;  Cuming. 

This  species  has  been  sometimes  regarded  as  a  variety 
of  S.  ««(/h.s  which  follows,  but  it  is  uniformly  distinguished 
by  a  characteristic  obliquely  triangular  compressed  growth, 
rayed  with  exceedingly  fine  squamate  ridges  and  striae. 
Mr.  Cuming  possesses  it  in  several  varieties. 

Species  3.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Si'ONDYLUs  NUDUS.    Spoiid..  testd  snbelongato-lriijoiiii,  (jib- 
Losii,  nmbones  versus  rotundato-tumidd,  radiatim,  deiisi- 
slrialn  et  interdum.  liratd,  siriis  vix  imbricatis,  sublo'- 
ribiis,  liris  posticis  versus  marginal  interdum  squama- 
tis,  auriculis  Icevibus ;  vivide  minid,  lineis  albis  remotis 
plerumqne  radiatis. 
The  denuded  Spondylus.     Shell  somewhat  elongately 
triangular,  gibbous,  rotundately  swollen  towards  the 
umboes,   radiately  densely    striated   and    sometimes 
ridged,  strife  scarcely  imbricated,  nearly  smooth,  pos- 
terior ridges  sometimes  scaled  towards  the  margin, 
auricles  smooth ;  bright  scariet,  generally  rayed  with 
distant  white  lines. 
Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  xi.  p.  233.  pi.  203.  f.  lOS'J, 

Hab.  Mauritius  and  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

A  richly  painted  vermilion  shell,  mostly  rayed  at  rather 
distant  intervals  with  white  lines.  It  is  at  once  distin- 
guished from  the  preceding  species  by  its  elevated  regular 
gibbous  growth,  and  ab.sence  of  scales,  except  in  advanced 
specimens  at  the  ends  of  the  posterior  ridges. 

Species  3.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus    varians.     Spond.   testa   oblongo-orbicidari, 
convexo-depressn,  suUrregulari,  spinis  brevibtis  sqiiu- 
?iiatis  copiosP  radiata,  spinis  valde  irregularibws,  valvd 


SPONDYLL'S.— Plate  I. 

siiperiori prope  umbonem  liris parvis  aciilia  Irihus  xqim- 
miferis  distantibtcs  radiata,  valvd  infcrinri  /ili'i-nunii"- 
muUo  foliata  et  concameratd ;  alba,  cin-a  ih,ilioii.u,i 
piirptireo-roseo  et  aurantio  titidd,  liris  Iribiin  pan-is 
radlantibus  mturatiorihus. 

Thf.  vakiable  Spondylds.  Shell  oblong-orbicular,  con- 
vexly  depressed,  somewhat  irregular,  copiously  rayed 
with  very  irregular  short  squaraate  spines,  upper  valve 
rayed  near  the  umbo  with  three  small  sharp  sealed 
ridges,  lower  valve  generally  much  foUated  and  cham- 
bered ;  white,  stained  around  the  umbo  with  pui-jjle- 
rose  and  orange,  the  three  small  radiating  ridges  be- 
ing darker  in  colour. 

^JowEiuiv.    \ii(i'  ii(li\   lo  Catalogue  of  Polynesian  Shells 
coll'  I  .   ^  ''•   'I  I     -lutchbury. 
A'/j'j'M '  ■   v  /)   ,  •     ■//■(.  Chenu. 

Hab.   Pacific  Islands. 

This  tine  species  is  distinguished  in  all  its  stages  ol' 
growth  by  three  widely  separated  fine  squamate  ridges 
radiating  from  the  umbo,  of  a  darker  red  tiut  than  the  sur- 
rounding colour  of  the  shell.  It  is  of  very  irregular  growth, 
sometimes  depositing  a  series  of  basal  laminae  in  the  lower 
valve  one  over  the  other,  and  hermetically  closing  water  in 
the  chambers,  in  which  state,  often  of  great  size,  it  is 
known  to  collectors  by  the  name  of  the  Water  Spondylus. 

Species  4.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Sl'ONDYLUS  CILIATUS.     Spoiid.  Ustd  suhorbiciilari,  lenui, 
convexo-diprtssd,    liris   eximiis   radiald,    liris    spinis 

Iriiiiihiis  .•iiibiiiPiiibraiiaceis  longis  erectis  copiose  acii- 
/,'ii/i.s,  /h-nrihi/  i//lrrs/i/iis  sitbtilissime  dense  striatis ; 
.\friiiiiiiieij-albd,  purpiirascente  sparsim  pundatd. 

The  ciliated  Spondylus.  Shell  suborbicular,  thin, 
convexly  depressed,  rayed  with  fine  ridges,  ridges 
copiously  thorned  with  rather  long,  erect,  thin,  sub- 
membranaceous  spines,  interstices  between  the  ridges 
very  finely  densely  striated ;  straw-tinged  white,  spa- 
ringly dotted  with  light  purple. 

Bkoderip,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1833,  p.  5. 

Hab.  Lord  Hood's  Island,  Pacific  Ocean  (found  on  the 
reefs  attached  to  a  piece  of  coral) ;  Cuming. 
Copiously  ciliated   throughout  witii  long  erect  spines, 

which  are  exceedingly  tiiin  and  have  a  submembranaceous 


Species  o.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  Gussoni.  Spuiid.  tesld  ocali,  subijibbusd,  nm- 
boues  versus  subatieuimld,  radiotiin  slriald,  striis  mi- 
nute imbricatis ;  alba. 

Gusson's  Spondylus.  Shell  oval,  rather  gibbous,  a 
little  attenuated  towards  the  umboes,  radiately  stri- 
ated, striae  minutely  imbricated  ;  white. 

Costa,  Philippi,  Enum.  Moll.  Sicil.  vol.  i.  p.  87. 
Spoitdi/l/is  minimus,  Chemn. 
Spondylus  albidus,  Broderip. 

Ilab.  ilediterraneaii. 

Of  small  gibbous   size,  with   somewhat   the  aspect  of 

a  TercbraUda,  attached  mostly  in  groups. 

•S'pvndyliis  ^  Ply  II. 

Tmuero    BToois  Ix 


Species  6.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

SroNDYLus  LEUCACANTHA.  5/jojirf.  tcsld  orhkulari,  vel 
sitbtrigono-ovatd,  crassiusculd,  venirieosd,  cosiis  sex 
priHcipalibiiS  radiatd,  costis  spinis  squamatis  elongaUs 
mbarcuatis  inegularibus  armatis,  iuterstitiis  minute 
imbricato-striatls,  liris  Iribus  aculeato-squaniatis  ;  cro- 
ceo-rubrd  vel  vivide  minio-rubrd,  spinis  albis. 

The  white-spined  Spondylus.  Shell  orbicular  or 
somewhat  triangularly  ovate,  rather  thick,  ventricose, 
rayed  with  six  principal  ribs,  ribs  armed  with  ii'regu- 
lar  slightly  arched  elongated  squaraate  spines,  inter- 
stices minutely  imbricately  striated,  with  three  thorny 
squamate  ridges ;  yellowish-red  or  bright  scarlet-red, 
spines  white. 

BuoDERiP,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1833,  p.  .5. 

Hah.  Island  of  La  Plata,  West  Columbia. 

A  very  rare  and  beautiful  species  at  once  distinguished 

by  its  pure  white  areuately  squamate  spines  springing  out 

of  a  deep  ochre  or  vermilion-red  ground. 

the  umbo.  The  shell  is  extremely  irregular  in  growth,  and 
the  spines  mostly  terminate  in  a  characteristic  palmate 

Species  7.   (^Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylcs  Sinensis.  Spond.  lesid  sHblnyoHO-orbiciduri, 
depressinscidd,  valde  irreyulari,  radiatim  tiiuUistriatd 
et  interdum  cosfatd,  profuse  sqmmatd,  sqmmis  versus 
margineni  magis  numerosis  et  planipalmatis,  et  plus 
minus  lateraliter  contorlis ;  spadiceo-carned,  circa  um- 
bonem  pallide  sanguineo  nebulatd,  interdum  alba,  pur- 
purea sparsim  variegatd. 

The  Chinese  Spondylus.  Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
orbieidar,  rather  depressed,  very  irregular,  radiately 
many-striated  and  sometimes  ribbed,  profusely  scaled, 
scales  more  numerous  towards  the  margin  and  flatly 
palmated,  and  more  or  less  twisted  on  one  side; 
fawn-flesh,  clouded  with  pale  blood-colour  about  the 
umboes,  sometimes  white,  sparsely  variegated  with 

Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Couch,  vol.  i.  p.  437.  pi.  87.  f.  32-34.. 

Hab.  China. 

Distinguished  by  a  peculiar  fawn-flesh  colour,  with  no 

marking  except  a  little  iuiut  clouding  of  blood-smear  about 

Species  8.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  yariegatus.    Spond.  testd  suborbiculari,  Pec- 
tiiiiformi,  gibbosd,  snbaquivalvi,  radiatim  cosfatd  et 
striata,  costis  spinis   longiusculis   recitrvis   armatis; 
albd,  lineis  atigulato-flexuosis  purpureo-fuscis  pictd. 
The  variegated  Spondylus.  Shell  somewhat  orbicular, 
Pecten-shapcd,  gibbous,  nearly  equivalve,  radiately 
ribbed  and  striated,  ribs  armed  with  rather  long  re- 
curved spines  ;  white,  painted  with  angulariy  flexuous 
purple-brown  lines. 
Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  vii.  pi.  45.  f.  464. 

Eadem,  Spondylus  muricalus,  Chemnitz. 
Ilab.  Amboyna. 

A  very  characteristic  feature  in  this  species  are  the  an- 
gularly flexuous  purple-brown  lines  with  which  it  is  more 
or  less  profusely  painted  upon  a  white  ground.  The  valves 
are  nearly  alike,  and  the  spines  mostly  curved  backwards. 

Species  9.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  princeps.  Spond.  testd  subrotundatd,  crassd, 
interdum  ponderosd,  radiatim  costatd  et  liratd,  costis 
lirisque  copiose  squamato-spinosd,  spinis  valde  irregu- 
lar ibus,  nunc  postice  nunc  ant  ice  distortis ;  intense 

The  prince  Spondylus.  Shell  somewhat  rounded, 
thick,  sometimes  ponderous,  radiately  ribbed  ami 
ridged,  ribs  and  ridges  copiously  squamately  spined, 
spines  very  ii-rcgular,  distorted  sometimes  in  a  poste- 
rior direction,  sometimes  anterioriy ;  deep  coral-red. 

Bboderip,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1833,  p.  4. 

Hab.  Island  of  Plata,  West  Columbia  (found  attached  to 
coral  rocks  at  the  depth  of  seventeen  fathoms) ;  Cu- 
Chiefly  distinguished  from  S.  pictorum,  to  which  it  is 

neariy  allied  by  the  irregular  laterally  inclined  contortions 

of  the  spines,  and  deep  coral-red  colour. 

January,  1856. 


■mva^y  -fiU'J"'    ^i 


Plate  III. 

Species  10.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  aur.intius.  Spoiid.  testa  subcoittorto-ovatd, 
ventricosiusculd,  racUaiim  multicostatd,  costis  snperfi- 
ciariis,  spinis  hreviusculis  acutis  copiosi  niuricatis ; 
viride  ntirantid,  circa  umbonem  alhd,  imiuacidafd,  plus 
minus  denitdald. 

The  orange  Spondylus.  Siiell  somewhat  twistedly 
ovate,  rather  ventricose,  radiately  many-ribbed,  ribs 
superficial,  copiously  prickled  with  rather  short  sharp 
spines;  bright  orange,  around  the  umboes  unspotted 
white,  more  or  less  denuded  of  spines. 

Lamarck,  Auim.  sans  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  190. 

Hal).  Seychelle  Islands. 

This  well-known  species  is  chiefly  distinguished  from  its 
nearest  ally  S.  Butleri,  by  the  sharp  curved  prickly  cha- 
racter and  abimdance  of  the  spines,  and  by  the  absence 
of  marking  in  the  vicinity  of  the  umbo. 

Species  11.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  multisetosus.  Spend,  testa  ovatd,  fenuicnid, 
irregtdari,  radiatini  dense  striata  et  liratd,  liris  spinis 
tenuibns  tirevibus  armatis,  et  copiose  mimite  muricutis; 
purpurascente-carned,  croceo  undique  plus  minus  ob- 
scure maculatd,  circa  umbonem  smujuineo  nebulutd, 
valde  mnricatd. 

The  many-bristled  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  rather 
thin,  irregular,  radiately  densely  striated  and  ridged, 
ridges  armed  with  short  tliia  spines  and  copiously 
minutely  prickled;  purple -flesh,  more  or  less  ob- 
scurely spotted  throughout  with  yellow,  clouded  with 
blood-smears,  and  very  prickly  about  the  umbo. 

Hah.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

It  is  a  striking  characteristic  of  this  species  to  be  every- 
where crowded  with  small  prickles,  iu  addition  to  the 
prickly  spines. 

Species  12.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus   mus.      Spond.  iestd  triyono-orbiculari,  gib- 
bosdy  subirregulari,  radiatini  striata   et  liratd,  liris 
sMistantibus,  spinis   longinscnlis,   irregtdaribus,  ad 
terminum  coutorto-spathulatis  sparsini  armatd ;  pur- 
purascente,  Jdc  illic  saturate  nebulatd,  circa  umbonem 
albd,  spinis  albis. 
The  mouse   Spondylus.     Shell  triangularly  orbicular, 
gibbous,  somewhat  irregular,  radiately  striated  and 
ridged,  ridges  rather  distant,  sparingly  armed  with 
rather  long  irregular  spines,  twistedly  spathulate  at 
the  end ;  light  purple,  here  and  there  dark-clouded, 
white  around  the  umbo,  spines  white. 
Hab.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

Of  swollen  growth,  distinguished  by  half-a-dozen  prin- 
cipal ribs,  out  of  which  the  spines  spring  in  a  peculiar 
contorted  manner,  and  become  spathulate  at  the  extremity. 

Species  13.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

bio\DYLU'5  gedaeopus  Spo7id  testd  obloiigo  oibicidan, 
lad/fif/ni  denne  sfiiatd  et  li/ala  stim  g)an%dato-as 
I  I  I    s]  iii(i\n    iiiuiicatti  spinis  valde 

III  it  il      Hic  illic  ti  imcatis , 

uil  hp     III  I     juipmea  vahd  iiife- 

1 101 1  alba,  uui  uutio  pa>  tiiii  tmUa 

The  ass's  rooT  Spondylls  Shell  oblong  orbicular  n 
diately  densely  striated  and  ridged,  striK  granularly 
roughened,  ridges  squamately  spined  and  prickled, 
spines  very  irregular,  promiscuously  twisted,  here  and 
there  truncated ;  upper  valve  everywhere  deep  pur- 
ple, lower  valve  white,  partially  tinged  with  orange. 

L1NN.EUS,  Syst.  Nat.  12th  edit.  p.  1136. 

Hub.  Mediterranean. 

This  well-known  species  has  a  very  characteristic  plan 
of  sculpture,  and  is  readily  distinguished  by  its  peculiar 
contrast  of  colouring ;  the  upper  valve  being  of  a  uniform 
rich  purple,  whilst  the  lower  valve  is  white,  partially 
tinged  with  orange. 

Januarv,  185G. 


Ymccnt  BrooV.  Imj 


Plate  FV. 

Sjjecies  14.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  Butleri.     Spond.  lestd  trigono-omtd,  rndta- 
tim  striata  et  Virata,  liris  versus  marginem  obsolelis, 
prope  wmbonem   oiscure  squamato-miiricatis,  delude 
spinosis,  spinis  siibnmptis,  talis,  pancis,  promiscue  con- 
tort is ;  piirpiin-n-iiiijricanle,  circa  umbonem  nebidatd, 
spinis  r/n,/,'  ti//,-ii,:iii.i. 
Butler's  Sri>Miyi,i  s.    Shell  triangularly  ovate,  radiately 
striated  and  ridged,  ridges  obsolete  towards  tUc  iiiar- 
gin,  obscurely  squamately  prickled  near  the  umbo, 
then  spined,  spines  rather  large,  broad,  few,  promis- 
cuously twisted  ;  purple-blackish,  clouded  around  the 
umbo,  spines  bright  orange. 
ffab.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Uniformly  distinguished  from  S.  aurdutliis  by  its  more 
regular  Pecten-shape  growth  and  blackish  ground-colour- 
ing, and  by  the  broad  straggling  character  of  the  spines, 
which  are  much  fewer  in  number  and  more  distant. 

Species  15.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  multimuric.\tus.     Spond.  testa  ovatd,  gib- 
bosd,  suhrmli,  irrn/nlari,  rudintim  dense  elevato-stri- 

i///ie   ariile  sqiiiiiiiiild-iiinriciitis,  spinis 



aid,  striis   undii^ 

paucis,  brevibus,  m/di-  irriyiilni-ilinf: 
aurantid,  circa  iniiboni-in  ulbd,  purjii. 
The  m.\.ny-pi!1ckled  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  some- 
what gibbous,  rather  rude,  irregular,  radiately  densely 
elevately  striated,  strias  everywhere  sharply  squa- 
mately prickled,  with  a  few  short  very  irregular 
spines ;  bright  scarlet -orange,  white,  faintly  spotted 
with  purple  around  the  umbo. 
Ilab.  Philippine  Islands;  Cuming. 

A  shell  of  somewhat  rude  growth,  of  a  bright  scarlet- 
orange  colour  throughout,  everywhere  covered  with  mi- 
nute prickly  scales,  iuterspersod  with  a  few  irregular  short 

Species  16.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus    bakbatus.      Spond.  testa  subtriijouo-ovatd, 

radiitfivi  conspiciic  lirntd  et  striata,  liris  sqnarn,ato- 
'innncdlix,  rersns  i.iniujiiirui  dense  spinosis,  spinis  nunc 
anr/nsf/s,  pun-is,  nunc  lute  squamato-spathidatis,varie 
contortis ;  pallide  spadiced,  carneo-roseo  plus  minus 
tinctd,  prope  umbonetn  intense  rnfo  sparsini  pnnctatd. 

The  bearded  Spondylus.  Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  radiately  conspicuously  ridged  and  striated, 
ridges  squamately  prickled,  densely  spined  towards 
the  margin,  spines  now  narrow,  small,  now  broadly 
squamately  spatbulate,  variously  twisted  ;  light  fawn- 
colour,  more  or  less  stained  with  flesh-rose,  sparingly 
dotted  near  the  umbo  with  deep  red. 

Ilab.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Of  the  same  peculiar  typical  character  as  S.  Sinensis, 
from  which  it  differs,  nevertheless,  specifically  in  detail  of 
sculpture.  The  spines  are  of  a  curiously  mixed  kind, 
some  being  small  and  narrow,  others  broadly  squamately 
spathulate  and  contorted. 

Species  17.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  Ajiericanus.  Spond.  lestd  ocafd,  nunc  Pec- 
tiniformi,  nunc  rude  ijibbosd,  radiatim  striatd  et  liratd, 
liris  se.v  principalibus  squamato-spiinosis,  spinis  inter- 
dnni  lonffis,  ad  termitium  foliaceo-palmatis,  liris  parvis 
infermediis  plus  minus  muricatis ;  alba,  circa  umbo- 
nem pnrpureo-  vel  coccineo-rufd. 

The  American  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  sometimes 
Pecten-shaped,  sometimes  rudely  gibbous,  radiately 
striated  and  ridged,  six  principal  ridges  squamately 
spined,  spines  sometimes  long  and  foliaceously  pal- 
mated  at  the  end,  ridges  small,  more  or  less  prickly  ; 
white,  purple  or  scarlet-red  around  the  umbo. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  185. 

Eadcm.  Spondylus  arac/enoides,  lont/ispina,  et  aricularis, 

Ilab.  Hennudas. 

This  well-known  species  varies  extremely  in  growth, 

being  sometimes  rudely  gibbously  formed,  with  the  spines 

crowded  and  irregular,  as  in  the  specimen  here  figured, 

sometimes  with  the  spines  fewer  and  more  regular,  and 

much  longer. 

January,  1856. 





Plvte  V. 

Species  IS.  (Fig.  u,  4,  Mus,  Cuuiiiig.) 

Spondylus  PLUKispiNOsis.  Spoiid.  testa  ovaid,  radia- 
tim  mhobscure  liratd,  liris  profuse  spinosk,  spinis  at- 
tetiiiatls  pralongk,  Idc  ilUc  promiscue  curvatis,  spinis 
circa  mnbonevi  numerosis,  minutis;  Candida,  circa 
umbonern,  fmco-nigro  ptmctaid,  spinis  interduni  vivicle 

The  many-spined  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  radiately 
somewhat  obscurely  ridged,  ridges  profusely  spined, 
spines  attenuated,  very  long,  here  and  there  ])romis- 
cuously  curved,  spines  around  the  umbo  numerous, 
minute  ;  white,  dotted  around  the  umbo  with  brown- 
black,  spines  sometimes  bright  orange. 

Encyclope'die  Methodique,  pi.  194.  f.  1. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuniiiig. 

This  species,  it  will  be  seen,  is  quite  distinct  from  S. 
auraHtius,  the  spines  being  more  delicately  attenuated  and 
much  more  numerous,  while  the  shell  is  chai-acterized  in 
the  young  state  by  a  multitude  of  fine  prickles,  interspersed 
at  the  base  with  brown-black  s])ots. 

Species  19.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spo.N'DYLUs  CROCEUS.  SpO'iid.  Icstd  ovutd,  veutricosd, 
valvis  sicbfeqimlibus,  rude  irregulariter  costati-s,  costis 
retusis,  Idc  illic  squamatis,  squamis  brevibiis,  latiuscu- 
Us,  valde  irrec/ularibus,  interdum  spatlmlads ;  undiqv.e 
rivide  aurantid-croced. 

The  yellow  Spo.xdylus.  Shell  ovate,  ventricose,  valves 
nearly  equal,  rudely  irregularly  ribbed,  ribs  blunt, 
here  and  there  squamate,  scales  short,  rather  broad, 
very  irregular,  sometimes  spathulate,  every whci-e 
bright  orange-yellow. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  7.  p.  77.  pi.  -15.  f.  l-G:! 

llab.   Moluccas. 

A  shell  of  somewhat  gibbous  growth,  rudely  spathu- 

lately  scale-spined,  of  a  uniform  rich  orange-yellow  colour 


Species  20.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spokdylus  kegius.  Spoiid.  testd  ovatd,  ventricosd,  valcis 
aquaUlus,  radiatim  costatis  ttt  liratis,  liris  miuuti 
(inilrulo-squaiiialis,  costis  spinis  solidis  longissimis 
ariiKilis.  iircii  curdinali  pared;  purpurasceHle-rosed, 
spinis  iiiterdniii  albidis. 

The  royal  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  ventricose,  valves 
equal,  radiately  ribbed  and  ridged,  ridges  minutely 
prickly  scaled,  ribs  armed  with  very  long  solid  spines, 
cardinal  area  small ;  purple-rose,  spines  sometimes 

LiNX.EUS,  Syst.  Nat.  (12th  edition),  p,  113tJ. 

Hab.  Sooloo  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

This  fine  species,  admirably  figured  by  Chemnitz,  is  of 

deep  ventricose  growth,  with  the  valves  of  equal  form  and 

of  similar  sculpture.     It  is  of  a  rich  purple  rose-colour, 

with  the  spines  sometimes  inclining  to  white. 

Februarv,  1850. 

S/H'in/' //'■':  /'■    '/. 


Species  21.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Sfondylus  flabellum.  Spond.  lestd  late  trirjond^Jlahel- 
Uformi,  suitus  eoncavo-pland,  supra  radiatim  ohscuri 
liratd,  lirk  priticipaUhm  pecuUariter  rude,  brevisqiia- 
matis,  sguamu  Idc  illic plus  minus  obsoletis,  ared  car- 
dinali perampld;  pnrpwrascente-rufd. 

The  little  fan  Spondylus.  Shell  broadly  triangular, 
fan-shaped,  concavely  flattened  beneath,  radiately 
obscurely  ridged  above,  principal  ridges  pecidinrly 
rudely  short-scaled,  scales  here  and  there  more  or 
less  obsolete,  cardinal  area  very  large  ;   purple-red. 

Hah. ? 

Characterized  in  all  its  stages  of  development  by  a  pe- 
culiar fan-shaped  growth,  and  by  a  stunted  character  of 
sculpture  on  the  radiating  ridges. 

Species  32.  (ilus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  candidus.     Spond.  tesld  suborhiculari,  valde 
irregulari,  ared  cardinali  latimculd,  radiatim  liratd, 
liris  rudibus,  subflexmsis,  gemmato-imbricatis,  inter- 
stitiis  striatis ;  candidd,  carneo-tinctd,  liris  interdum 
vivide  roseis. 
The  white  Spondylus.    Shell  somewhat  orbicular,  very 
irregular,  cardinal  area  rather  broad,  radiately  ridged, 
ridges  rude,  rather  flexuous,  bead-imbricated,  inter- 
stices striated  ;  white,  flesh-tinged,  ridges  sometimes 
bright  rose. 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  185. 
Hab.  Australia.     Lord  Hood's  Island ;  Cuming. 

The  name  given  to  this  species,  from  iliscoloured  speci- 
mens, is  rather  an  unfortunate  one,  the  ridges  being  cha- 
racterized in  fine  examples  by  a  particularly  bright  rose 
colour.     The  ridges,  which  are  of  an  extremely  irregular   j 
flexuous   growth,  are   delicately   begemmed    throngho 
with  close-set  imbrications. 

Species  23.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  tenuispinosus.    Sp07ul.  testd  orbiculari,  sub- 
tm  concavd,  conspictie  spinosd  et  spathulato-squamatd, 
stipra  pland,  radiatim  mnltistriatd  et  liratd,  liris  pro- 
fuse spinosis,  spinis  plerumque  mimitis,  pecuUariter 
erectis;    alba,   valvd  superiori   nurantio-roseo   varie 
tinctd  et  maculatd. 
The  fine-spined  Spondylus.    Shell  orbicular,  concave 
beneath,  conspicuously  spined  and  spathulately  scaled, 
flat  above,  radiately  many-striated  and  ridged,  ridges 
profusely  spined,  spines  generally  minute,  peculiarly 
erect ;  white,  upper  valve  variously  stained  and  spotted 
with  orange-rose. 
SowERBY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  421.  pi.  87.  f  37. 
Hab.  Island  of  Zebu,  Philippines  ;  Cuming. 

Covered  with  a  multitude  of  delicate  prickly  spines,  pe- 
culiarly erect  in  their  development. 

Species  34.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  pjctorum.     Spond.  lestd  triijuiM-ooatd,  ra- 
diatim costatd,  costis  sex  priiicijw/ibus  furliler  lingu- 
lato-spino-us,  interstitiis  se.ccostatis,  cot/is  jjarci-t,  breei- 
■spinosis  ;  vivide  aurantio-riifd. 
The  painters'  Spondylus.      Shell  triangularly  ovate, 
radiately  ribbed,  six  principal  ribs  strongly  lingularly 
spined,  interstices  six-ribbed,  ribs  small,  short-spined  ; 
bright  orange-red. 
Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  vii.  p.  94.  pi.  (J'J  f  tl,  V. 
Spondylus  crassisquamatus,  Lamarck. 
Spondylus  dubius,  Broderip. 
Hab.  Island  of  Plata,  West  Columbia  (ibuud  attached  to 
coral    rocks   at  the   depth    of   seventeen    fathoms)  ; 
Two  very  characteristic  features  in  this  fine  species  are 
the  regularity  of  its  plan  of  sculpture,  and  its  rich  orange- 
red  colour. 

February,  18.5G. 

.Spondylufi,  Pi .  ill. 



"Kncmt    Bro„W.   Imi. 


Species  25.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus    foliaceus.     Spond.  testa,  orbicularis  valdi 
(jihhom,  valvis  siibaqualilius,  radiatim  costatd,  costis 
latis,  obtims,  subsuperjiciariis,  lonffiticdinaliter  siilca- 
tis,  sex  principalibus  spinosis,  spuds  interdum  distauti- 
htts  prcelongis,  interdum  brevioribus,  pitkherrimi  fivi- 
briato-spathulatis  ;  albidd,purpura»ce)ite-rospO plus  mi- 
nus vivide  pietd. 
The  foliated  Spondylus.     Shell  orbicular,  very  gib- 
lious,  valves  nearly  equal,  radiately  ribbed,  ribs  broad, 
obtuse,  somewhat  superficial,  longitudinally  grooved, 
six  principal  ribs  spinous,  spines  sometimes  distant, 
very  long,  sometimes  shorter  and  beautifully  fimbri- 
ately  spathulate ;  whitish,  more  or  less  vividly  painted 
with  purple-rose. 
Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  vii.  p.  S5.  pi.  4(1.  f.  472,473. 
Spoudylns  midlilamellatus,  Lamarck. 
Spondylus  Petroselinum,  Sowerby. 
Hab.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

This  species,  of  which  a  very  characteristic  figure  ap- 
pears in  Chemnitz'  '  Conchylien  Cabinet,'  is  finished  with 
large  distant  spines,  sometimes  beautifully  fimbriately 
spathulate  at  the  extremitv. 

Species  36.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  ducalis.     Spoud.  testa  triyoiiu-ovatd,  valvis 
subeequalibits,  radiatim  dense  serrato-striatis,  costis  sex 
principalibus  siiperfciariis,  sqnamis  amplis  spathulatis 

iviij'erli,,!  n-y  II I  artier  iirnmtis  ;  squamis  alhis,  niriis  i/i- 
lersUtialiljus  candeo-uiyro  tinctis  vt  p2(iictatis. 

The  ducal  Spondylus.  Shell  triangularly  ovate,  valves 
nearly  equal,  radiately  densely  serrately  striated,  six 
principal  ribs  superficial,  closely  regularly  armed  with 
large  scales  ;  scales  white,  interstitial  striw  stained  and 
dotted  with  blue-black. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  vii.  p.  89.  pi.  47.  f  477,  47.S, 
Spondylus  spatayus,  Chemnitz. 
Spondylus  spatltuliferus,  Lamarck. 

Hab.   Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Variable  rather  in  growth,  but  always  distinguisheil  by 

the  contrast  of  the  rows  of  white  scales  upon  the  blue-grev 

ground  of  the  interstices. 

Species  27.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  lingua-felis.  Spond.  testa  oblonyo-ovutd, 
depressinscnld,  spinis  prirvis  brevibus,  subsquamulatis, 
inidiipti-  ite,t>,r  ,,'  ,  ./,N  ,  ii'xro-aurantid,  circa  uinlio- 
uem  iiilrntii,,,  ,    ,      ;    ..       •  -rnseo  tinctd. 

The  cat's-toxi.i  1  ^iw,M,iirs.  Shell  oblong-ovate, 
I'ather  depressed,  everywhere  densely  prickled  with 
small  short  subsquamate  spines ;  brownish-orange, 
sometimes  tinged  with  purple-rose  around  the  nmbd. 

SowEHBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1847. 

Hab.  ? 

Curiously  distinguished  by  its  flat-spread  oblong  growtii, 
prickled  throughout  with  small  close-set  spines. 

Spvmlyhus.Pl.  VIII. 


Vmcejit  Broolcs  Imp 


Plate  VIII 

Species  :J8.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 
Sponuvlus  impeeialis.    Spond.  testa  trigono-ovatd,  sub- 
mwpremi,  valvia   mpmlibus,  radiathn,   crebricostatd, 

.',',.    s,      ^„  ;,,.■,, ,'/,',,v,v   longkp'mosis,  spinis  fortibm 
;     '  ->    ,         .  / riroatatis,  costis  squamis  acutii 

,/'  ,  v"    ,.,■,.  ,  ■:■,:  .     I-'    ,    •-ranicu. 

TnK  IMPERIAL  Sfoxdvlus.  Shell  triangularly  ovate, 
rather  compressed,  valves  equal,  radiately  closely 
ribbed,  six  principal  ribs  long-spined,  spines  strong, 
appressed,  interstices  three-ribbed,  ribs  densely  set 
with  sharp  prickly  scales  ;  rose-flesh  colour. 
C;he.\u,  Couch.  Illus.  p.  G.  pi.  26.  f.  2,  3. 
Hub.  China. 

This  very  beautiful,  but  not  uncommon  species,  is  very 
closely  allied  to  S.  regius,  and  is  characterized  by  the  same 
plan  of  sculpture,  but  the  shell  is  uniformly  more  com- 
pressed, and  the  prickly  scales  of  the  interstitial  ribs  more 
sharply  developed. 

Species  29.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  zoNALis.  Spotid.  testa  ovatd,  vatde  irregn- 
luri,  profuse  radiatim  liratd,  liris  plus  mimis  obsoletis 
rude  Jlexnosis,  brevisquamatis,  squamis  irregulariter 
acideatis,  cuca  umlonem  magis  aculeatis  ;  alba,  nigro- 
punctatd,  deinde  purpurea  autfusco  conceutrice  zonatd, 
squamis  interdum  aurantio-luteis. 
The  zoned  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  very  irregular, 
profusely  radiately  ridged,  ridges  more  or  less  obso- 

lete, rudely  flexuous,  shori-scaled,  scales  u-rcgularly 
prickly,  more  prickly  round  the  umbo ;  white,  black- 
spotted,  then  concentrically  zoned  with  ])urple  ov 
brown,  scales  sometimes  orange-yellow. 

Chenu,  Illus.  Conch,  pi.  7.  f.  3  and  1. 
Spondylus  Iterinaceus,  Chenu. 

Hub.  Mauritius,  Australia,  and  Philippine  Islands, 

Of    rude    flexuous     growth,    promiscuously    bristleil 

throughout  with  irregular  short  prickly  scales. 

Species  30.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  Lamarckii.  Spotid.  testa  ovatd,  Fectirdformt 

radiatim  costatd,  costis  obtusis,  subdistani 

bus,  rude  Jiexuosis,  lavibus,  aculeis  parv/s  perpaucis 
prope  miibonem ;  c<Brulescente-albd,  purpureo-radiatd. 
Umbo  interno  intense  purpurea. 
Lamarck's  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  Pecten-shaped, 
u'regular,  radiately  ribbed,  ribs  obtuse,  rather  dis- 
tant, rudely  flexuous,  smooth,  with  a  few  small 
prickles  near  the  umbo ;  bluish-white,  purple-rayed, 
inner  lip  deep  purple. 
Chenu,  Conch.  Illus.  p.  6.  pi.  'J.  f.  4. 

Hub. ? 

A  very  characteristic  Pecten-like  species,  chiefly  distin- 
guished by  its  comparatively  smooth,  widely  rayed,  flattened 
ribs ;  but  liable  to  be  confounded  with  worn  specimens  of 
S.  ducalis. 

February,  18.56. 



Plate  IX. 

Species  31.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Si'ONDYLUS   VIRGINEUS.     Spoiid.   testd  Sttbtrigouo-ovatd, 
irregulari,  radiatim  liratd,  /.iris  alternis  xpinis  exiniiis 
armath,  spinis  longimculis,  promiscue  incwrvis,  spinis 
valvee  inferioris  fortioribiis,  longioribus ;  alhidd,  fer- 
rugineo-fusco  prope  xmihonvm  niaculatd,  spinis  pui-pii- 
The  maiden  Spondylus.     Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  irregular,  radiately   ridged,   alternate   ridges 
armed  with  delicate  spines,  spines  rather  long,  pro- 
miscuously curved  inwards,  spines  of  the  under  valve 
stronger  and    longer;    whitish,    spotted   with    rust- 
lirowu  near  the  umbo,  spines  light  purple. 
Ualj.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuniiog. 

A  very  delicate,  white,  rust-spotted  shell,  profusely  or- 
namented with  conspicuous  gracefully  curved  piukish- 
purple  spines. 

Species  32.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  albibakbatds.  Spond.  testa  late  orbicularis 
valvd  superiori  gibboso-convexd,  radiatim  multicostatd, 
costis  superfwiariis,  spiiwsis ;  fjisco-rufescente,  costis 
spinisque  albis. 

The  white-bearded  Spondylus.  Shell  broadly  orbi- 
cular, upper  valve  gibbously  convex,  radiately  many- 
ribbed,  ribs  superficial,  spined ;  brownish-red,  ribs 
and  spines  white. 

llai.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

Characterized  by  a  profusion  of  white  spines,  protruding 

from  white  superficial  ribs  upon  a  decided  brownish-red 


Species  33.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  tenebrosus.  Spond.  It-std  ohlungu-ovatd, 
depressimcidd,  irregulari,  radiatim  copiose  elemto- 
striata,  striis  acukatis,  sparsim  sgimmatis ;  ciuereo- 
fuscd,  ttlbipimclatd,  circa  umbonem  albd. 

The  dusky  Spondylus.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  rather  de- 
pressed, irregular,  radiately  copiously  elevately  stri- 
ated, striffi  prickly,  sparsely  squamate;  ash-brown, 
dotted  with  white,  white  around  the  umbo. 

Hab.  Moreton  Bay,  Australia ;  Strange. 

Of  rather  rude  growth,  beset  with  short  prickles  and  a 

few  scales.     Of  a  white-speckled  ash-brown,  while  round 

the  umbo. 

Species  34.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  limbatus.  Spond.  tesld  oblotigo-ocatd,  irrt- 
gtilari,  radiatim  dense  striata  et  liratd,  liris  superji- 
ciariis  dense  palmato-squamatis,  sqiiamis  rudibus,  irre- 
gidaribns;  intense  aurantio-riifd,  sqiiamis  interdum 
pins  aurantiis,  intus  aurantio-rufo  late  limbatd. 

The  bordered  Spondylus.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  irre- 
gular, radiately  densely  striated  and  ridged,  ridges 
superficial,  densely  palmately  scaled,  scales  rude, 
irregulai- ;  deep  orange-red,  scales  sometimes  lighter 
orange,  interior  broadly  bordered  with  orange-red. 

SovvEEBY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  437.  pi.  88.  f.  .51. 

Hab.  Panama  and  Mazatlan. 

Chiefly  characterized  by  its  orange-red  colour,  the  scales 

being  not  unfrequently  of  a  lighter  colour,  and  by  its  broad 

orange-red  border  in  the  interior. 

,Si>,'iuhln.s.  PI.  X 


Species  35.  (Fig.  n,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Si'OXBYLfS  Cu.MiNoli.  Hpond.  testa  suborhiadari,  de- 
prcmusciila,  radiotha  dome  imbiicato-liratd,  costis 
iiamque  principalibus  subdidantibus,  costis  spiiiosis, 
Hpiitk  longia,  fortibns,  inlerduni  palmath,  ad  latera 
pi-cid'mrUi'r jimbriata ;  aurnntio-rufd. 

('i-Mi\r,'s  Spondylus.  Shell  nearly  orbicular,  rather 
depressed,  radiately  densely  imbricately  ridged  with 
five  principal  rather  distant  ribs,  ribs  spined,  spines 
long,  strong,  sometimes  palmated,  curiously  fimbri- 
ated at  the  sides ;   orange-red. 

SowLKHV,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1847,  p.  SG. 

Hah.  Japan. 

Thi*  species,  which  is  inliuiately  allied  to  the  S.  rwjim 
and  imperiaUs,  is  beautifully  characterized  by  a  peculiar 
tiinbriated  structure  along  the  sides  of  the  spines. 

Species  'id.   (Mus.  Cuuiing.) 

SvoxDYLUS  CAMURUS.  Spoiid.  iestd  siibtrii/oiui,  irrci/ii- 
luri,  depressd,  7-adicdim  costatd,  contis  rude  squamcdis, 
squaittis  erectia,  interstit'ds  imbricato-striatis ;  cal- 
careo-albd,  kic  ilUc  purpureo-violaceo  tinctd  et  macii- 

Thk  CRUMl'LED  Sl'OMDYLUS.  Shell  somewhat  triangular, 
irregular,   depressed,    radiately    ribbed,    ribs    rudely 

scaled,  scales  erect,  interstii-es  imbricately  striated  ; 

chalk-white,  here  and  there  stained  and  spotted  with 

Hab.  Philippiue  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Of  white  chalk-like  aspect,  stained  here  and  there  with 
purple-violet,  irregular  in  growth,  rayed  with  rows  of 
short  erect  scale-like  spines. 

Species  37.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  unicolor.     Spond.  testa  SKbob/iqite  Irigond, 
snbrrqiiicaki,  cram,  va/de  gibbosd,  radiatim  costatd 
et  lirald,  costis  lirisque  rudibtis,  irregulanbits,  pru- 
Mixciie  obtuse  sqtiamatis,  squamis  depresse  palniatis  ; 
iidetise  corallo-rnbrd. 
The   one-colodred  Spondylus.     Shell  somewhat  ob- 
liquely triangular,  nearly  equivalve,  thick,  very  gib- 
bous, radiately  ribbed  and    ridged,  ribs  and  ridges 
ruue,  irregular,  promiscuously  obtusely  scaled,  scales 
depressly  palmate;  deep  coral-red. 
SowERBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1847,  p.  86. 

I   Hab.  ? 

A  solid  gibbous  shell,  nearly  equivalve,  of  rather  oblique 
growth,  beset  with  four  or  five  rows  of  irregular  distortedly 
palmated  scales,  the  intermediate  ridges  being  sculptured 
I   with  smaller  scales,  more  crowded  towards  the  margin. 

.May,  13.56. 


'^  ^ 

Sow«l-g    di-l   ^  ]ll} 

Vmc^lft    Brofi;! 


Species  38.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  gilvus.  Sponcl.  testa  SHblrifjono-ovatd,  rnrfr 
globosd,  racliatim  supKifivialiter  lirnfn,  Uris  (jiialiiur 
distantibus  obsolete  obtuse  sqtmniatis ;  it/fei/se  Jlcid"- 
rufd,  versus  mnbonem  coceined. 

The  beick-colouued  Spondylu.s,  Shell  somewhat 
triangularly  ovate,  rudely  globose,  radiately  superfi- 
cially ridged,  four  distant  ridges  obsoletely  obtusely 
scaled  ;  deej)  livid  red,  scarlet  towards  the  umbo. 

Hah.  Guadaloupe. 

A  rude  gibbous  species,  of  a  deep  livid  purplish-red, 
almost  denuded  of  sculpture  beyond  the  traces  of  four  row.^ 
of  obtuse  worn  scales. 

Species  30.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  euinaceus.  Sjjuud.  testa  gibboso-globosd . 
mbaquivaled,  radiatini  temdUratd,  Uris  crenulatis, 
costis  quinqiie  principalibus  in  utrd  valvd,  squamis 
erectis  palmatis  irregularibus  dense  vwuilis ;  r/i/ex- 
cente-croced,  squamis  saturate  rujis. 

The  hedgehog  Spondylus.  Shell  gibbously  globose, 
nearly  equivalve,  radiately  finely  ridged,  ridges  erenu- 
lated,  with  five  principal  ribs  in  both  valves,  beset 
with  irregular  erect  palmate  scales ;  ridges  yellow, 
scales  darker  red. 

JIab.  West  Indies. 

A  nearly  equivalve  shell,  of  a  peculiar  reddish-saffron 

colour,  characterized  on  both  sides  with  five  rows  of  erect 

reddish  scales. 

Species  40.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  ictericus.  Spotid.  testa  obloiigo-omtd,  valvd 
iiiferiori  valde  coiivexd,  superiori  snbplanatd,  radiatini 
tenniliratd,  Uris  quatuor  principalibus  subdistanlibus, 
sparsim  squamatis ;  croceo-rvfd,  ad  mnbonem  maculatd. 

The  jaundiced  Spondylus.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  lower 
valve  deeply  convex,  upper  valve  nearly  flat,  radiately 
finely  ridged,  four  principal  ridges  rather  distant, 
sparsely  scaled  ;  yellowish-red,  spotted  at  the  uinl)o. 

Ilab.  Bermuda. 

Of  a  peculiar  gamboge-red  colour,  with  little  indication 

of  sculpture. 

Species  41.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Spondylus  basilicus.  Spond.  testa  suborbiculari,  sub- 
depressd,  valvd  superiori  convexd,  radiatim  liratd  et 
strlofd,  squamis  frondosis  profuse  ornatd ;  intense  pur- 

The  princely  Spondylus.  Shell  suborbicular,  rather 
depressed,  up])cr  valve  convex,  radiately  ridged  and 
striated,  profusely  beset  witii  frondose  scales ;  deep 

Hah. ? 

This  shell,  which  was 
priiiceps,   is  well    charact 

sidered  to  be  a  variety  of  5'. 

id   by  its   depressly  convex 

by  the  peculiar  frondose  development  of  the 

Sporuhln.s  .Pl.Xn. 

Vincent    Brooks'    Im]; 


Species  4)3.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

SpoNDVLUS  HYSTKix.  Sjioud.  lestd  ovatd,  radiatim  UraU'l 
et  striata,  spinis  curvaiis  longiuseuUs  undique  dense 
muricatd;  parpurascente-carned,  ad  umbonem  suhma- 

Thf.  porcupine  Spondylus.  Sliell  ovate,  radiately 
ridped  and  striated,  densely  prickled  throughout 
with  rather  long  curved  spines  ;  purplish  flesh-colour, 
slightly  mottled  at  the  umbo. 

Hah.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

Armed  as  profusely  with  rather  long  curved  spines  as 

.■?.  aurantius,  but  uniformly  distinguished  amongst  other 

ciinracters  by  its  peculiar  purple  flesh-colour. 

Species  43.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  ocellatus.    Spond.  testa  oblique  ovatd,  vakd 
superiori  planimculd,  radiatim  multistriatd,  striis  un- 
dique  acute  muricatis ;  alba,  versus  margineni  rufes- 
cente-cinered,  prope  iimboneiii  ferrugineo-nigro   ocel- 
The  eyed   Spondylus.      Shell  obliquely  ovate,   upper 
valve  rather  flat,  radiately  many-striated,  stria;  every- 
where sharply  prickled ;  white,  reddish-ash  towards 
the    margin,    ocellated    with    rusty-black    near    the 
Huh.   Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Of  rather  oblique  growth,  delicately  sculptured  through- 
out with  sharp  erect  prickles. 

Species  tt.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  coccineus.  Spond.  iestd  oblique  orhiculari, 
tenuiculd,  radiatim  temdliratd  et  striatd,  undique  pro- 
fuse muricatd;  albd,  versus  marginem  coccineo-pur- 
purascente  tinctd,  ad  umbonem  maculis  couspicue  ra- 

The  crimson-dyed  Spondylus.  Shell  obliquely  or- 
bicular, rather  thin,  radiately  finely  ridged  and  stri- 
ated, everywhere  profusely  prickled  ;  white,  stained 
with  crimson-purple  towards  the  margin,  eouspicu- 
ously  rayed  with  spots  from  the  umbo. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans.  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  18S. 

Hah.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cumiug. 

A  delicately  prickled  species,  chiefly  characterized  by 

its  purple-stained  and  rayed  painting. 

Species  45.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus   asperrimus.      Spond.   testd 

plano-coHvexd,  dense  radiatim  liratd,  liris  undique 
aculeatis ;  carneo-fuscd,  aIbd,rvfo-maculatd prope  um- 
bonem, aculeis  interdmn  albidis. 

The  very  rough  Spondylus.  Shell  triangularly  ovate, 
flatly  convex,  densely  radiately  ridged,  ridges  every- 
where sharply  prickled ;  flesh-brown,  white,  spotted 
with  red  next  the  umbo,  prickles  sometimes  whitish. 

SowERBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1847,  p.  87. 

Hub.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cumiug. 

Very  closely  finely  ridged  throughout,  the  ridges  being 

copiously  beset  with  sharp  prickles. 


rhf   3A  a  ]«li 

^ftncent    Brooks    Irop 


Plate  XIII. 

Species  46.   (.Mus.  Cuiuiiig.) 

Spondyli's  longitudinalis.  Spoiid.  testa  oblongo-ovald, 
crassi/iscuM,  dense  cosiaict  et  lirata,  liris  muricato- 
spinosh,  codis  confertim  rude  sqnamatis,  squamis  erec- 
tk,  coticavis ;  purpureo-nhldd,  sqnmms  pullidi  s/ra- 

The  longitudinal  Spondylus.  Shell  oblong-ovate, 
rather  tliick,  densely  ribbed  and  ridged,  ridges  prickly 
spined,  ribs  closely  rudely  scaled,  scales  erect.,  con- 
cave ;  purple-red,  scales  pale  straw-colour. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  li)0. 
Spond'i/lns  7nuUila»u'lhitm,  Cheiiu. 

Hab.   West  Indies. 

It  is  impossible  to  determine  which  is  the  species  La- 
marck had  in  view  for  his  S.  longitudinaUs,  either  by  his 
description  or  reference  to  Chemnitz.  The  shell  here 
figured  having  been  selected  by  INIr.  Sowerby  as  the  type 
of  S.  longitudinalk,  it  may,  in  this  state  of  uncertainty, 
be  fairly  retained. 

Species  47.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  castus.  Spond.  testa  depresse  ovatd,  versus 
nmljoncm  sttbatteimatd,  radiatim  liratd  et  siriatd,  liris 
longis  plano-depressis  copiose  armatis ;  Candida,  ma- 
culisferrugineo-fuscisprope  umhouem  radiatim  tinetd. 

The  chaste  Spondylus.  Shell  depressly  ovate,  rather 
attenuated  towards  the  umbo,  radiately  ridged  and 
striated,  ridges  copiously  armed  with  long  slightly 
depressed  spines ;  wiiite,  stained  near  the  umbo  with 
rays  of  rust-brown  spots. 

Ifa'j.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

A  delicate  profusely  spined  species,  distinguished  by 
the  thinly  iiattened  structure  and  depressed  position  of 
the  spines. 

Species  48.  (olim  Mus.  Sowerby.) 

Spondylus  fragilis.  Spond.  testa  tenui,  ovali,  teiuiis- 
sii/ie  striaid,  auricuUs  panis  ;  sqnamis  erectis,  tenuis, 
niat/erosis,  palmatis,  subdivisis  2>sr  series  sex  pricipa- 
libus,  alternis  minoribus,  acideatis  dispositis  ;  inters/ i- 
tiis  imbricatis ;  colore  paUidissinie  fulvd,  prope  uni- 
bonem  macnlis  fuscis  interrtiptim  radiato,  ad  interstiliis 
piinctato,  ad  squamas  roseo-tincto :  imlrd  inferiori 
nculeatd,  inter  spinas  scabrlcnld. 

The  fragile  Spondylus.  Shell  thin,  oval,  very  finely 
striated,  auricle  small;  scales  erect,  thin,  numerous, 
pahnated,  subdivided  in  six  principal  rows,  alter- 
nately smaller,  prickly  ;  interstices  imbricated ;  very 
light  fulvous,  interruptedly  rayed  near  the  umbo  with 
brown  spots,  dotted  at  the  interstices,  stained  with 
rose  at  the  scales  ;  lower  valve  jirickly,  rough  between 
the  spines. 

SowEKBY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  43(j. 

Hah. ? 

The  accompanying  figure  is  enlarged  from  a  reduced 

representation,  in    Sowerby's  '  Thesaurus  Conehyliorum,' 

of  a  shell  formerly  in  the  collection  of  the  late  Mr.  G.  15. 

Sowerby,  Sen.     The  description  is  also  quoted  from  the 

same  work. 

Fig.  31 /a   (Mus.  Cuming.) 
A  fine  adult  specimen  of  S.fiahellmn  tigiu-ed  at  PI.  \'i. 
in  a  young  state. 


Av   del  etliA 

Vmcent  Brocks    Im],. 


Plate  XIV. 

Species  49.  (llus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  spectrum.  Sponcl.  testa  trigono-ovatd,  irre- 
gidari,  radiatim  tenuUiraid,  liris  aculeis  tirevibus  an- 
fjidatis  promisciie  armatis ;  alba,  versus  ntarginem 
fused  inter  liras,  circa  umbonem  nigra  maculatd. 

The  spectre  Spondylus.  Shell  triangularly  ovate,  ii-re- 
!;ular,  radiately  finely  ridged,  ridges  promiscuously 
armed  with  short  angular  prickles ;  white,  brown 
towards  the  margin  between  the  ridges,  spotted  with 
black  ai-ound  the  umbo. 

Hab.  PhOippine  Islands;  Cuming. 

Of  a  rude   triangularly   ovate   form,  rayed  with   fine 

I'idges,  beset   throughout   with    short   angular   prickles, 

which  towards  the  margins  become  more  dense  and  ap- 

pressed  one  upon  the  other. 

Species  50.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  Nicobaeicus.  Sjjond.  testa  ocatd,  concexo- 
d^pressd,  radiatim  striata,  aculeis  erectis  imdique  ar- 
mald ;  alhd,  purpureo-fusco  partim  tincld,  circa  um- 
bonem maculis  purpureo-iiigris  radiatd. 

The  Nicobar  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  couvexly  de- 
pressed, radiately  striated,  beset  throughout  mth 
erect  prickles ;  white,  partially  stained  with  purple- 
brown,  rayed  with  purple-black  spots  round  the 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  vii.  pi.  45.  f.  469,  470. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

Covered    throughout    with    short   erect    prickles,    and 
rayed  iu  a  characteristic  manner  with  purple-black  spots. 

Species  51.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  ramosus.  Spoud.  testa  ovatd,  siibdepressd, 
subirregulari,  radiatim  tenuiliratd,  liris  spiuis  ramosis 
07-i/atis ;  vivide  croceo-aurantid. 

The  branched  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  rather  de- 
pressed, somewhat  u-regidar,  radiately  finely  ridged, 
ridges  ornamented  with  branched  spiues ;  bright 

Hab.  West  Indies. 

Chiefly  distinguished  by  the  elegantly  branched  growth 

of  most  of  the  spines. 

Species  52.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  radula.  Spond.  testd  ovatd,  radiatim  tenui- 
liratd, liris  subdistantibus,  iuterstitiis  striatis,  dense 
promiscue  ramoso-spinosd ;  cariieo-albidd,  purpureo- 
rufo  plus  minus  tincld . 

The  rasp  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  radiately  finely 
ridged,  ridges  rather  distant,  striated  in  the  inter- 
stices, densely  promiscuously  branch-spined ;  flesh- 
white,  more  or  less  stained  with  purple-red. 

Hab.  Tehuantepec,  West  Mexico ;  Captain  Dare. 

The  leading  characteristic  feature  of  this  species  is  a 

dense  promiscuous  covering  of  spines,  some  small  and 

prickly,  others  palmately  branched. 

May,  185(5. 



Plate  XV. 

Spccif;s  53.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus    setiger.      Sponcl.  iestd  ovatd,   coiivcxo-ile- 
pressd,  radiatim  Virata,  liris  fortiter  spinosis,  spiiiii 
valde  irregularihus,  subconcentrice  disposiiis ;  rubido- 
f/iscd,  circa  nmbonerii  albd,  savguineo-macidatd. 
The  bristled  Spondylus.     Shell  ovate,  convexly  de- 
pressed,  radiately   ridged,   ridges   strongly   spiucd, 
very  irregular,  spines   an-anged   somewhat   concen- 
trically ;  ruddy  brown,  white,  blood-spotted,  about 
the  umbo. 
Hal).  Philipi)iue  Islands. 

Of  a  peculiar  ruddy  brown  colour,  ornamented  with 
strong  very  irregular  spines,  ranged  somewhat  concentri- 

Species  54.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  electrum.  S^iond.  tedd  suborbiculari,  con- 
vexo-depressd,  radiatim  tenuilirald et  striata,  liris  wn- 
ricato-spinosit,  spinis  niinierosis,  parvis  ,•  r/ifisce/ifc- 
aurantid,  spinis  saturalioribus. 

The  amber  Spondylus.  Shell  suborbicular,  convexly 
depressed,  radiately  finely  ridged  and  striated,  ridges 
prickly  spined,  spines  numerous,  small;  reddish- 
orange,  spines  darker  in  colour. 

Hab.  V\est  Indies. 

k  delicate  conxexly  depressed  orbicular  species,  rayed 

with  very  flue  ridges  of  smaU  prickly  spines,  the  whol' 
being  of  a  semitransparent  amber-orange  colour. 

Species  55.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  imbutus.  Spond.  testd  suborbiculari,  irregv- 
lari,  vix  striata,  rude  aculeatd  et  squamatd,  sqnamk 
palmato-ramosis,  d^presse  curvotis ;  intense  purpurea- 

The  dyed  Spondylus.  Shell  suborbicular,  in-egular, 
scarcely  striated,  rudely  prickled  and  scaled,  scales 
palmately  branched,  depressly  curved  ;  deep  purple- 

Hab. ? 

A  shell  of  somewhat  rude  growth,  of  a  deep  burnt-red 

colour,  armed  with   a  few  fine   prickles   and   palmately 

branched  scales,  depressly  bent  forwards. 

Species  56.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  cuneus.  Spond.  testd  oblongo-ovatd,  radia- 
tim liratd  et  striata,  liris  snbconfertis,  irregularibus, 
widiqiie promiscue  spinosis;  purpureo-riifd. 

The  wedge  Spondylus.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  radiately 
ridged  and  striated,  ridges  rather  close-set,  irregulai-, 
promiscuously  spined  throughout ;  purple-red. 

Hab.  West  Indies. 

Of  a  characteristic  purple-red  colour,  beset  rather  closely 

with  irregularly  spined  ridges. 

spcuMus.  pim. 



Fig.  28  b.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
The  very  elegant  shell  here  represented  is  a  white  va- 
riety of  S.  iniperialis,  in  which  the  spines  are  unusually 

57.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

SpoNDYLUS  viOLACEUS.  Sjiotid.  testd  nubtrigono-ovatd, 
solidiusculd,  gibbosa,  radiatim  Uratd  et  striata,  liris 
spinis  brevibm  fortibtm  subdistatitibus  armatk ;  nlbidd, 
pttrpurascente-violaceo  plus  minus  tinctd. 

The  violet  Spondylus.  Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  rather  solid,  gibbous,  radiately  ridged  and 
striated,  ridges  armed  with  short  strong  rather  dis- 
tant spines;  whitish,  more  or  less  tinged  with  purple- 

Hab. ? 

A  rather  solid  gibbous  Pecten-shaped  shell,  armed  at 
distant  intervals  with  spines,  peculiarly  short  and  strong. 

58.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
SroNDYLUs  USTULATUS.     5^;oKf7.  testd  ovatd,  densl  radia- 
tim Uratd,  liris  priiicipalibus  plam-sqimmaiis,  squamis 
spatkulatis,  tmmerosis,  regularibus,  liris    intermediis 
tenuispimsis  ,•  intense  nstulato-riibidd,  infra  squamas 

The  burnt  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  densely  radiately 
ridged,  the  principal  ridges  flatly  scaled,  scales  spa- 
thulate,  numerous,  regular,  intermediate  ridges  finely 
spined ;  rich  burnt-red,  white  beneath  the  scales. 

Ilab.  Bermudas. 

Chiefly  distinguished  by  its  regular  rows  of  flat  spa- 

thulate  scales,  the  shell  being  of  a  rich  burnt-red  colour, 

except  at  the  root  of  the  scales,  where  it  is  white. 

Species  59.  (JIus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  vexillum.  Spond.  testd  subtrigono-ovatd, 
planiuscttld,  radiatim  Uratd,  liris  distantibus,  squa- 
mis  spathulatis  armatd,  interstitiis  tenuistriatis,  spar- 
sitn.  spinosis ;  rufescente-spadiced,  sangvineo  circa  uni- 
bonem  undnlatd. 

The  flag  Spondylus.  Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  rather  flat,  radiately  ridged,  ridges  distant, 
armed  with  spathulate  scales,  interstices  finely  stri- 
ated, sparsely  spined ;  reddish-fawn,  waved  with 
blood-red  round  the  umbo. 


Of  a  peculiar  reddish-fawn  tint  of  colour,  rayed  with 
distant  rows  of  spathulate  scales,  the  interstices  between 
which  are  loosely  set  with  prickly  spines. 

June,  1856. 



Species  60.  (Miis.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  eubicundus.  Sjjotid.  testa  oblowjo-omtd,  ra- 
diatim  tenuiliratd,  liris  suhrudibus,  acute  spinosis, 
spinis  valde  irrecjularih'UH,  breviitscidis,  curvntis ;  vivide 

The  kouged  Spondylus.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  radiately 
finely  ridged,  ridges  somewhat  rude,  sharply  spined, 
spines  very  irregular,  rather  short,  curved  ;  bri^lit 
crimson  red. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

Characterized  by  an  oblong-ovate  form,  crowded  with 

rather  small  rude  ridges,  sparsely  furnished  with  shcnt 

irregular  curved  spines. 

Species  61.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus   fragum.     Spond.   testa  ovatd,  pectini/ormi, 
radiatim  liratd  et  striatd,  liris  spinosis,  spinis  forli- 
bus,  suberectis,  striis  eximie  mwricatis ;  fuscesce/i/t'- 
rosed,  veisus  umboneni  albidd,  nigra  cocciiieoqiie  pmic- 
tatd,  spinis  et  aculeis  albis. 
The    str.^wberey   Spondylus.     Shell   ovate,   pecteii- 
shaped,  radiately  ridged  and  striated,  ridges  spined, 
spines  strong,  rather  erect,  strife  delicately  prickled  ; 
brownish  rose,   whitish  towards  the  umbo,  dotted 
with  black  and  scarlet,  spines  and  prickles  white. 
Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

Distinguished  by  a  peculiar  tone  and  pattern  of  colour- 
ing, rayed  with  alternate  rows  of  white  spines  and  prickles. 

Species  62.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  afpinis.     Spond.  testa  subtriz/ouo-omtd,  ra- 
diatim costatd,  cosiis  subdistantibus,  sr/immis  lonyins- 
culi.'i,  promisc/ie  contortis,  arnw/is,  iniersiifiis  qidmiue- 
seriatim   mwricatis;  ftiscescente-ptcrpiovd,  circa  kiu- 
bonem  rosea  punctata,  squamis  albis. 
The  allied  Spondylus.     Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  radiately  ribbed,  ribs  rather   distant,  armed 
with  rather  long  promiscuously  twisted   scales,   in- 
terstices with  five  rows  of  prickles  ;  brownish-purple, 
dotted  with  rose  about  the  umbo,  scales  wbit-e. 
flab.  Phihppine  Islands. 

Tills  species  has  very  much  the  appearance  of  -S'.  a/bt- 
barbatus,  the  scales  being  similarly  white  upon  a  dark 
ground,  which  in  the  present  species  has  a  more  purple 
tone,  while  the  umbo  is  rose-spotted.  The  chief  diiference 
is  in  the  more  rudely  angular  form  of  this  shell. 

Species  63.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  aculeatus.  Spond.  testa  oblongo-ovatd,  valde 
irreyulari,  radiatim  tenuistriatd,  scfimnis  rudibns 
dense  obsitd;  purpurascente-rubrd,  squamis  albis. 

The  prickly  Spondylus.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  very  ir- 
regular, radiately  finely  striated,  densely  beset  with 
rude  scales ;  purple-red,  scales  white. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  vii.  p.  74.  pi.  44.  f.  i6U 

Hab. ? 

Mr.  Sowerby  refers  the  shell  here  represented  to  tli( 

above-cited  figure  of  Chemnitz,  but  it  does  not  agree  with 

it  satisfactorily. 

June,  1856. 


SiMVLdciln.s  riXllll 

V'iiiwni.  Brooss-Oav  5 


Fig.  -HO.  (Mus.  Cumin-.) 
A  variety  of  .5^.  coccineus,  showing   the  purple-rayc 
painting  and  prickly  margin. 

Species  64.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  nux.     Spond.  testa  sxihcjloJiom,  quinqueUratd 

et  striata,  liris  squamatis,  squamis  late  ramose  sjiatJiii- 

latis  et  foriiicatis ;  saturate  corallo-rubrd. 
Thk  nut  Spondylus.     Shell  subglobose,  five-ridged  and 

striated,  ridges  scaled,  scales  broadly  ramosely  spa- 

f hulnte  and  vaulted ;  deep  coral-red. 
Hah. ? 

A  small  dark  coral-red  species,  in  which  the  scales,  few 
in  number,  are  broadly  ramosely  spatbulate  and  elegantly 

•Species  65.  (Fig.  a,  Mus.  Cuming;   fig.  b,  Mus.  Hanley.) 
SpoNBYLUS  MICKOLEPOS.     Spoiul.  testd  ovatd,  irregulari, 
radiatim  liratd  et  striatd,  liris  striisque  gemmatis, 
versus  margiitem  retu-se  brevisquamatis ;  vivide  corallo- 
The  small-scaled  Spondylus.     Shell  ovate,  irregular, 
radiately  ridged  and  striated,  ridges  and  strise  beaded, 
bluntly   short-scaled   towards    the   margin ;    bright 
Lamakck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  190. 
Hab.  China. 

The  radiating  ridges  and  striae  of  this  species  are  dis- 
tinguished by  a  peculiar  short-scaled  blunt  beaded  sculp- 
t\u-e,  which  differs  from  that  of  all  other  species  of  the 

Species  66.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
•Spondylus  Layakdi.     Sjmiid.  testa  irigono-ovatu,  irregu- 
lari,  radiatim  dvim  striata,   vi.r  liratd,  sparsim  mu- 

ricato-squamatd  ;    iiitiiisi-  purpurea,   versus   uuibouem 

Layard's  Spondylus.  Shell  triangularly  ovate,  irre- 
gular, radiately  densely  striated,  scarcely  ridged, 
sparsely  prickly  scaled  ;  dark  purple,  whitish  towards 
the  umbo. 

Hah.  Ceylon. 

A  dark  purple  species,  of  rather  thin  substance  and 

irregular   growth,   densely  striated   and    sparsely   prickly 


Species  67.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Spondylus  tenellus.  Spond.  testd  ovatd,  radiatun 
teuuiliratd,  interstitiis  minute  striatis,  liris  eximii 
brevisquamatis ;  cocciueo-rufd,  squamis  pallidis. 
The  delicate  Spondylus.  Shell  ovate,  finely  radiately 
ridged,  the  interstices  minutely  striated,  ridges  deli- 
cately shortly  scaled ;  scarlet-rose,  scales  pale. 

Eab. ? 

The  sculpture  of  this  species  is  of  a  characteristic  mi- 
nute pattern,  and  the  colouriug  of  almost  transparent  de- 

Species  68.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Spondylus  dioitatus.  Spond.  testd  late  ovatd,  radiatim 
liratd,  I  Iris  acideis  tenuibm  et  squamis  peculiariter 
trifurcathu  ramosis  dense  obsitis ;  aurantio-mfd,  squa- 
mis interdum  luteo-tinctis. 

The  fingered  Spondylus.  Shell  broadly  ovate,  radi- 
ately ridged,  ridges  densely  beset  with  fine  prickles 
and  peculiarly  three-forked  branched  scales  ;  orange- 
red,  scales  sometimes  tinged  with  yellow. 

SowEEBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  18-17,  p.  87. 

Hah.  Bermudas;  Belcher. 

Remarkably  distinguished  from  all  other  species  of  the 

<;enus  by  the  pretty  three-forked  termiuatiuu  of  the  scales. 

June,  1856. 


aculeatus,  Chemnllz 

affiuis,  Reeve 

albibarbatus,  Reeve 
alhidus,  Broderip  .  . 
Amcricanus,  Lamarck 
arachuoides,  Lamarck 
aspirrimus,  Sowerby 
aui'antius,  Lamarck 
amcidaris,  Lamarck 
barbatus,  Reeve  . .  . 
basilieus,  Reeve  .  .  . 
Butleri,  Reeve  .... 
camurus,  Reeve  . .  . 
caudidus,  Lamarck 

castus,  Reeve 

ciliatus,  Broderip . . 
cocciueus,  Lamarck 
crassisquamatus,  Lam; 
croceus,  Cliemnit: 
Cumingii,  Sowerhy 
cuneus,  Reeve  . .  . 
Delemertll,  Chenu 
digitatus,  Sowerby 
ihdn.H^,  Bi-oderip  . 
ducalis,  CJiemnitz . 
electrum.  Reeve  . . 
erinaceus,  Reeve   . 
flabellura,  Reeve  . . 
foliaceus,  Chemnitz 
I'ragilis,  Sowerby  . 
fragum,  Reeve  . .  . 
gilvus.  Reeve  .... 
Gussoui,  Costa   . .  . 
gffidaropus,  Linncevs 
//erinaceus,  Chenu 
liystris,  Reeve  . .  . 
ictericus.  Reeve  . . 
imbutus,  Reeve     . 
imperialis,  Chenu 
Lamarckii,  Chemi 
Layardi,  Reeve   . . 
leucacantba,  Broderip 












































limbatus,  Sotcerhy IX. 

lingua-felis,  Sowerby .  VII. 

lonyispina,  Lamarck IV. 

longitudiualis,  Lamarck XIIL 

microlepos,  Lamarck XVIIL 

minimus,  Chemnitz I. 

midtilamellatus,  Clienu XIIL 

mnltilamellatus,  Lamarck  ....  VII. 

multimuricatus,  Reeve IV. 

multisetosus,  Reeve III. 

muricatns,  Chemnitz II. 

mus,  Reeve   III. 

Nicobaricus,  Chemnitz XIV. 

nudus,  Chemnitz I. 

nus,  Reeve XVIIL 

oceUatus,  Reeve XII. 

Pacificus,  Reeve .  I. 

PetroseUnum,  Sowerby VII. 

pictor\im,  Cliemnitz VI. 

plurispiuosus,  Reeve V. 

princeps,  Broderip    II. 

radula,  Reeve XIV. 

ramosus,  Reeve XIV. 

regius,  Linnmis V. 

rubicundus,  Reeve XVIL 

setiger,  Reeve   XV. 

Sinensis,  Sowerby II. 

spatagus,  Chemnitz VII. 

spathdiferus,  Lamarck  VII. 

spectrum,  Reeve    XIV. 

tenebrosus,  Reeve IX. 

tenellus.  Reeve XVIIL 

tenuispinosus,  Soioerby VI. 

unicolor,  Sowerby X. 

ustulatus.  Reeve    XVI. 

varians,  Sowerby  I. 

variegatus,  Cliemnitz II. 

vexillum.  Reeve XVI. 

violaceus,  Reeve X'V  I. 

virgincus,  Reeve    IX. 

zonalis,  Chenu VIII. 



N  E  R  1  T  I  N  A 

■A-  in  .-I  |H-r.|,l(Hl  kwii>,mr^-S/„iL:si„: 


Nmtina  ,PI.  I. 


Sowa-fcj  adetliA 

"Vjucent  Blocks  Imp 




Testa   subglobosa,   ep'nJermide  oiivaci'd  plcniimpif  iiidufii, 
spird  pared,  lalerali,  raro  exsertd ;  anfractibus  nunc 
lavilius,  nunc  spinis  coronatis ;  ared  columellari  plana, 
sape perampld,  wargine  inlcgrn  ;  npiniiirdscmirotundd, 
labro  plus  minus  dlffuso,  iiilrrdinii  nlrinqiie  dilaialo. 
Operculum  testaceum,  seiniofalHiii,  apjii'iullce  laterall 
acuta  iuHiructum. 
Shell  subglobose,  generally  covered  with  an  olive  epider- 
mis,  spire  small,   lateral,   seldom    exserted ;    whorls 
sometimes  smooth,  sometimes  coronated  ;  columellar 
area  flat,  often  rather  large,  entire  at  the  margin ; 
apertnre  semicircnlar,  lip  more  or  less  diffused,  some- 
times dilated  on  both  sides.     Operculum  testaceous, 
semiovate,  furnished  with  a  sharp  lateral  piece. 
The  NerltiucB,  or  Freshwater  Nerites,  are  distinguished 
from  the  Nerilcc  proper,  or  Marine  Nerites,  chiefly  by  their 
more  gloomy  aspect,  thinner  substance,  and  absence  of 
sculpture  and  of  columellar  teeth ;  there  are,  nevertheless, 
some  species  of  extremely  brilliant  colouring,  and  some 
characterized  by  a  conspicuous  variously  developed  crown 
of  spines.     Considerable  attention  has  been  given  to  this 
genus  by  M.  llecluz,  and  by  Mr.  G.  B.  Sowerby,  jnu., 
both  in  his  '  Conchological  Illustrations '  and  in  bis  '  The- 
saurus Conchyliorum;'  but  the  additions  made  to  the  species 
from  various  sources  during  the  last  five   years  by  Mr. 
Cuming,  have  increased  the  number  one-half,  and  rendered 
a  further  monograph  desirable. 

The  NerUiiue  are  chiefly  inhabitants  of  the  Old  World, 
ranging  from  our  own  continent  and  islands  through  the 
islands  of  the  Pacific  and  Eastern  Seas  to  Australia  and 
New  Zealand.  In  the  New  hemisphere  the  genus  is  re- 
presented mainly  in  the  streams  of  the  West  Indies  aud 
Central  America. 

Species  1.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neeitina  canalis.  Ner.  testa  oblongo-ovatd,  subtus  con- 
cavo-depressd,  spird  parvd,  fere  occultd,  arifractibus 
convexis,  angustis,  ared  columellari  perampld,  ad  latus 
cunaliculald ;  caruleo-nigrd,  ared  columellari  san- 
guineo  tiitctd. 

The  channelled  Neritina.  Shell  oblong  ovate,  con- 
cavely  dejiressed  beneath,  spire  small,  almost  hidden, 
whorls  convex,  narrow,  columellar  area  very  large, 
channelled  at  the  side ;  blue-blaek%  columellar  area 

SowEKBY,  Tankerville  Catalogue,  p.  U,  no.  1094. 
llab.  Tahiti  (on  stones  in  a  rivulet) ;  Cuming. 

Of  a  compressly  expanded  form,  with  a  very  large  coin 
mellar  area  more  or  less  stained  with  blood-red. 

Species  i.  (Fig.  u,  h,  JIus.  Cuming.) 

Neeitina  olivacea.  Ner.  testd  oblongo-ovatd,  subgib- 
bosd,  solidd,  spird  convexo-pland,  fere  obsoletd,  aufrac- 
tibus  rotundatis,  promiscue  concentrice  striatis,  area 
columellari  latiusculd,  declivi,  mbcallosd ;  sordidi 
olioaced,  ared  columellari  carulescente-albd. 

The  olive  Neeitina.  Shell  oblong  ovate,  rather  gib- 
bous, solid,  spire  convexly  flattened,  almost  obsolete, 
whorls  rounded,  promiscuously  concentrically  striated, 
columellar  area  rather  broad,  slanting,  somewhat  cal- 
lous ;  dark  olive,  columellar  area  bluish-white. 

Le  Guillou,  Revue  Zool.  Cuvierienne,  18U,  p.  3I+. 
Ner  i  la  sol  Ida.,  Recluz. 

Hub.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  rapid 
river) ;  Cuming. 

Chiefly  distinguished  by  its  gibbous,  solid,  oblong  form, 
the  spire  being  almost  obsolete. 

Species  3.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  labiosa.    Ner.  festd  orato-globosd,  spird  parvd, 
impressd,  anfrarlihtix  com-i'.rix,  riiiiuso-slriiilis,  prope 
spirum    contradi^,    nr-^ii'i    npninniui     ruliiiidido-ex- 
pansis,  ared  cohihiilhiri  luupld,  lull:  rxfarutii ;  oliva- 
ceo-pi.ridi,   lineis  ft   in-aciilis  nigris  jiivtd,   iulus  san- 
guineo  tinctd. 
The    full-lipped    Neritina.     Shell   ovately  globose, 
spire  small,  impressed,  whorls  convex,  roughly  stri- 
ated, contracted  near  the  spire,  towards  the  aperture 
rotundately  expanded,  columellar  area  large,  broadly 
excavated  ;  olive-green,  painted  with  black  lines  and 
spots,  interior  tinged  with  blood-red. 
Sowerby,  Conch.  Illustrations,  f.  48. 
Hab.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  rapid 
river) ;  Cuming. 
This  fine  species,  first  collected  in  the  Philippine  lsla^d^ 
by  ]Mr.  Cuming,  is  chiefly  distinguished  by  its  bold  circu- 
larly expanded  aperture. 

NERITINA.— Plate  I. 

Spt-cifb  i.  (i'ig.  a,  i,  Mas.  Cuming.) 

Nbritina  squamapicta.  Ner.  tedd  ohlongo-ovatd,  avb- 
tns  concavo-exjjumd,  solidd,  spirdfere  obsoletd,  anfrac- 
libus  convejck,  coucenlrice  Jltxuose  striatis,  superit} 
leciter  imjiressis,  ared  columellari  ampld,  ad  lattts 
cmialiculatd ;  oUvaceo-liited,  nigro  tcnm  reiicidatd, 
obscure  fasciatd. 

The  scale-painted  Nekitina.  Shell  oblong-ovate, 
concavely  expanded  beuealh,  solid,  spire  almost  obso- 
lete, whorls  couvex,  concentrically  flexuously  striated, 
faintly  impressed  round  the  upper  part,  columellar 
area  large,  channelled  at  the  side ;  olive-yellow,  finely 
reticulated  with  black,  obscurely  banded. 

Recluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10,  p.  513. 

Hab.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  rapid 
river) ;  Cuming. 
Of  a  more  compressed  solid  growth  than  tlie  preceding 

species,  painted  with  a  fine  network. 

Species  5.  (i'ig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Newtina  bicolor.  Ner.  tedd  mbconico-oblorujd,  crassd, 
spird  ohtml  exserld,  eroad,  anfraciibm  supertie  cou- 
cavo-impressis,  deinde  convexis,  suirude  plicato-drialis, 
ared  columellari  subangudd,  declivi ;  virescente-olwa- 
ced,  munaculatd,  inliis  ccerulescente-albd. 

The  two-coloured  Neritina.  Shell  somewhat  coni- 
cally  oblong,  thick,  spii'e  obtusely  exserted,  eroded, 
whorls  concavely  impressed  round  the  upper  part, 
then  convex,  somewhat  rudely  plicately  striated,  colu- 
meUar  area  rather  narrow,  slanting ;  greenish-olive, 
unspotted,  interior  bluish-white. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soe.  1843,  p.  300. 

Ilab.  Island  of  Luzon  (on  stones  in  a  mountain  stream)  ; 

The  whorls  of  this  species  are  faintly  concavely  impressed 
round  the  upper  part,  and  rather  rudely  flexuously  striated 

NtTiiwa.  VI.  U. 


Sowaiv  ad-etlth 

A^Ticent  BrodiS  In 


Species  6.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  Knokri.     Ner.  tedd  ovatd,  solidkiscula,  spmi 
plano-mpressd,  p/ir.s  minus  erosd,  anfraclibiis  subaii- 
gustk,  concentrice  slrlatis,  labro  miperne  subauricidalo, 
area  columellarl  lata,  ampld;  liUesce)ite-olivaced,  vu- 
dato-nigro  fasciatim  variegatd,  labro  intus  aurautio- 
rufo,  area  columellari  nigricante-caruled. 
Knorr's    Neritina.      Shell  ovate,  rather  solid,  spire 
flatly  impressed,  more  or  less  eroded,  whorls  rather 
narrow,  coucentrically  striated,  lip  slightly  auricii- 
lated  at  the  u]iper  part,  columellar  area  broad,  flat ; 
yellowish-olive,  variegated  with  bands  of  black  waves, 
lip  orange-red  within,  columellar  area  blackish-bluc. 
Eecluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  ISil,  p.  274. 
Hab.  Madagascar. 

Distinguished  as  in  N.  jmlligera  by  the  charactcri.stic 
smoky  blue-black  colour  of  the  columellar  area  and  orange- 
red  interior,  but  less  expanded  in  form. 

Species  7.  (.Fig.  a,  b,  Mu.s.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  cornea.  Ner.  tesld  ovatd,  spird  mbexnertn, 
aiifractibns  convexis,  spiraliter  superJicialUer  sulcatis, 
ared  columellari  snbangustd ;  nigrd,  sordide  luteo  ma- 
culatd  et  fmciatd,  ared  columellari  superne  i/ifci/se 
nigrd,  niteiite. 

The  hoeny  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  slightly  ex- 
serted,  whorls  convex,  spirally  superficially  grooved, 
columellar  area  rather  narrow ;  black,  banded  and 
sprinkled  with  dark  yellowish  spots,  columellar  area 
intensely  black  at  the  upper  part,  shining. 

Nerita  cornea,  LinniEus,  Syst.  Nat.  (12th  edit.)  p.  1258. 
Neritina  amphibia,  Lesson. 

Ilab.  Philippine  Islands. 

This   characteristic   dull   orange-blotched    species  was 

found    by    Mr.    Cuming    in   the    above-named    locality, 

eighteen  feet  high  upon  Palms,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from 

any  river. 

Species  8.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Pktitii.     Ner.  testa  orbiculari-omitd,  subglo- 

bosd,  spird  obtasi-  planatd,  anfractibus  convexis,  versus 

aperluram  latioribus,  concentrice  irregulariter  striatis, 

spiraliter  obsolete  impresso-Uneatis,  aperturd  expansd. 

ared  col mnellari  concavo-pland ;  intense  brunneo-nigrd, 
labro  et  ared  columellari  intense  sangitineis. 

Petit's  Neritina.  Shell  orbicularly  ovate,  subglobose, 
spire  obtusely  flattened,  whorls  convex,  broader  to- 
wards the  aperture,  concentrically  irregularly  striated, 
spirally  obsoletely  impressly  lineated,  aperture  ex- 
panded, columellar  area  concavely  flattened;  dark 
brown-black,  lip  and  columellar  area  deep  blood- 

Eecluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  18-il,  p.  373. 

Ilab.  Island  of  Mindanao,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a 
deep  river) ;  Cuming. 

Well  distinguished  by  its  fine  expanded  globose  form, 
with  ruddy  blood-stained  lip  and  columellar  area. 

Species  9.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  pulligera.  Ner.  tesld  orbiculari-ovatd,  sub- 
(Iprcssd,  spird  concavo-impressd,  anfractibus  convexis, 
versus  aperluram  latioribus,  concentrice  rugoso-stria- 
tis,  aperturd  ctpansd,  labro  superne  acute  aurieulato, 
ared  columellari  leviter  concavd ;  aperturd  carules- 
cente,  labro  intus  aurantio-rvfo,  ared  colmnellari  nigro- 

Tee  dusky  Neritina.  Shell  orbicularly  ovate,  rather 
depressed,  spire  concavely  impressed,  whorls  convex, 
broader  towards  the  aperture,  concentrically  roughly 
striated,  aperture  expanded,  lip  shaq)ly  auriculated 
at  the  upper  part,  cnlumellar  area  slightly  concave  ; 
aperture  bluish,  lip  orange-red  within,  columellar  area 

Nerila  pulligera,  Linnfeus,   Syst.   Nat.   (12th  edit.)    p. 
Nerita  rubella,  Muller. 

Hab.  Molucca  and  Philippine  Islands. 

This  fine  species  is  chiefly  distinguished  by  its  broad 
openly  expanded  aperture,  and  the  peculiarity  of  colouring 
noted  in  speaking  of  N.  Knorri. 

Species  10.  (Fig. ,/,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  subsulcata.  Ner.  testd  suboblongo-ovatd,  sub- 
■oentricosd,  spird  obtusd,  anfractibus  superne  concavi- 
usculis,  sulcatis,  sulcis  fere  obsoletis,  ared  colmnellari 

NERITINA.— Plate  II. 

subangustd ;  sordide  olivaced,  area  colmnellari  carideo- 
albd,  mperne  nigro-nebulatd. 
The  faintly  grooved  Neeitina.  Shell  rather  oblong- 
ovate,  somewhat  ventricose,  spire  obtuse,  whorls 
slightly  eoncave  round  the  upper  part,  faintty 
grooved,  grooves  almost  obsolete,  columellar  area 
rather  narrow;  dull  olive,  columellar  area  bluish- 
white,  clouded  with  black  at  the  upper  part. 

SowERBV,  Conch.  Illustrations,  Xeritinn,  f.  50. 
Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

Of  a  uniform  dull  olive-colour,  correctly  distinguished 
by  Mr.  Sowerby,  Jun.,  in  his  '  Conchological  Illustra- 
tions,' but  confounded  subsequently  in  his  '  Thcsaunis ' 
with  N.  cornea,  from  which  it  differs  iraporlantly  in 

^'^ilula  flJJI. 




Plate  III. 

Species  11.  (Fig.  a,  I/,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Beckii.  Nir.  testa  depresso-ovatd,  subtus  cou- 
caviusculd,  spird  plano-bnpressa,  anfractibits  coiiceu- 
trice  irregulariter  striatis,  area  columellari  Icn'ujald ,■ 
nigra,  lahro  bitiis  aurantio-rufo,  area  columellari 

Beck's  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  ovate,  rather  cou- 
cave  beneath,  sph'e  flatly  impressed,  whorls  concen- 
trically ii'regidarly  striated,  columellar  area  smooth  ; 
black,  lip  orange-red  within,  columeUar  area  smoky 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuviericune,  184.1,  p.  275. 

Hab. ? 

Scarcely  distinguishable  from  varieties  of  N.  indUc/era, 

and  of  somewhat  doubtful  specific  value. 

Species  13.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  IMakcuionata.  Ner.  testa  depresso-orbicidari, 
tenuicidd,  spird  siibe.vsertd,  anJ'ractUms  convexis,  jiixla 
spirau  conciiBo-imjiressis,  aperturd  suhexpansd,  area 
columellari  margine  vuriuti  denticulatd ;  nigra,  sapis- 
siwi  luteo  consjiicue  undulatd. 
The  ]\lAKauESAS  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  orbicular, 
rather  thin,  spire  slightly  exserted,  whorls  conve.x, 
coucavely  impressed  next  the  spii-e,  aperture  rather 
expanded,  columeUar  area  rather  narrow,  minutely 
toothed  at  the  edge ;  black,  mostly  conspicuously 
waved  with  yellow. 
Hab.  Marquesas  Islands. 

A  light  elegantly  convoluted  sjiocies,  with  the  whorls 
impressly  concave  next  the  spii-c,  with  the  columella  nar- 
row and  minutely  toothed  at  the  edge,  and  the  aperture 
rather  expanded.  The  yellow  waved  marking  is  some- 
times boldly  zigzag,  sometimes  minutely  freckled. 

Species  13.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
N  ERITINA  latissima.  Ner.  testa  depresso-ylobosd,  utrinqite 
latissime  alatd,  spird  pared,  distinctd,  anfractibus  ro- 
tundatis,  juxta  spirant  impresso-concavis,  lavigatis, 
subplicato-corrngatd,  aperturd  expausd,  labro  utriiique 
peciiliariter  dilatato,  area  columellari  latd,  convexius- 
ctdd;  olivaced,  maculis  minutis  luteis  idgro-imbratis 
deme  lentiginosd,  area  columellari  carulescente,  carneo- 
The  very  broad  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  globose, 
very  broadly  winged  ou  each  side,  spire  small,  dis- 

tinct, whorls  rounded,  impressly  concave  next  the 
spire,  smooth,  somewhat  plicately  wrinkled,  aperture 
expanded,  lip  peculiarly  dilated  on  each  side,  colu- 
mellar area  broad,  rather  convex;  olive,  densely 
speckled  with  minute  dark  shaded  yellow  spots,  co- 
lumeUar area  bluish,  flesh-tinged. 

Buodeeip,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1833,  p.  300. 

Hab.  Real  Llejos  (adhering  to  fluviatile  rocks) ;  ( fuming. 
This  very  remarkable  species  is  distinguished  from  all 

others  of  the  genus  by  the  prolonged  wing-like  dilatation 

on  each  side  of  the  lip. 

Species  14.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  intermedia.     Ner.  testd  subglobosd,  iutcrdnm 
tumidiusculd,  spird  subexsertd,  rude  convoluld,  aiifrar- 
libus  conve.m,  interdum  pUcato-corrugatis,  aiwrturd 
late  expamd,  ared   colnmellari   latd,  convexiusculd ; 
ulivaceo-fused,  luteo  dense  lentiginmd. 
The  intermediate  Neritina.    Shell  subglobosc,  some- 
times rather  swollen,  spire  a  little  exserted,  rudely 
convoluted,     whorls    convex,    sometimes     plicately 
wrinkled,  aperture  broadly  expanded,  columellar  area 
broad,  faintly  convex ;  olive-brown,  densely  freckled 
with  yellow. 
Broderip,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1833,  p.  201. 

Eadcm  var.  N.  globosa,  Broderip. 
Hab.  Central  America  (found  abundantly  on  stones  in  a 
mountain  stream  in  the  Isle  of  Lions,  Bay  of  Mon- 
tejo) ;  Cuming. 
Very  like  N.  hUissima,  despoiled  of  the  winged  dilata- 
tion of  the  lip,  but  specifically  distinguished  in  having  the 
spire  more  rudely  convoluted. 

Species  15.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  dolium.  Ner.  testd  subanguste  globosa,  so- 
lidd,  spird  obtusd,  vix  exsertd,  anfractibus  superue 
concavo-declivibus,  delude  convexis,  ared  columellari 
submigustd ;  oUvaceo-nigrd. 

The  tdn  Neritina.  Shell  rather  narrowly  globose,  solid, 
spire  obtuse,  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  concavely 
slanting  round  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  colu- 
mellar area  rather  narrow  ;  olive-black. 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Beneoonet,  Sumatra  (in  a  muildy  stream) ;  Cuming. 
A  solid,  obtuse,  smooth,  olive-black  shell,  impressly 

concave  beneath  the  sutures. 

October,  1855. 

NcriUiKt  ,Pl.iy. 

\  ^\ 




Species  16.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Miis.  Cumiug.) 
Neritina  Macgillivkayi.  Ner.  testa  ilepresso-auriformi, 
siilitii.s  concavd,  spird  suliexsertd,  plemmqne  plus  ndniis 
erosd,  anfractihus  convexis,  lavigatis,  aferturd  fere 
circulari,  expansd,  area  colnmellari  latissimd ;  oliva- 
ceo-niffrd,   aperiurd    caridescenie,   ared    columellari 
Macgillivray's  Neritina.    Shell  depressly  ear-shaped, 
concave   beneath,    spire   rathei-    exserted,   generally 
more  or  less  eroded,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  aperture 
nearly  circular,  expanded,  columeUar  area  very  broad  ; 
olive-black,  aperture   blue,    columellar  area   blood- 
Hah.  Port  Carteret,  Solomon's  Island. 

An  elegant  ear-shaped  light  depressed  species,  with  a 
broad  expanded  bluish  aperture  and  large  blood-tinged 
columellar  area. 

Species  17.  (Fig.  «,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  ovalis.  Ner.  testa  depresso-ovali,  tcniiicidd, 
spird  suban(/uste  productd,  vix  exsertd,  anfractihus  spi- 
raliter  striatis,  apc7'fiird  sut/expansd,  ared  columellari 
latissimd;  nigra,  aperturd  ceerulescente,  area  colu- 
mellari sanguineo-tinctd. 

The  oval  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  oval,  rather  thin, 
spire  rather  narrowly  produced,  scarcely  exserted, 
whorls  spirally  striated,  aperture  rather  expanded, 
columellar  area  very  broad ;  black,  aperture  bluish, 
columellar  area  blood-tinged. 

Soweuby,  Thesaurus  Conchyliorum,  p.  ."jO?. 

Hab.  Tahiti. 

Very  like  the  preceding  species,  but  narrower  in  form, 
with  the  spire  more  centrally  produced. 

Species  18.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  granosa.  Ner.  testa  oblique  trigono-ovatd, 
depressissimd,  utrinque  dilatato-alatd,  spird  fere  ohso- 
letd,  granuMs  amplis  tumidis  dense  sculptd,  ared  colu- 
mellari latissimd,  convexiusculd ;  nigra,  intus  cmruleo 
marmoratd,  ared  colmnellari  snperne  sangnineo-tinctd. 
The  grained  Neritina.  Shell  obliquely  triangularly 
ovate,  very  depressed,  dilately  winged  on  each  side, 
spire  almost  obsolete,  densely  sculptured  throughout 
with  large  swollen  granules,  columellar  area  very 
broad,  rather  convex;  black,  interior  blue-mottled, 
columellar  area  blood-tinged  at  the  upper  part. 

SowERUY,  Tankcrville  Catalogue,  App.  p.  xi. 

Neritina  papillosa.  Jay. 
Rah.  Sandwich  Islands. 

This  fine  depressly  winged  species  is  distinguished  frc 
all  olhers  by  its  characteristic  sculpture  of  swollen  gi 

Species  19.  (Fig.  n,  b,  ilus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  piperina.  Ner.  testa  globosd,  soliditisculd, 
spird  obtuse  planald,  anfractibus  supenie  leviter  con- 
cavo-impressis,  delude  rotmulatis,  lavigatis  aut  con- 
centrice  striatis,  apertnrd  semioirculari,  ared  colu- 
mellari subangnstd,  margine  minwtissime  dsnticidatd ; 
olivaceo-lnted,  macidis  nigris  trigoiiis  nndique  tessel- 
laid,  ared  columellari  carneo-anranlid,. 

The  pepper  Neritina.  Shell  globose,  rather  solid,  spii-e 
obtusely  flattened,  whorls  slightly  coneavely  im- 
pressed at  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  smooth,  or 
concentrically  striated,  aperture  semicircidar,  colu- 
mellar area  rather  narrow,  very  minutely  toothed  at 
the  ridge ;  olive-yellow,  tessellated  throughout  with 
triangular  black  spots,  columellar  area  flesh-orange. 

Nerita  piperina,  Chemnitz,  vol.  xi.  p.  173.  pi.  197.  f. 
1905,  1906. 

Uah. ? 

A  solid  globose  species,  peculiarly  characterized  by  a 
neat  tessellated  pattern  of  triangular  black  spots  upon  an 
olive-yellow  ground,  while  the  columellar  area  and  interior 
are  of  a  pale  salmon-colom-. 

Species  30.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Neritina  Californic a.  Ner.  testd  ovatd,  temdculd,  infra 
concavd,  spird  subangustc'  productd,  apice  obtuse  pla- 
natd,  anfractibus  Itsvigatis,  aperturd  expansd,  ared 
coluvtellari  concavo-planatd,  latiusculd;  nigra,  intus 
cceruled,  area  columellari  intense  sanguined. 

The  Californian  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  rather  thin, 
concave  beneath,  spire  rather  nai-rowly  produced,  ob- 
tusely flattened  at  the  apex,  whorls  smooth,  aperture 
expanded,  columellar  area  coneavely  flattened,  rather 
broad;  black,  blue  witliin,  columeUar  area  deep 

Hab.  Gulf  of  California. 

This  appears  to  be  distinct  from  any  of  its  congeners  in 

form,  while  the  deep-toned  colouring  is  chai'acteristic. 

October,  1855 


ynilina .  PI  Y. 





Species  21.  (Fig.  a,  h,  c,  Mas.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  longispina.  Ni'i:  tf-itd  siibyWmd,  spird  plm 
iuiiiiis  exserid,  atifmctihiis  supcnti:  coiicavo-di'duHbiis, 
delude  spiiiis  longissunk  seriatim  coroiiatis,  aperturd 
expai/sd,  rnnrf/iue  jit.tta  spinas  siuitato  vel  cmaftjinalo, 
an'd  cuhtmcllari  suhaiu/nstd ;  iidcnsii  ni/jrd,  an-d  colii- 
mi'Uan  iulerdtim  puUidii  sanrjuinco-thtctd. 

The  long-spined  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  spire 
more  or  less  exserted,  whorls  concavely  slanting  at 
the  upper  part,  then  coronated  with  a  row  of  very 
long  spines,  apertiu'e  expanded,  simiated  or  notched 
at  the  edge  next  the  spines,  columellar  area  rather 
narrow ;  intense  black,  columellar  area  sometimes 
faintly  blood-tinged. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1S41,  p.  313. 
Nerita  corona,  Chemnitz  (not  of  Linnanis). 

llab.  Island  of  Rodriguez  (on  stones  in  small  streams) ; 

This  very  remarkable  shell,  described  by  Chemnitz  and 
Lamarck  as  the  Linna3an  Nerita  corona,  is  fully  proved  by 
the  specimens  of  the  author  of  the  '  Systcnia  Natura-,'  in 
the  possession  of  the  Linnrean  Society,  to  belong  to  an- 
other species. 

Species  33.  (Fig.  a,  i,  JIus.  Cuming.) 
Neeitina   diadema.      Ner.  testd  snlMjlohosd,  tmuicidd, 
spird  ahhreriato-tmritd,  anfrucliljus  siipernii  concavis, 
deinde  anfjulatis,  ad  anijiduufortilcr  spinosis,  obliqw 
corrugato-siriatis  vel  lavibits,  area  columellari  siib- 
auyustd,   subveriicali,   marijine  deidicidatd ;  corneo- 
brmnu'd  rd  nigricante,  interdi/m  :onidis  ani/nsiis  lideis 
The  diadem  Neritina.     Shell  subglobose,  rather  thin, 
spire   shortly    tun-eted,    whorls    concave    round  the 
upper  part,  then  angled,  strongly  spined  at  the  angle, 
obliquely  wrinkle-striated,  or  smooth,  columellar  area 
rather  narrow,  nearly  vertical,  finely  toothed  at  the 
edge  ;  horny-brown  or  blackish,  sometimes  encircled 
with  narrow  yellow  zones. 
Reclifz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1841,  p.  277- 
Ilab.  Philippine  Islands   (on  stones  in  small   streams)  ; 

Of  a  horny-brown  or  black,  sometimes  ycllow-zoued, 

wrinkle-striated   or   smooth,  coronated   with   strong   re- 
cm'ved  spires. 

Species  23.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  obscdrata.  Ner.  testd  ylobosd,  sotidinscnld, 
spird  obhisi  depressd,  anfractibns  superni  I'lcetiribus, 
deinde  seriatim  brevispinosis,  undiipie  lomjilndintditcr 
corrwjatia,  aperturd  snbcirctdari,  area  columellari  sub- 
anffustis,  marffine  arciiatd;  fusco-rdgrd  vel  olivaced, 

The  obscure  Neritina.  Shell  globose,  rather  solid, 
spire  obtusely  depressed,  whorls  slanting  round  the 
upper  part,  then  short-spined,  everywhere  longitudi- 
ually  wrinkled,  aperture  somewhat  cu-cular,  colu- 
mellar ai-ea  rather  narrow,  arched  at  the  edge; 
brown-black  or  olive,  black-banded. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1842,  p.  183. 

Ilab.  Island  of  Mindanao,  Philippines  ;  Cuming. 

Of  rather  solid  globose  foi-m,  with  a  wrinkled  surface, 
crowned  with  short  irregular  spines. 

Species  24.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  subgranosa.     Ner.  testd  globosd,  spird  ub- 
hreriato-turrild,   interdmu   rude   obtusd,    anfractibus 
superii!}  iiiigidatis.   nunc   hivihiis,   nunc    angulatis    et 
spinosis,  J'nrliti'r  enrn'gidn-xl riatis,  snbgranosis,  area 
columellari    m/gnstd,    iidi-rdm.i    expansd ;    vireseente- 
The  GiiANULATED  Neritina.  Shell  globose,  spire  shortly 
turreted,  sometimes  rudely   obtuse,   whorls   angled 
round  the  u]Dper  part,  now  smooth,  now  angled  and 
spined,   strongly   wrinkle-striated,  granulated,  colu- 
mellar area  narrow,  sometimes  expanded  ;  greenish- 
Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1841,  p.  oil). 
Hah.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

Of  this  subgrained  wrinkle-striated  specimen  Mr. 
Cuming  possesses  specimens,  as  illustrated  in  the  accom- 
panying Plate,  convoluted  into  a  smooth,  obtuse,  rudely- 
constructed  spiral,  as  weU  as  into  one  concavely  turreted 
and  spined.  They  present  little  or  no  variation  of  coloiii-, 
all  being  of  a  uniform  greenish-olive. 

October,  18.5 .5. 

ymtiiia  .Pl.VI. 








Plate  VI. 

Species  25.  (Fig.  n,  h,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neeitina  Donovan  a.  Nt'i-.  testa  suhglohosd,.'ijnrd  ohlime 
exsertd,  mij'i-avl'ihiix  xiipcrm'  iln-l'iriliiia,  dehide  aiiijii- 
latis,  ad  aiiijuliiiii  npinis  i-nrralis  disluiiiiluis  coronatls, 
tenuUer  cornyalu-drkUis,  and  coluMtilarl  augustd, 
iasin  versus  arcicatim  sulcata,  margiue  minute  graim- 
latd;  oUvaceo-liited,  nigro  strigatd  ant  subtlUler  re- 

Donovan's  Neritina.  Shell  subglohoso,  spire  obtusely 
exscrted,  whorls  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  then 
angled,  coronated  at  the  angle  with  ciu'ved  distant 
spines,  finely  wrinkle-striated,  columellar  area  nar- 
row, grooved  in  an  arch  towards  the  base,  minutely 
granuled  at  the  edge  ;  olive-yellow,  streaked  or  finely 
reticulated  with  black. 

Uecluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conchylioruni.  part  Id.  ]). 
53(5.  pi.  110.  f.  39,  40. 

H'lli.  Island  of  Guimaras,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a 
small  rivulet) ;  Cuming. 

Distinguished  by  its  very  neatly  reticulated  pattern  of 
streaked  markings,  and  by  a  small  arched  groove  at  the 
basal  end  of  the  columellar  area. 

Species  26.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Neritina  subpunctata.  Ner.  lestd  globosd,  erased, 
■sulidd,  spird  obtuse  plauatd,  unfraciibus  supenie  de- 
c/ivibus,  dei/tde  obtuse  ai/gulatis  ef  rotundatls,  longi- 
f/idinaliter  snbrudi'  plicuto-slriails,  aperturd  subex- 
pansd,  area  coluiiiellari  coiicavo-declivi ;  olivaced, 
striis  siiboc/iraceis,  interstltiis  subpunclatis. 

The  faintly-dotted  Neeitina.  Shell  globose,  thick, 
solid,  spire  obtusely  flattened,  whorls  slanting  round 
the  upper  part,  then  obtusely  angled  and  rounded, 
longitudinally  rather  rudely  plicately  striated,  aper- 
ture slightly  expanded,  columellar  area  concavely 
slanting ;  olive,  stri.e  yellowish,  interstices  faintly 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soo.  1813,  p.  199. 

Hub.  Province  of  Xorth  Ilocos,  Island  of  Luzon,  Philip- 
pines (in  a  small  mountain  stream) ;  Cuming. 

A  solid  shell,  of  somewhat  rude  obtuse  structure,  longi- 

tudinally plicately  striated,  the  interstices  being  profusely 
faintly  dotted  with  colouring  matter. 

Species  27.  (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neeitina  corona.  Ner.  tesld  snbglobosd,  spird  vix  ex- 
sertd, arij'ractibns  superii^  coneavo-declivibus,  superficie 
corrngato-striatd,  deiiide  augnlatis,  ad  angulwni  spiuis 
snbdistantibus  eoronatis,  infra  convexis,  lavigatis,  area 
columellari  subaiigustd ;  nigra  vel  olivaced,  luteo  vurie 
fasciatd  et  ptinciatd. 

The  ceown  Neeitina.  Shell  snbglobose,  spire  scarcely 
exscrted,  whorls  concavely  slanting  at  the  upper 
part,  with  the  surface  wrinkle-striated,  then  angled, 
crowned  with  rather  distant  spines  at  the  angle, 
below  convex,  smooth,  columellar  area  rather  naiTow  ; 
black  or  olive,  variously  banded  and  speckled  with 

Nerita  corona,  Linnreus,  Nat.  (13th  edit.)  p.  1352. 
Neritina  brnnspina,  pars,  Lamarck. 
Neritina  tnontacuta,  Eecluz. 

Hah.  Island  of  Burias,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  rivulets) ; 

Mostly  of  a  dark  olive  or  sombre  brown,  variously 
painted  with  yellow,  now  in  bands,  now  in  dots  or  splashed 

Species  28.  (Mns.  Cuming.) 
Neeitina  beevispina.     Ner.  testa  snbglobosd,  spira  cix 
exsertd,  obtusd,  anfractibns  svperne  plano-decUvibus, 
deinde  angulatis,  spinis  ad  angulnw  eoronatis,  uudique 
conspicne  corrugato-striatis,  area  colmnellari  suhan- 
gustd,  coHcaw-declii-i;  olivaced,fusco pins  viiniis  tinctd. 
The  siioRT-spiNED  Neeitina.     Shell  subgloljose,  spire 
scarcely  exscrted,  obtuse,  whorls  flatly  slanting   at 
the  upper  part,  then  angled,  coronated  with  spines 
at  the  angle,  everywhere  conspicuously  wrinkle-stri- 
ated, columellar  area  rather  narrow,  concavely  slant- 
ing ;  olive,  more  or  less  brown-tinged. 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  572. 
Nerita  corona  anstralis,  Chemnitz. 
Clillion  variabilis,  Lesson. 
Ilab.  Philippine  Islands  ;  Cuming. 

Of  smaller  .size  than  the  preceding  species,  conspicu- 
ously wrinkle-striated  throughout. 

October,  1S55. 

Xmliiui  .PL  m. 





\iiK8m.    Btooki    Imp 


Plate  VII. 

Species  29.  (Figs.  29,  32,  and  33,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Nekitina  zigzag.  N'er.  testa  oblonyo-ylobosd,  spird  siii- 
promimdd,  mifractihus  superue  dedixibus,  deiiide  con- 
vexis,  laviffatis,  area  columdlari  mbangHstd,  marybie 
nd>/ii(e  denticidatd,  apertiird  mhangmtd ;  oUcaceo- 
nlgrd,  macuUs  Ittteis  trigonii  vel  strigis  tmdatis  nUkle 

The  zigzag  Nekitixa.  Shell  oblong-globose,  spire 
rather  prominent,  whorls  slanting  at  the  upper  part, 
then  convex,  smooth,  columellar  area  rather  narrow, 
minutely  toothed  at  the  edge,  aperture  rather  small ; 
olive-black,  neatly  painted  with  triangular  yellow 
spots  or  zigzag  streaks. 

Lamakck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  570. 

Hab.  Pacific  and  Pldlippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 
The  shells  represented  at  Figs.  29,  32,  and  33  of  the 

accompanying  Plate  illustrate  three  characteristic  varieties 

of  this  species. 

Species  30.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neeitina  plumb  e  a.  Ner.  teatd  subglobosd,  tumidimcnld, 
spird  acnmhiato-productd,  anfractibtm  siiperne  con- 
cavo-dedivibus,  conceatrice  tortnoxo-striatis,  area  co- 
lumellari  suhangnsid,  h/iuitlu  nidi  dodkulald ;  oU- 
vaceo-plumbed,  immamlatd. 

The  leaden  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  rather 
swollen,  spire  acuminately  produced,  whorls  con- 
cavely  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  concentrically 
tortuously  striated,  columellar  area  rather   narrow, 

minutely   rudely   toothed ;    olive  -  lead   colour,   un- 

Recluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  538. 
pi.  112.  f.  119  and  120. 

Hab.  Island  of  Bohol,  Philippines  ;  Cimiiug. 
Of  a  imiform  dull  leaden-olive  colour,  rather 

slanting  round  the  upper  part  of  the  whorls. 


Species  31.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  tuurita.  Nvr.  testd  oblongo-globusd,  tumidi- 
vsculd,  spird  acumii/afd,  anfradihux  .siiporne  di-clivi- 
bus,  deiitde  convexis,  Itcmgatis,  area  columdlari  twiuidd, 
margine  miu/ite  rude  deiiticulald,  tiperturd  mbex- 
pansd;  nigra,  olivaceo-luteo  longitiidimdikr  drigutd, 
area  columdlari  palUde  cameold. 

The  tukreted  Neritina.  Shell  oblong-globose,  rather 
swollen,  spire  acuminated,  whorls  slanting  round  the 
upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  columellar  area 
swollen,  minutely  rudely  denticulated  at  the  edge, 
apertui-e  rather  expanded ;  black,  longitudinally 
streaked  with  orange -yellow,  columellar  area  ])ale 

Nerita  turrita,  Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.    vol.  ix.  part  3. 
p.  71.  pi.  12-i.  f.  1085. 
Neritina  strigiUala,  Lamarck. 
Neritiua  Boi/ssiaiia,  liecluz. 

Hab.  Madagascar. 

Distinguished  chiefly  from  N.  zebra  by  its  oblong  tiir- 

reted  form. 

October,  1855. 

Xiiitimi  .Fl.m. 



Vincent  Brooks  Imp 


Plate  VIII. 

Species  34.  (Tig.  «,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  eeclivata.     Ner.  testa,  /jloboso-conoidca,  tu- 
Midd,  soUdd,  spird  olitmd,  sidijjroductd,  aufmctibits 
concavo-declwihits,  turn   rolundutk,  area  colnmdlari 
tmiiidd ;    li/icis    oUvaceo-nlgm    iindiqiti'    (/eiisissime 
The  bulging  Neuitina.   Shell  globosely  conoid,  swoUen, 
solid,  spire  obtuse,  rather  produced,  vvliorls  concavely 
slanting  round  the  upper  part,  rounded  at  the  base, 
columellar  area  swollen;  very  densely  painted  through- 
out with  olive-black  lines. 
Say,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Pluladelphia,  vol.  ii.  p.  3.57. 
Hub.  Jlexico. 

This  peculiar  conically  bulging  species  is  painted  longi- 
tudinally with  fine  olive-black  lines,  so  densely  as  to  give 
the  appearance  of  a  uniform  tint. 

Species  35.  (Fig.  a,  b,  j\[us.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  circumvoluta.  Ner.  lestd  suborbicu/ari, 
spird  obtuse  iii/pressd,  anfractibus  convexis,  plicato- 
corruffaiis,  dei.iule  Itni/jatu,  area  volmnellari  acute 
declivi;  olimceo-li'ted,  fasciis  duatms  nir/ris  distan- 
tibifs  cingidatd. 

The  encircled  Neritina.  Shell  suborbicular,  spu-e 
obtusely  impressed,  whorls  convex,  plicately  wu-inkled 
round  the  upper  part,  then  smooth,  columellar  area 
sharply  slanting ;  olive-yellow,  encircled  with  two 
distant  black  bands. 

Eecluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  537. 
pi.  115.  f.  203,  203. 

Hab.  Island  of  Negros,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  moun- 
tain stream) ;  Cuming. 

An  obtuse  orbicidar  shell,  encircled  with  two  charac- 
teristic uarrow  black  bauds. 

Species  36.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  semiconica.  Ner.  testa  oblongo-fjlohosd,  spird 
subobtuse  couicd,  anfractibus  concavo-hnpressis,  deiiule 
convexis,  Icevigalis,  area  cohmiellari  sabangustd,  cal- 
losd,  margine  minute  denticulatd ;  lutescente-olivaced, 
maculis  nigris  quadratis  sparsim  fasciatd,  area  colu- 
mellari  carneold. 
The  semiconical  Neritina.  SheU  oblong-globose, 
spire  rather  obtusely  conical,  whorls  concavely  im- 

pressed round  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth, 
columellar  area  rather  narrow,  callous,  minutely  den- 
ticulated at  the  edge ;  yellowish-olive,  sparingly 
banded  with  square  black  blotches,  columellar  area 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  574. 

Hub.  Banks  of  the  Gauges,  Calcutta. 

The  spots  of  this  species,  usually  of  an  obliquely  square 
form,  sometimes  flow  longitudinally  into  each  other. 

Species  37.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Caffra.  Ner.  testa  glohoso-couoided,  solidd, 
spird  obtuse  productd,  anfractiljus  superne  co/icavo- 
impressis,  deiiide  convexis,  ttevigatis,  area  cohmiellari 
luliiiscidd,  callosd,  aperticrd  subcontnictd  i  oli.mceo- 

The  Caffre  Neritina.  Shell  globosely  conoid,  solid, 
spire  obtusely  produced,  whorls  concavely  impressed 
round  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  colu- 
mellar area  rather  broad,  callous,  aperture  rather 
contracted  ;  olive-black. 

Gray,  Wood,  Index  Test.  Supp.  pi.  8.  f.  10. 

Hub.  Mauritius. 

An  intensely  dark  oljtusely  conoid  species,  of  somewhat 

rude  growth. 

Species  38.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Crepidclaria.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  Crepidula- 
foridi,  spird  antice  intortd,  subtm  concavo-planatd, 
area  colmnellari  latissima,  margine  integro,  undiqm 
expanso,  aperturd  parvd;  olivaced,  aperturd  et  area 
colmneUuri  intense  carneolis. 

The  Crei'idiila-like  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  Crepidula- 
shaped,  spire  twisted  inwards  anteriorly,  concavely 
flattened  beneath,  columellar  area  very  broad,  with 
margin  entire,  expanded  throughout,  aperture  small ; 
olive,  aperture  and  columellar  area  deep  earnelion. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  572. 
Clithon  C'repidiilaria,  Lesson. 
Neritina  Touranensis,  Souleyet. 
Neritina  nielanostoma,  Trosehel. 

Ilab.  Ceylon,  Bengal. 

Distinguislied  from  aU  other  species  by  its  Crcpidula- 

like  plan  of  convolution. 

yaitiiw  ,TI  II. 


i&.vTit  &ot3:s  Tmc . 


Species  39.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  zebba.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird parvd,  e.vsertd, 
mifmcti/jt/s  snpeme  decUvibus,  deinde  convexis,  area 
columellari  acute  decUvi,  margbie  ii/imife  denticidatd ; 
niijrd,  I'meis  fidvis  ol/lir/iie  lo/dii/is  loiigitndiiialiler 

The  zebra  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  small,  exserted, 
whorls  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  then  convex, 
columellar  area  sharply  slanting,  minutely  denticu- 
lated at  the  edge ;  black,  striped  with  obliquely 
waved  longitudinal  yellow  lines. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  .57'l. 

Hab.  Tahiti. 

An  ovate  species,  with  a  small  obtruded  spire,  obliquely 

longitudinally   striped    with   yellow    linos    upon    a   black 


Species  40.  (Fig.  «,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  sobrina.  Ner.  testd  compresse,  spird 
obiiisd,  vix  exsertd,  anfractihm  siiperne  dccliribiis, 
siibanffiisfis,  snbtits  planatis,  lavib/is,  area  cuhimeUarl 
callosd,  nxbveriicaU ;  Inteo-oUvaced,  striylt  m/dalis 
siibdistantibiis  pictd. 

The  allied  Neritina.  Shell  compressly  globose,  spire 
obtuse,  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  slanting  roimd  the 
upper  part,  rather  narrow,  flattened  beneath,  smooth, 
columellar  area  callous,  rather  vertical;  yellowish- 
olive,  marked  with  rather  distant  zigzag  black  streaks. 

Reoluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Couch,  part  10.  p.  536. 
pi.  113.  f.  100. 

JIab. ? 

Of  a  peculiar  obtuse  flatly  slanting  growth  about  the 
spire,  descending  vertically  beneath. 

:  41.  (Fig.  a,  b,  ]\Ius.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  Cumingiana.  Ner.  testd  pyramidali-conicd, 
spird  ampld,  erecid,  anfractihm  superne  plano-decU- 
vibus,  basi  convexis,  area  colmnellari  callosd ;  vires- 
cente-nigrd,  lineis  albis  tenuibus  lomjitndimtliter  imdu- 
latis  uiidiqiie  notatd,  area  columellari  earmold. 
Cdming's  Neritina.  Shell  pyramidally  conical,  spire 
large,  erect,  whorls  flatly  slanting  round  the  upper 
part,  convex  at  the  base,  columellar   area  callous; 

greenish-black,  marked  throughout  with  fine  longi- 
tudinally waved  white  lines,  columellar  area  carne- 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1842,  p.  77. 

Hab.  Island  of  Siquijor,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  moun- 
tain streams) ;  Cuming. 

This  fine  species  is  weU  characterized  liy  its  solid  erect 
pyramidal  form. 

Species  43.  (Fig.  n,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  S.miteii.  Ner.  testd globosd,  solidd,  spirdsnb- 
cuiiicu,  (iiij'ractibiis  siiperiie  in/jux'sso-plaiiatis,  deinde 
rot  Hilda  lis,  leecibns,  area  colioiiellnri  callosd  ;  carules- 
crtiti'-albd,  fasciis  niyris  liiieisqne  capillaribus  inter- 
niptis  irreytdariter  longitudiHaliter  pictd,  ared  colu- 
mellari sangidneo-tinetd. 

Smith's  Neritina.  Shell  globose,  soUd,  spire  sub- 
conical,  whorls  irapressly  flattened  round  the  upper 
part,  then  rounded,  smooth,  columellar  area  callous  ; 
bluish  -  white,  painted  with  irregular  interrupted 
longitudinal  black  bands  and  hair-lines,  columellar 
area  blood-stained. 

Gray,  Sowerby,  Conch.  Illus.  Neritina,  f.  30. 

Hab.  Banks  of  the  Ganges,  Calcutta. 

Distinguished  by  its  peculiar  mottled  grey  painting  and 
porcelain-like  substance,  and  characferistic  blood-stain  on 
the  columellar  area. 

Species  t3.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  morio.  Ner.  testd  ovatd,  spird  parvd,  iinpressd, 
aiifractibus  supeme  plaHO-declivibus,  subangnstis,  ared 
colnmellari  acute  concavd ;  intense  carbonarid,  ared 
colmnellari  lutesceule. 

The  pool  Neritina.  SheU  ovate,  spire  small,  impressed, 
whorls  flatly  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  rather 
narrow,  columellar  area  sharply  concave ;  deep  coal- 
black,  columellar  area  yellowish. 

Sowerby,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1833,  p.  201. 

Hab.  Ducie's  and  Easter  Islands,  South  Seas  (on  coral 
reefs) ;  Cuming. 

This   species,   partaking   of  the   marine   character   of 
Nerita,  is  perhaps  more  strictly  referable  to  that  genus. 

X(Tlllllil  .PI  .X. 





^-t'      / 

^I'-oiT.  ]3roQb  lap 


Plate  X. 

Species  44.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  SANGUiNEA.  Ner.  tentd  ovatd,  spird  obfiixd, 
vij)  exserld,  aii/rac/lbus  superne  concavo-plmmlis,  sit/j- 
angustis,  (ortuoso-striuiis,  ared  columella ri  laid ;  oli- 
raceo-lided,  niijro  reticiilato-martuoratd,  ared  columel- 
lari  intense  sauffuiiied. 

The  blood-stained  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  ob- 
tuse, scarcely  exserted,  whorls  coticavcly  flattened 
round  the  upper  part,  rather  narrow,  tortuously  stri- 
ated, columellar  area  broad  ;  olive-yellow,  reticulatcly 
mottled  with  black,  columellar  area  deep  blood- 

SowEiuiY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  .513. 

Hii6.  New  Ireland  (ou  stones  in  mountain  streams) ; 

-V  dark  reticulatcly  mottled  shcl 
luid  the  columellar  area. 


Species  43.  (Fig.  n,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nkiutina  asi'ERULAta.  Ner.  testa  depresso-ovutd,  siillns 
coiicard,  spird pand,  vix  exserld,  anfructihus  sitliai/ffiis- 
fis,  versus  aperturam.ejpansis,  undlfpiemiiinte  crispiito- 
corr/iffatis,  ared  columellari  lata,  declivi,  aperturd 
ampld,  expansd ;  olioaceo-fuscescente,  nigro  reticulata, 
aperturd  carulescente,  ared  columellari  rujo  tinctd. 

The  kougiiish  Neritina.  Shell  dcpressly  ovate,  con- 
cave beneath,  spire  small,  scarcely  exserted,  whorls 
rather  narrow,  expanded  towards  the  aperture,  every- 
where minutely  crispatcly  wrinkled,  columellar  area 
broad,  slanting,  aperture  large,  expanded ;  olive- 
brown,  reticulated  with  black,  aperture  bluish,  colu- 
mellar area  tinged  with  red. 

Recluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  .513. 

Hall.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  small  stones  in  a 
rivulet) ;  Cumiug. 

Curiously  sculptured  throughout  with  line  crisply 
wrinkled  strire,  and  painted  with  faint  openly  reticulated 
network  of  black  lines  upon  an  olive-brown  ground. 

Species  46.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neuitina  BEUGUiEra.  Ner.  testa  oblomjo-ovatd,  depressd, 
spird  pared,  ohtusd,  vix  exsertd,  anfractibus  suhauyns- 
tis,  superne  plano-mpressis,Jlexuoso-striatis,  ared  co- 
lumellari lata,  ampld;  intense  carbonarid,  ared  colu- 
mellari vivide  rufd. 
Brugl-iebe's  Neritina.     Shell  oblong-ovate,  depressed, 

spire  small,  obtuse,  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  rather 
narrow,  flatly  impressed  round  the  upper  part,  flexu- 
ously  striated,  columellar  area  broad,  large;    dark 
coal-black,  columellar  area  deep  red. 
Recluz,   Sowerby,  Thesaiu-us   Conch,  part  10.  p.  .513. 

pi.  114.  f.  1.59. 
Hab.  New  Ireland  (on  small  stones  in  a  rivulet) ;  Hinds. 
Plainly  distinguished  from  N.  canalis,  to  which  it  is  the 
nearest  allied   species,  by  the   lip,  on  joining  the  body- 
whorl,  not  being  raised  into  a  ridge. 

Species  47.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  gagates.  Ner.  tesld  subdepresso-globosd,  solidd, 
spird  vix  exsertd,  anfractibus  superne  concavo-impressis, 
delude  rofmidatis,  Jlcxuoso-striatis,  ared  columellari 
ampld,  callosd ;  olivaceo-nigrd,  lineis  tmdaiis  hileis 
undupie  pallide  notatd. 

The  agate  Neritina.  Shell  subdepressly  globose,  solid, 
spire  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  concavely  impressed 
round  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  flexuously  stri- 
ated, columellar  area  large  and  callous;  olive-black, 
marked  throughout  with  faint  yellowish  zigzag  lines. 

Lamarck,  Aniiu.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  570. 

llab.  Siuuatra  (on  stones)  ;  Cuming. 

A  solid  callous  species,  of  very  dark  olive-colour,  which, 

on  close  examination,  appears  to  be  marked  throughout 

with  close-set  zigzag  yellow  lines. 

Species  4S.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  punctulata.     N'er.  tesld  depresso-ovatd,  subtus 
coiicavd,  expansd,  spird parvd,  fere  obsoletd,  anfractibus 
late  convexis,  lavibus,  ared  columellari  ampld,  leviter 
conci'xd;    nigricanie-olivaced,  punctis   luteis  undique 
asprrsd,  aperturd  carulescente,  ared  columellari  pal- 
lide sumjuineo-tinctd. 
The  dotted  Neritina.     Shell  depressly  ovate,  concave 
and  expanded  beneath,  spir-e  small,  almost  obsolete, 
whorls  broadly  convex,  smooth,  columellar  area  large, 
slightly  convex  ;  blackish-olive,  sprinkled  throughout 
with  yellow   dots,  aperture  bluish,  columellar  area 
faintly  blood-tinged. 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  584.    Euc.  Metiio- 

dique,  pi.  455.  f.  2. 
Ilab.  Jamaica,  Guadaloupe. 

A  rather  depressly  expanded  species,  charac'teristically 
sprinkled  tiu-oughout  with  yellow  dots  upon  an  olive- 
black  ground. 

October,  1855. 

Xnin/ia  ,  //,  XI. 






Plate  XI. 

Species  19.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  sriNiFERA.  iV«'.  tedd  suhglobosd,  teuidcithi, 
spirit  obtusd,  anfractibus  mperne  concavis,  delude  aii- 
ffidaiis,  ad  aiignlnm  spiniferis,  area  columellari  anb- 
auffustd,  /,///,'  r  .'':  iii!d;  oUcaceo-rufd,  pHiictis 
viresceute-i  ■        ; . 

The  spined  >>i,:iii\\.  >\\r\\  subglobose,  rather  thin, 
spire  obtuse,  nlioi-ls  cuucave  round  the  upper  part, 
then  angled,  spined  at  the  angles,  columellar  area 
rather  narrow,  denticulated  at  the  margin ;  olive-red, 
freckled  with  greenish-white  dots. 

Eecluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1843,  p.  183. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands   (on   stones    in   small   streams) ; 
Neatly  freckled   throughout  with  greenish-white  dots 

iijiou  a  peculiar  ruddy  olive  ground. 

Species  50.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritixa  Bengalexsis.  Ner.  iesld  ijlobund,  splrd pUniij- 
obttisd,  anfractibus  concavo-decUvibus,  deinde  subun- 
ffidaiis,  ad  angnlmn  obscure  spiniferis,  spinis  brevibus, 
area  coliimellari  stibangustd ;  Jlavescente-brunned,  oli- 
vaceo-niijro  palUde  reticulata. 

The  Bengal  Neritisa.  Shell  globose,  spire  flatly  ob- 
tuse, whorls  concavely  slanting  round  the  upper  part, 
then  slightly  angled,  obscurely  spined  at  the  angle, 
spines  short,  columellar  area  rather  narrow ;  yellow- 
ish-brown, faintly  reticulated  with  olive-black. 

Nerila  Bengalensis,  Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  xi.  p.  176. 
pi.  197.  f.  1911. 

Uab.  Bengal. 

Of  a  peculiar  dull  yellowish-brown,  faintly  reticulated 
with  olive-black,  obtusely  keeled  at  the  angle,  where  the 
spines  are  short,  blunt,  and  sometimes  partially  wanting. 

Species  51.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Itus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  angulosa.  Ner.  testa  globosd,  spird  plano- 
obtusd,  anfractibus  obtuse  angulatis,  rude  plicato-cor- 
rugatis,  basin  versus  lavigatis,  area  columellari  e.cca- 
vatd,  margine  arcnatd ;  fusco-atrd,  intm  carulescente. 
The  angblose  Neritina.  Shell  globose,  spire  flatly  ob- 
tuse, whorls  obtusely  angled,  rudely  plicately  wrinkled, 

smooth  towards  the  base,  columellar  area  excavated, 
arched  at  (he  margin;  brown-black,  bluish  within. 

Recluz,  ]\IS.  Mus.  Cuming.        ■' ''" 
Neritina  corona,  var.,  Sowerby. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

There  is  a  spineless  variety  of  N.  corona,  very  closely 

resembling  this   species,  but  it  nevertheless  possesses  a 

character  iieculiar  to  itself. 

Species  52.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  spinosa.     Ner.  ti-sid  snbglobosd,  spird  obtusd, 

anfractihm  rulinuliiti.s,  „/rdio.sjiini,sis,  .spinis  nninerosis, 
reguhtrihnx,  ,u;;i  r,,luui,U„ri  pluno-drvlivi  ,■  jhivicaule, 

perne  sanguineo-tinctd. 
The  spiny  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  spire  obtuse, 
whorls  rounded,  spined  in  the  middle,  spines  nume- 
rous, regular,  columellar  area  flatly  slanting ;  yel- 
lowish, encircled  with  numerous  black  Hues,  colu- 
mellar area  blood-tinged  at  the  upper  part. 
SowERBV  (Budgin  MS.),  Tankerville  Catalogue,  p.  45. 

no.  1103. 
Hah.  Tahiti. 

The  very  pretty  species  is  distinguished  by  the  whorls 
not  being  angled,  and  the  spines  being  unusually  nume- 
rous and  regular.  The  linear  painting  is  characteristic,  and 
also  the  blood-stain  on  the  upper  edge  of  the  columellar 

Species  53.  (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Recluziana.  Ner.  testa  sulglobusd,  spird 
obtusd,  anfractibus  superne  subangulatis,  ad  angulum 
spinosis,  .yiiuis  brevibus,  urea  columellari plano-decUvi, 
subarcuatd ;  fusco-nigro,  pnnctis  luteis  asj>ersd. 

Recluz's  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  spire  obtuse, 
whorls  slightly  angled  at  the  upper  part,  spined  at 
the  angle,  spines  short,  columellar  area  flatly  slant- 
ing, slightly  arched  ;  brownish-black,  sprinkled  with 
yellow  dots. 

Le  Guillou,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  345. 

H(dj.  New  Ireland  (on  stones  in  rivulets) ;  Hinds. 

Of  a  characteristic  browu-blaek  sprinkled  throughout 

with  yellow  dots. 

November,  1855. 

y mill  to,  PI.  XII. 





Species  54.  (Fig.  a,  I,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  lineolata.  Ner.  teatCi  conico-ylohom,  fioUdd, 
spird  obtusd,  mifractibns  plano-decUvibm,  debule  (jih- 
bosis,  area  colmtwllari  subangndd,  callosd ;  oUvaceo- 
liited,  Unek  nigris  conferlis  midutk  oblique  strigatd. 

The  li.veolate  Neritina.  Shell  coiiically  globose, 
solid,  s]iire  obtuse,  whorls  flatly  slanting  round  the 
upper  part,  then  gibbous,  columellar  area  rather  nar- 
row, callous;  olive-yellow,  obliquely  streaked  with 
close-set  waves  of  black  lines. 

Lamarck,  Anini.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  57-t, 

//„/,. ? 

This  shell  answers  to  Lamarck's  description  of  the 
above-named  species,  but  not  to  the  figures  referred  to  by 
him  in  Chemnitz  and  in  the  '  Encyclope'die  jMcthodiquc,' 
which,  auain,  difler  materially  from  each  other. 

Species  55.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  sereulata.  Ner.  tedd  depresso-globosd,  spird 
parvd,  pariiM  exsertd,  anfractibus  cotwexU,  lavibiis, 
area  columeUari  plano-decUvi,  margine  serrulatd ;  oli- 
vaceo-nigrd,  hikscente-albo  promiscue punctata. 

The  finely  serrated  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  glo- 
bose, spire  small,  but  little  exserted,  whorls  convex, 
smooth,  columellar  area  flatly  slanting,  finely  seiTatcd 
at  the  edge ;  olive-black,  promiscuously  dotted  with 

Eecluz,  MS.  Mas.  Cuming,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch. 
part  10.  p..")  18.  ^   '* 

Jlab.  Cape  Palmas,  Sumatra  (on  stones  in  a  river);  Cuming. 
A  depressly  ovate,  somewhat  tumid  shell,  dotted  in  a 

very  promiscuous   manner  with   yellowish-white   upon  a 

dark  olive-black  ground. 

Species  56.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  squamosa.     Ner.  testa  glohom-ttirbinatd,  eras- 

siusculd,  spird  obtuse  exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  ua- 

diqiie  peculiariter  verrucoso-sqitamosis,  ared  columel- 

lari  plano-declivi ;  fidvo  et  olivaceo  obscure  faseiatd. 

The  scaly  Neritina.    Shell  globosely  turbinated,  rather 

thick,  spire  obtusely  exserted,  whorls  convex,  eveiy- 
where  peculiarly  wart-scaled,  columellar  area  flatly 
slanting,  obscurely  banded  with  fidvous-olive. 
Recluz,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch. 

part  10.  p.  527. 
Ilab.  Isle  of  Ncgros,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  mountain 
stream) ;  Cumiug. 
Sculptured  throughout  with  a   peculiar  wart-like  sha- 
green coating. 

Species  57.  (Fig.  n,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nekitina  auumbkata.    Ner.  tesid  depresso-glotmsu,  spird 
parM,  aciimiiiaiti,  anfractibus  convexis,  tmnidinsculk, 
Icecibns,    ared   columelluri    plano-declici ;    olivaced, 
pimclis  minutis  albis  nigro-umbratk  aspersd,  ared  co- 
Imnellari  superne  iniense  sanguined. 
The  shaded  Neritina.     Shell  depressly  globose,  spin- 
small,  acuminated,  whorls   convex,  rather   swollen, 
smooth,  columellar  area  flatly  slanting ;  olive,  sprin- 
kled with  minute  black-shaded  white  dots,  columellar 
area  deep  blood-stained  at  the  upper  margin. 
nab.  Solomon's  Island. 

Distinguished  by  a  profuse  sprinkling  of  white  dots, 
shaded  on  the  anterior  side  with  black,  and  by  the  upper 
margin  of  the  columellar  area  being  deeply  blood-stained. 

Species  58.  (Fig.  a,  b,  JIus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Sandalina.  Ner.  testd  globosd,  solidd,  spird 
fix  exsertd,  retusd,  anfractibus  supierne  leviter  concaois, 
flexuoso-pllcntis,  deinde  convexk,  ared  columellari  sub- 
excacato-declivi,  margine  arcuatd;  olioaceo-nigrd. 

The  Sandal  Bay  Neritina.  Shell  globose,  solid,  spire 
scarcely  exserted,  blunt,  whorls  slightly  concave 
round  the  upper  part,  flexuously  pleated,  then  con- 
vex, columellar  area  slightly  excavately  slanting, 
arched  at  the  margin ;  olive-black. 

Eecluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1843,  p.  76. 

Ilab.  Sandal  Bay. 

A  blunt  rudely  pleated  species,  of  a  uniform  olive-black 


November,  1855. 








Plate  XIII. 

Species  59.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Oivexiana.  Ner.  tedCi  cotwexo-depressd,  (niid- 
ciilci,  lad}  exjjausci,  spira  pand,  vie  exsertd,  aiifrnclihns 
convexis,  lavihm,  area  columellari  permupld,  luhro  ili- 
latato,  suhauriculalo  ;  paUitJe  fahd,  oUmcco-ulr/ro  re- 
ticulatd,  area  colmneUari  carneUo-carided. 

Owen's  Neritina.  Shell  convexly  depressed,  ratbcr 
thin,  broadly  expanded,  spire  small,  scarcely  exserted, 
whorls  convex,  smooth,  colnmellar  area  very  large.  Up 
broadly  dilated,  subanriculated ;  pale  fulvous,  reticu- 
lated with  olive-black,  columellar  area  carnelion-bluc. 

Gk.\y,  Wood,  Index  Testaoeologicus,  Supp.  f.  S. 

Hub.  Fernando  Po  (on  stones  in  small  streams) ;  F)-azer. 

A  depressly  convex  species,  with  a  fine  expanded  slightly 
auriculated  lip. 

Species  60.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  cauiosa.  Ner.  testa  angriste  globosd,  nlriiiqiif 
conspicue  dilatatd,  spird  siibverticali,  inlortd,  aiifrac- 
tibita  convexis,  sulirnr/osis,  area  columeUarl  perumpld, 
aperturd parvd,  lahro  expauso ;  caruleo-nigrd,  piniclis 
ulbidis  aspersd. 

The  worm-eaten  Neritina.  Shell  narrowly  globose, 
conspicuously  dilated  on  each  side,  spire  subvertical, 
turned  in,  whorls  convex,  subrugose,  columellar  area 
very  large,  aperture  small,  lip  expanded ;  blue-black, 
sprinkled  with  white  dots. 

Gray,  Wood,  Index  Testaceologicus,  Supp.  f.  0. 
Nerita  NiittaUi,  Recluz. 

Uab.  Sandwich  Islands  (on  stones  in  rivulets) ;  Nuttall. 

Convoluted  in  an  obliciucly  vortical  manner,  with  the 
sides  prominently  dilated. 

Species  61.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  vespertina.     Ner.  testd  depressissimd,  utriii- 
que  late  alatd,  tenia,  spird  oblique  verticali,  obi/isd, 
radiatim  striata,  ared  columellari  perampld,  aperturd 
parvd ;  limdo-olicaeed,  subcorned. 

The  siJN-SET  Neritina.  Shell  very  depressed,  broadly 
winged  on  each  side,  thiu,  sjiire  oblicpiely  vertical, 
obtuse,  radiately  striated,  columellar  area  very  large, 
aperture  small ;  livid-obve,  subearneous. 

Nuttal),,  Jay's  Catalogue  of  Shells,  p.  66 

Hab.    Sandwich   Is' 

(on   stones    in  small 

A  remarkably  wi 

1  species,  of  thin  subcorneous 

Species  ()2,  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Taiiitensis.  Ner.  testd  depresso-ovatd,  siibniiri- 
cidatd,  spird  obliqiii  verticali,  obtusd,  radiatim  Minute 
striatd,  ared  columdlari  perampld,  leoiter  concexd ; 

The  Tahiti  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  ovate,  subauri- 
cidated,  spire  obliquely  vertical,  obtuse,  radiately  mi- 
nutely striated,  columeUar  area  very  large,  slightly 
convex ;  blackish-olive. 

Lesson,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  ."jii'.i. 

Hah.  Sandwich  Ishmds  (on  stones  iu  a  small  stnani)  ; 

An  oblong-ovatc  species,  sipiarely 


Species  63.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  cornuta.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird  ohliqni:  in- 
tortd,  anfraetibtts  rotundatis,  ad  sutiiras  pecidiariter 
coHcavo-carinatis,  ared  columellari  lata,  superne  si- 
nuatd ;  olicaceo-fulcesceute,  nigro  sparsim  reticulata, 
intus  Ucido-pluiiibed,  carnelio  marginatd. 

The  horned  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spin-  obliquely 
turned  in,  whorls  rounded,  peculiarly  eoncavely 
keeled  at  the  sutures,  columellar  area  broad,  sinuated 
at  the  upper  part ;  pale  olive-fulvous,  sparingly  reti- 
culated with  black,  interior  livid-lead,  edged  with 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

Distinguished  by  a  peculiar  eoncavely  keeled  appeudagi' 

next  the  suture. 

November,  lS.5c 

W'fiiuia  .viuy. 

>  m 


N  E  R ITI  N  A. 

Plat:.  XIV. 

Species  64.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  avellana.  Ner.  tesld  globo-w,  solidd,  spird 
vix  ex-tertd,  obtiisd,  atifradibits  rotimdiito-aiigulatix, 
medio  snbplanalis,  area  columellari  marghie  dense  scr- 
ruhdd ;  paUkle  oUvaceo-cinered,  ptmctis  albidis  nic/ro- 
umbratis  profuse  aspersd. 

The  nut  Neuitixa.  Shell  globose,  solid,  spire  exsertcd, 
obtuse,  whorls  rotunilately  angled,  rather  flattened 
rouud  the  middle,  columella  densely  serrulated  at 
the  edge ;  pale  olive-horny,  profusely  sprinkled  with 
whitish  black-shaded  dots. 

Recluz,  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  184i,  p.  76. 

Ilab.  Philippine  Islands. 

Of  a  peculiarlv  blunt  solid  structure,  resembling  a  com- 

Spccies  65.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neuitixa  faba.  Ner.  testd globoso-couoklm,  soVuld,  spird 
uribjiromiiiitld,  plus  minus  erosd,  anfraclihus  siiperni' 
concavis,Jkxuose  pUcalo-striatis,  deinde  convex  is,  Uevi- 
bus,  art'd  columellari  ahrupte  declivi ;  nif/ricunte-oli- 
vaced,  lutescenfe-albo  promiscue  slrigatd  et  piiiiclald, 
inicnlum  fasciatd,  fascid  vioide  sanguiaeo  tenue  reii- 

The  beax  Neritixa.  Shell  globosely  conoid,  solid, 
spire  rather  prominent,  more  or  less  eroded,  whorls 
convex,  flexuously  plicately  striated,  then  convex, 
smooth,  columella  abruptly  slanting;  blackish-olive, 
promiscuously  sti'eakcd  and  dotted  with  yellowish- 
white,  sometimes  banded,  the  band  finely  reticulated 
with  bright  blood-red. 

SowEURY,  Conch.  Illustrations,  f.  lU. 

J  lab. ? 

Extremely  variable  in  painting,  but  of  a  uniform  solid 
globosely  conoid  form. 

Species  66.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  interrupta.  Ner.  testd  globoso-couoided,  so- 
lidd, spird  snbobtmd,  plerumipie  erosd,  anfractibiis 
coHcavo-declivibus,  deinde  co)ivexis,  Jlexuoso-striatis, 
area  columellari  declici ;  olivaceo-virescente,  subtil  iter 
oblique  alho-lineatd,  fascid  luted  latiusculd  peculiari- 
ter  obliqui'  ciiigulatd. 

TiiE  ixrEni:i-"TED  Neiutixa.  Shell  globosely  conoid, 
solid,  spire  rather  nlMuse,  generally  eroded,  whorls 
eoncavely  slanting,  then  convex,  flexuously  striated, 
columellar  area  slanting;  olive-green,  finely  oblin^uely 
white-lined,  peculiarly  obliquely  encircled  with  a  ra- 
ther broad  yellow  band. 

Recluz,  MS.  Sowerb}',  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  526. 

JIab.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  rapid 
river) ;  Cuming. 
This  species  is  remarkable  for  having  the  apex  generally 

much  eroded. 

Species  07.   (Fig.  a,  b,  :Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritixa  c.elata.  Ner.  iestd  ovato-globosd,  solidd,  spird 
pared,  obtusd,  noil  exsertd,  ai/fractibus  superne  plauo- 
drrlifib/is,/j(',  deinde 
rill  II  lid, I  In,  ai-i'd  ciiluiiifllari  e.vcavafo-declivi;  carbo- 
iiariu-alrii,  liueis Jlrxuosis  pallide  ferrugineis. 

The  exguaved  Neritixa.  Shell  ovately  globose,  solid, 
spire  small,  obtuse,  not  exserted,  whorls  flatly  slant- 
ing, pceuliarJy  flexuously  impressly  striated,  then 
rouuderl,  columellar  area  cxeavately  slanting;  coal- 
black,  flexuous  lines  pale  rust. 

PiECLUz,  MS.,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  f.  538. 

IM.  South  Sea  Islands. 

An  obtusely  conoid  species,  sculptured  with  impressed 

strife  running  flexuously  from  the  apex. 

Species  68.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  tritonensis.  Ner.  testd globoso-conoided,  so- 
lidd, -ipird  2>lits  minus  erosd,  anfractibus  superne  con- 
caco-declivibus,  deinde  rotundatis,  area  columellari 
subangustd ;  lutescente,  nigro-oliraceo  dense  sabtiliter 

The  TRITON  Neritina.  Shell  globosely  conoid,  solid, 
spire  more  or  less  eroded,  whoils  eoncavely  slanting 
round  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  columellar  area 
rather  narrow ;  yellowish,  densely  finely  reticulated 
with  black-olive." 

Le  Guillou,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  345. 

Ilab.  North  Australia. 

Very  densely  reticulatrd  ivith  dai'k  ol. 

a  yellowish 

November,  1855. 

.\Wiiiiui,  PL  XV. 







S.r.-ra-Vy    ie'..  etlit 


Species  09.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

NeriTINa  KUGATA.     Nc'i-.te-ifd  ohJique  orafn,  .vihglohnm, 

sphi'i  ci.r  exsn-tu.aiifmdUnts  xiih,ni,i, ::,:,,.,  ,- ,v,'r  ,.s„- 

riKjiilix,  ml  aiKiiihiiii  oi.w/r 





intns  candf'scente . 

The  wrinkled  NeritIxNa.  Shell  obliquely  ovate,  sub- 
globose,  spire  scarcely  exserteil,  whorls  faintly  an- 
gled, wart-wrinkled,  obsoletely  spinous  at  the  angle, 
columellar  area  slanting,  slightly  sinuated  next  the 
apex  ;  coal-black,  bluish-red  within. 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1843,  p.  7.5. 

Hob.  Island  of  Negros,  riiilippiues  (in  mountain  streams) ; 
Well  characterized  by  a  line  wart-wrinkled  sculpture. 

Species  70.  (Fig.  a,  b,  iVIus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  insculpta.  Nit.  testa  ovatii,  spird  obUqni 
exsertd,  aiifractibiis  siiperiie  leriter  cot/cnvin,  deiudc 
roiundatis,  snlcis  linmribus  spiralibua  iitscii/ptis,  area 
columellari  mibconcavd ;  intense  ccendeo-nifjrd. 

The  engraven  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  obliquely 
exserted,  whorls  slightly  concave  on  the  upper  part, 
then  rounded,  engraved  with  s|)iral  linear  grooves, 
columellar  area  rather  concave  ;   dark  bluc-black. 

Hab.  Sandwich  Islands. 

A   dark   blue-black    shell,   engraved   throughout    with 

spiral  linear  grooves,  partaking  largely  of  the  characters  of 


Species  71.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neeitina  Listeri.  Ker.  testa  oblique  ovatd,  spird  sub- 
conoided,  parum  exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  Itcvibus, 
area  columellari  decliri,  callosd,  aperturd parviasciild, 
tabro  coiitructo ;  nigricante-olivaced,  punctis  lineisque 
viinutis  lutels  aspersd. 

Lister's  Neeitina.  Shell  obliquely  ovate,  spire  sub- 
conoid,  but  little  exserted,  whorls  convex,  smooth, 
columellar  area  slanting,  callous,  aperture  rather 
small,  lip  contracted  ;  blackish-olive,  sprinkled  witli 
yellow  dots  and  minute  lines. 

Pfeiffee,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  ~>Zi. 

Hab.  Cuba,  Nicara-jfua. 

Of  a  pel 

n,  the  columellar  area  being  v 
usuallv  attenuately  contracted. 

Species  H.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Macgillivrayi.  Ner.  testd  ovato-globosd,  spird 
sitbexsertd,  anfractibus  superue  concavis,  deinde  rotitn- 
datis,  dense  elevalo-striatis,  ared  columellari  excaoato- 
declioi ;  sordide  atrd. 

Macgillivray's  Neritina.  Shell  ovately  globose,  spire 
slightly  exserted  ;  whorls  concave  round  the  upper 
part,  then  rounded,  closely  elevatety  striated,  colu- 
mellar area  excavately  slanting  ;  dull  black. 

Ilab.  Solomon's  Island  ;  JMacgillivray. 

Well  characterized   in   form,   while   tlie   surface  has   a 

finely-striated  satiny  hue. 

Species  73.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  aquatilis.  Ner.  testd  conoideo-glolmd,  so- 
lidd,  spird  subobtttsd,  anfractibas  stqiermt  leviler  con- 
cavis, deinde  coiire.ris,  IrPBibiis,  ared  columellari  cal- 
losd;  olivaceu-liited,  liiieis  iiiyrls  acute  undutis  dense 

The  eippled  Neeitina.  Shell  conoidly  globose,  solid, 
spire  rather  obtuse,  whorls  slightly  concave  round 
the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  columellar  area 
callous;  olive-yellow,  thickly  nuu-ked  with  black  zig- 
zag lines. 

Hah. ? 

Very  densely  painted  throughout  with  fine  black  zigzag 

lines  upon  an  olive-yellow  ground. 

November,  1855. 

Xmlwa  .Pl.m. 





Vmren*    Brorfc  % 


Species  T-t.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Turton'I.  Ner.  tmtd  globoio-conoiilm,  soUJil, 
spim  suhproiii;,iiih1,  ohtiisa,  aiifnictihiis  fnqjerne  levUcr 
nmniris,  ih-iiiile  r<,t:i,i,h,l,s,  l,rri/,i!.^,  ami  roliiwelhin 
■HHlirnifjiiata,  adlom,  hianj'iur  i.iiiiiil?  daitiviihilil ;  hrun- 
neo-ltitesceute,  niyro  lonijUiiiVinaliiL'r  hdidr'ujnti'i,  ami 
colamellari  carneold. 

Tuiiton's  Neritina.  Shell  globosi'ly  conoid,  solid,  spire 
rather  prominent,  obtuse,  wliorls  slightly  concave  on 
tlie  upper  part,  then  rounded,  smooth,  columellar 
area  rather  narrow,  callous,  minutely  toothed  at  the 
edge  ;  brownish-yellow,  longitudinally  broadly  striped 
with  black,  columellar  area  carnelion. 

SowEEBY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  530. 

Hah.  New  Ireland  ;  Hinds. 

A  dark  solid  brownish-yellow  conoid  shell,  longitudi- 
nally painted  with  broad  waved  black  stripes. 

Species  75.   (Fig.  a,  4,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nehitina  Natalensis.  Ner.  testa  (jloboso-conoided,  spird 
.vdqjrominuld,  obfnsd,  anfractibus  sitperiie  coucavo-de- 
idivibiis,  deinde  coiivexis,  Itevibus,  area  colnniellari  siib- 
unfjmtd ;  fnlvo-olwaced,  nigra  oblupii  strigatd. 
The   Natal  Neritina.     SheU  globosely  conoid,  spire 
rather  prominent,  obtuse,  whorls  concavely  slanting 
round  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  colu- 
mellar area  rather  narrow ;  fulvous-olive,   obliquely 
streaked  with  black. 
Hah.   Natal. 

Of  a  more  slantingly  convoluted  form  than  the  preced- 
ing species,  with  the  black  stripes  narrower  and  ranging 
obliquely  in  a  contrary  direction. 

Species  7().  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nekitina  Powisiana.  Ner.  testa  trausmrsi  ovatd,  de- 
pressd,  spird  oblique  intortd,  anfractibus  subangustis, 
concentrice  siriatis,  area  cobimellari  lata,  juxta  apicem 
in  sinu  productd;  oUvaceo-luted,  purpurascente  fas- 
ciatd,  fasciis  nigris  iuterrvptis  marmoratd. 
Powis's  Neritina.     Shell  transversely  ovate,  depressed, 

spire  obliquely  turned  in,  whorls  rather  narrow,  con- 
centrically striated,  columellar  area  broad,  produced 
into  a  sinus  next  the  apex;  olive-yellow,  faintly 
banded  with  purple,  and  mottled  with  interrupted 
black  bauds. 

Eecluz,  Sowcrljy,  Thesaurus  Coneh.  part  10.  p.  511. 

Hah.    New   Ireland  (on  stones  in  a   mountain    stream) ; 
An  elevated  involuted  shell,  with  the  edge  of  the  last 

whorl  next  the  apex  produced  into  a  sinuated  horn. 

Species  77.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  solidissima.     Ner.  testd  dejiresso-orbiculari, 
solidd,  spird  oblique  ititortd,  anfractihus  subaiigustis, 
versus  aperturam  expansis,  striis  iinpressis  spiraUbus 
sculptis,  area  columellari  subcallosd ;  carbonario-atrd, 
punctis  minutis  albis  aspersd. 
The  very  solib  Neritina.     Shell  depressly  orbicular, 
solid,  spire  obliquely  turned  in,  whorls  rather  narrow, 
expanded  towards  the  aperture,  engraved  with  spiral 
impressed  strise,  columellar  area  rather  callous ;  coal- 
black,  sprinkled  with  minute  white  dots. 
SowERBY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  511. 

IM. ? 

A  very  characteristic  species,  round  and  expanded  in 
form,  engraved  with  spiral  impressed  striae ;  deep  coal- 
black,  sprinkled  with  minute  white  specks. 

Species  78.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  ateuiiima.  Ner.  testd globoso-conoided,  spird 
siibiirdiiiiiiiilii,  anfractibus  superne  concavis,  dciude  ro- 
tiindalis,  lrcrihiis,ared  columellari  angustd ;  atcrrimd, 
intus  carulesceute-albd . 

The  very  black  Neritina.  Shell  globosely  conoid, 
spire  rather  prominent,  whorls  concave  round  i\u- 
upper  part,  then  rounded,  smooth,  columellar  area 
narrow  ;  deep  black,  bluish-white  within. 

Kocii,  Philippi,  Abbild.  und  Bescli.  Conch,  pi.  1.  f  11. 

Hab. ? 

Of  a  simple  globosely  conoid  form,  deep  black,  withoul 

indication  of  any  pattern. 

November,  1855. 

^Wanla .  PL  'XVll. 







Species  79.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Neritina  bicanaliculata.  Ner.  testa  oi-ntd,  siiliJe- 
pressd,  ntrinque  peculiar  iter  caiialic/i/ii/o-n/n/a,  sjtirti 
obtique  intortd,  lamgatu,  area  cohimclhiri  peraiiijilii, 
aperturd  parvd ;  pnUkJe.  filivuceo-lidni,  ii'ujro  ivnuc 

The  double-channelled  Neritina.  Sliell  ovate,  ra- 
ther depressed,  peculiarly  canaliciilately  winged  on 
each  side,  spire  ol)liquely  turned  in,  smooth,  colu- 
mellar  area  very  Lnrge,  aperture  small  ;  pale  olive- 
yellow,  finely  reticulated  with  black. 

Eecluz,  MS.,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch.,  part  10.  p.  50'.). 

Hab.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  stone^^  in  small 
ponds) ;  Cuming. 

Peculiarly   distinguished    by    its   channelled    auricular 

Species  SO.  (Pig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  subauriculata.  Ner.  tentd  ovafd,  mlidiiis- 
ciilii,  rpird  oblique  intortd,  concentrire  slriuld,  nrrd 
colinneUari  perampld,  superiie  subaitriciihihi ;  imllide 
olioaceo-luted,  nigro  teiiue  reticulata. 

The  slightly-eared  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  rather 
solid,  spire  obliquely  turned  in,  concentrically  stri- 
ated, columellar  area  very  large,  slightly  auriculated 
at  the  upper  part ;  pale  olive-yellow,  finely  reticulated 
with  black. 

Reclvz,  MS.,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch.,  part  10.  p.  .510. 

Hab.  Island  of   Ncgros,   Philippines  (on  the    trunks   of 
palms  growing  in  brackish  water) ;  Cuming. 
Exactly  like  the  preceding  species  in  detail  of  painting, 

and  very  similar  in  form,  the  channelled  auricles  being 

simply  indicated. 

Species  81.  (Fig.  «,  i,  Mus.  Cumuig.) 
Neritina  dilatata.  Ner.  testa  .'ndjorbiciilnri-ovatd, 
iitriiiqne  peridiariler  dilalnld,  xpird  peeidiariter  in- 
tortd, concentrice  striata.,  ared  coliim<-IIarl  tatissiind, 
iipertiird  parrd ;  paltidi  ollrnci'o-lnti'd,  niijro  aperti' 
prondscue  reticulata,  area  columellari  carneold. 
The  dilated  Nekitina.     Shell  suborbiculately  ovate. 

peculiarly  dilated  on  each  side,  spire  obliquely  turned 
inwards,  coneontrieally  striated,  columellar  area  very 
liroad,  aperture  small;  pale  olive-yellow,  openly  pj-n- 
miscuously  reticulated  at  the  back,  columellar  aiva 

Hroderip,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1833. 

Hub.  Tahiti  (on  stones  in  rivers) ;  Cuming. 

The  reticulated  painting  of  this  species  is  more  open 

and  irregular  than  in  the  preceding,  and  the  cohniiellai- 

area  is  dilated  outwards  on  each  side. 

Species  82.  (Fig.  <?,  i,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina    Sandwichensis.     Ner.  testa  oblique   oratd, 
■ipird  depresse  intortd,  Imviyatd,  ared  colnmetlari  In- 




idiictd  . 


oUmceo-luted,  linti.s  nndnlatis  nii/ris  concrntriris  dni- 
sissiuie  pictd. 

The  Sandwich  Islands  Neritina.  Shell  oblit|uely 
ovate,  spire  depressly  turned  inwards,  smooth,  colu- 
mellar area  rather  broad,  produced  into  an  auricle 
next  tlie  spire  ;  pale  olive-yellow,  very  densely  painted 
with  concentric  black  waved  lines. 

Oesiiayes,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  .57!). 
Neritina  Mauritii,  Recluz. 

Hab.  Sandwich  Islands,  Mauritius. 

Curiously  obliquely  convoluted,  with   the  outer  surlaiv 
very  closely  ))aiuted  with  concentrically  waved  black  line?. 

Species  S3.  (Fig.  a,  b,  ^lus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  auriculata.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  utriuque  m 
naticalato-anricntatd,  spird  oblique  intortd,  dernswtii. 
striata,  ared  columellari  subampld ;  olivaeeo-nKjru 
ared  colmnellari  rnfescente. 

The  eared  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  conspicuously  ca 
naliculately  eared  on  each  side,  spire  obliquely  turnei 
inwards,  decussately  striated,  columellar  area  rathe 
large  ;  olive-black,  columellar  area  tinged  with  red. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  572. 

Hab.  New  Holland. 

The  auricles  in  this  species  are  distinguished  from  tluisi 

of  its  allies  by  a  more  horizontal  lateral  gi'owth. 

November,  ISoo. 

Kernma  ,  PI .  XYIIL 


Plate  XVIII. 

S])ccies  81.  (Fig.  a,  h,  c,  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  aculeata.  Ner.tfdddqiresso-ovatd,  tenid,  .yiird 
oblique  iutortd,  planatd,  anfractihus  convexis,  xplru- 
Uier  liratis,  lirii  sernitk  vel  acnleatk,  ared  cdmacl- 
lo.ri  siiperficicditer  excavatd ;  sordide  fused,  corin-d. 

The  prickly  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  ovate,  thin, 
spire  oblicpiely  turned  inwards,  flattened,  wliorls  con- 
vex, spirally  ridged,  ridges  serrated  or  ])i-ickly,  co- 
lumellar  area  superficially  excavated  ;  dull  brown, 

Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  edit.  p.  3GS6.    Cheniiiitz,  Couch. 
Cab.  vol.  X.  pi.  ir.!l.  f.  1643. 
Xeritiiia  micatu,  Nyst. 

Unit.  Sumatra. 

(Jf  a  distinct  subgeneric  type,  thin  and  hi 
auce,  partaking  of  the  character  of  Fuliidoi,/ 



Species  85.   (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Neritina  Floridana.  Ner.  testd  compreiso-ijlohom.,  so- 
lidiiisculd,  spird  obtusd,  mifractihm  s/ijicn/i  jjlmdus- 
rnlis,  ared  columellarl  callosd ;  virescenfc-alhd,  Uneis 
olivaceis  siiltlUssimis  dense  eleymile)'  pictd. 

The  Florida  Neritina.  Shell  corapressly  globose,  ra- 
ther solid,  spire  obtuse,  whorls  rather  flattened  at  the 
upper  part,  coluniellar  area  callous  ;  greenish-white, 
densely  elegantly  painted  with  very  fine  olive  lines. 

Shuttlewokth,  MS.  Mus.  Cumiug. 
Neritina  recUvata,  var.,  Sowerby. 

Hub.  Florida. 

Closely    allied    to    Neritina    redivata,    from    ivhieli    it 

scarcely  differs  except  in  being  of  a  more  stunted  growth. 

ipeeies  80.   (Fig.  ,/,  i,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
depressa.     Ner.  testa  comjjressii  oratd,  snlidi- 

iisciild,  spird  oblique  intortd,  anfractihus  nni/uslis,  ro- 
tniidiitis,  deciissatiin  minntr  sfriatis,  ared  colnmellnri 
(unpld,  ninrfine  continao ;  olivaceo-fuscd,  ptiis  minux 
rarieijatd,  npertnrd  curneold. 

The  depressed  Neritina.  Shell  compressly  ovate, 
I'ather  solid,  spire  obliquely  turned  inwards,  whorls 
narrow,  rounded,  decussately  minutely  striated,  co- 
lumcUar  area  large,  with  the  margin  continuous ; 
olive-brown,  more  or  less  variegated,  aperture  carne- 

Benson,  JIS.  Mus.  Cuming,      'y^ 

ITab.  Calcutta. 

Of  a  solid  Crepididit-XxVit  form,  with  an  expanded  con- 
tinuous aperture. 

Species  87.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Cuvieriana.  Ner.  testd  ocato-rjlobosd,  solidi- 
iiscutd,  spird  sutjprominuld,  anfraclibus  rotundatis, 
t/eribits,  ared  columellari  .vibantjHstd ;  olivaceo-nigrd, 
luteo  piuwtatd  et  variegatd. 

Cuvier's  Neritina.  Shell  ovately  globose,  rather  solid, 
spire  slightly  prominent,  whorls  rounded,  smooth, 
columellar  area  rather  narrow  :  olive-black,  dotted 
and  variegated  with  yellow. 

Eecluz,  Bevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienue,  1841,  p.  :i38. 

Hub.  New  Ireland. 

Of  simple  form,  but  varying  considerably  in  painting. 

iber,  18.53 







Scwei'l^y  (M  ethtli 


Plate  XIX. 

Species  88.  (Fig.  a  to  k,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neuitina  communis.  Ner.  testa,  yloboso-conoided,  qnrd 
prommdd,  anfractihm  superm  concavo-dt'cUvibiis,  de- 
inde  convexis,  lavigatis,  nitidis,  area  columellari  cat- 
Insd ;  lutescente-albd,  intense  rosea  varie  fasciatd, 
st  riff  is  obliguis  nigris  interdum  pictd. 
The  common  Neritina.  Shell  globosely  conoid,  spire 
prominent,  wborls  coucavely  slanting  round  the  upper 
part,  then  convex,  smooth,  shining,  columellar  area 
callous  ;  yeUowish-white,  variously  banded  with  deep 
rose,  sometimes  painted  with  oblique  black  stripes. 

QuoY  and  Gaimard,  Voy.  de  1' Astrolabe. 
Ilab.  Island  of  Siquijor,  Philippines  ;  Cuming. 

Of  this  very  beautiful  and  extremely  variable  species,  it 
has  been  necessaiy  to  give  specimens  under  several  dif- 
ferent aspects  of  colouring.  The  predominant  colouring 
is  deep  rose,  variously  interrupted  with  bands  of  pale  yel- 
low, marked  with  regular  oblique  black  bands ;  but  these, 
as  it  may  be  seen  in  Fig.  88  k,  are  sometimes  absent, 
while  in  other  specimens,  as  at  Fig.  88  i,  the  black  bands 
are  conspicuous,  and  the  rose  colouring  is  wanting. 

November,  1855. 

ymtnui  .n.XX^ 



Vmcent     Broob     Imp- 


Species  89.  (Fig.  a  to  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Soveebii.  Ner.  tedd glohosd,  solidimculd,  spird 
vix  exsertd,  oblusd,  anfractihus  siipertie  rude  pUcato- 
rugatis,  deinde  rotiindatis,  rugis  evanidis,  aperturd 
parvd,  area  columellari  perdecUvi ;  sordide  grised, 
carideo-nigro  phm  minus  varie  marmoratd  ct  fasciatd. 

Sowerby's  Nekitina.  Shell  globose,  rather  solid,  spire 
scarcely  exserted,  obtuse,  whorls  rudely  plicately 
wrinkled  round  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  with 
the  wrinkles  fading,  aperture  small,  columeUar  area 
very  slanting ;  dull  grey,  more  or  less  variably  mot- 
tled and  banded  with  blue-black. 

Recluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaunis  Conch,  part  10.  p.  528. 

Hab.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  the  stony  bed  of  a 
small  river) ;  Cuming. 
Distinguished  by  a  characteristic  globose  nut-shaped 

form,  variously  mottled  with  blue-black  and  grey. 

Species  90.  (Fig.  a  to/,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  dubia.     Ker.  testa  ovatd,  spird  leviler  exsertd, 
lulerali,  anfradihus  subangustis,  rotmidatis,  Icevibus, 

area  columellari  snhexcavatd ;  fulvo-auraniid,  fasciis 
vel  strigis  undatis  nigris  varie  pictd,  interdum  omnino 
fulvo-aurantid,  area  columellari  intense  sanguined. 

The  doubtful  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  slightly 
exserted,  lateral,  whorls  rather  narrow,  rounded, 
smooth,  columeUar  area  faintly  excavated ;  fulvous- 
orange,  variously  painted  with  black  bands  or  waved 
stripes,  sometimes  altogether  fulvous-orange,  with 
columeUar  area  deep  blood-red. 

Chemxitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  324-.  pi.  193.  f.  2019, 

Neritina  fasciata,  Lamarck . 
Neritina  zebroides.  Lesson. 
Neritina  reticulata,  Quoy  and  Gaimard. 
Neritina  Philipineann.,,  Sowerby. 
Neritina  tiella,  Busch. 

Gab.  Eiver  Pisag,  Bay  of  Manilla  (adhering  to  the  piles 
of  wharfs) ;  Cuming. 

Though  varying  considerably  in  pattern,  the  ground- 
colour of  this  species  is  invariably  a  rich  fulvous-orange. 
The  columeUar  area  is  sometimes  tinged,  sometimes  deeply 
stained  with  blood-red,  but  verv  rare  in  the  latter  state. 

November,  1855. 

,\,riliii<i  .11  XXL 



nrtv  (U  ft  litii 

lincenl    Bronlis    Imp 


Plate  XXI. 

Species  91.  (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neeitina  pulchella.     Ner.  testa  suhglobosa,  spird  ob- 
tuse planntd,  mifractibm  convexk,  nunc  lavibns,  nunc 
plicato-siriatis,  area  columellari  subangusid,  declivi; 
luiescente -rosed,   caruleo-niffro,  punctis    internipio, 
tinctd  ml  fasciatd. 
The  peetty  Neritina.   Shell  subglobose,  spire  obtusely 
flattened,  whorls  convex,  sometimes   smooth,  some- 
times plicately  striated,  columellar  area  rather  nar- 
row,  slanting ;  yellowish-rose,   variously  stained   or 
banded  with  blue-black,  interrupted  with  dots. 
Hub.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (on  stones  iu  a  small 
stream) ;  Cuming. 

A  small  globose  shell,  variably  painted,  very  much  re- 
sembling N.faha,  but  wanting  the  depression  which  cha- 
racterizes the  upper  portion  of  the  whorls  of  that  species. 

Species  92.  (Fig.  a  to  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  virginea.  Ner.  testa  oblique  eonoided,  swb- 
globosd,  spird  parvd,  subobtusd,  anfraclibns  siiperm 
declivibus,  lavibus,  nitidis,  aperturd  parvd,  area  co- 
lumellari percallosd ;  albidd  vel  pallide  grised,  nigri- 
cante-griseo  plus  minus  reliculatd,  interdimi  rosacea.  I 
The  virgin  Neritina.  Shell  obliquely  conoid,  sub- 
globose,  spire  smaU,  rather  obtuse,  whorls  slanting   j 

round  the  upper  part,  smooth,  shining,  aperture 
small,  columellar  area  very  callous ;  whitish  or  grey, 
more  or  less  reticulated  with  blackish-grey,  some- 
times tinged  with  rose. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  575. 
Neritina;  Brasiliana  and  Leucliii,  Eecluz. 

Hab.  AVest  Indies. 

Of  a  pecidiar  grey  reticulated  pattern,  the  network  being 
sometimes  broken  up  into  oblique  irregular  bands. 

Species  93.  (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  pupa.  Ner.  tesfd  subobliqtie  globosd,  spird  pa- 
rum  exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  lavibns,  ared  colu- 
mellari plaiio-declivi  ;  alba,  cceruleo-nigro  plus  minus 
confertim  strigatd  vel  reticulata. 

The  pupa  Neritina.  Shell  somewhat  obliquely  globose, 
spire  but  little  exserted,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  co- 
lumellar area  flatly  slanting,  white,  more  or  less 
closely  striped,  or  reticulated  with  blue-black. 

Neritapupa,  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  12th  edit.  p.  1353. 

IIuL.  Jamaica. 

A  globose  species,  convoluted  somewhat  obliquely,  re- 
ticulated or  striped  with  blue-black,  varying  more  or  less 
iu  the  closeness  of  the  pattern. 

November,  185 

Xmiiiia  .  PlJllL 





ttm'ect   pToolis  Imp 


Plate  XXII. 

Species  9-i.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  chlorostoua.  Ner.  tedd  globosd,  tenui,  tu- 
midiusculd,  spird  sulexsertd,  anfractihus  superne  im- 
pressis,  delude  rotundaiis,  substriatis,  area  columeUari 
declivi;  interne  ferritgineo-grised,  albipmiclatd,  ad  sii- 
turam  vittaid,  aperturd  luted. 

The  yellow-mouthed  Neritina.  Shell  globose,  thin, 
rather  swollen,  spire  slightly  exscrLed,  whorls  im- 
pressed round  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  sub- 
striated,  columeUar  area  slanting;  dark  rusty-grey, 
dotted  with  white,  filleted  at  the  sutures,  aperture 

Huoderip,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1832,  p.  201, 

Hub.  Tahiti  (at  the  mouth  of  a  small  stream,  at  times 
covered  with  salt  water) ;  Cmning. 
Of  somewhat  light  structure,  dark  grey,  thickly  studded 

uith  minute  white  dots,  with  the  aperture  yellow. 

Species  95.  (Pig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  triserialis.      Ner.  tesld  subglobosd,  spird  vix 
exsertd,  anfractlbus  mpenie  subplanatis  vel  decUvibus, 
area  columeUari  angustd,  callosd ;   tdgricanle-grised, 
raaculis  albidis  aspersdju  seriebus  tribus  distinctioribus. 
The  triserial  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  spire  scarcely 
exserted,  whorls  rather   flattened  round   the  upper 
part,  or   slanting,  columellar  area  narrow,  callous; 
dark  grey,  sprinkled  with  white  spots,  more  distinct 
in  three  rows. 
SoWERBY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  f.  521. 

Hub. ? 

A  dark  grey  white-spotted  shell,  in  which  the  spots  in- 
dicate, more  or  less  distinctly,  three  interrupted  bands. 

Fig.  'JO.  (Ml 


Species  97.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  cuprina.  Ner.  testa  oblongo-conicd,  spird  tur- 
binutd,  anfruclibus  superne  impressis,  deinde  convexis, 
oblique  striatis,  area  columeUari  subcallosd ;  nigrd, 
lineis  uudutis  luteis  pallidi  notatd,  ared  columeUari 
aurantio  tiiictd. 

The  copper  Neritina.  Shell  oblong-conical,  spire  tur- 
binated, whorls  impressed  round  the  upper  part, 
then  convex,  obliquely  striated,  columellar  area  rather 
callous ;  black,  marked  with  very  faintly  indicated 
zigzag  lines,  columellar  area  tinged  with  orange. 

Recli'z,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Uab.  ■ ? 

A  well-deliued  conically  turbinated  black  species,  marked 
with  faintly  indicated  waved  yellow  lines,  which  impart  a 
coppery  hue  to  the  shell. 

The  fine  specimen  here  figured  proves  to  be  a  variety  of 
A',  communis,  represented  nl  I'l.  .\  IX. 

Species  9S.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  apiata.  Ner.  testd  globoso-turbinald,  tenuis- 
simd,  spird parviusculd,  anfractibus  superne  planulatis, 
delude  rotundaiis,  subangustis,  ared  columeUari  sub- 
uiupld ;  cinereo-grised,  punctis  nivosis  trausversis  as- 

The  bee-marked  Neritina.  Shell  globosely  turbinated, 
very  thin,  spii'c  rather  small,  whorls  flattened  round 
the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  rather  narrow,  colu- 
mellar area  rather  large ;  ash-grey,  sprinkled  with 
snow-white  transverse  dots. 

Uecllz,  Sovverby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  518. 

Ilab.  Island  of  Negros,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  moun- 
tain stream) ;  Cuming. 
An  unusually  light  turbinated  species,  of  distinct  ty])ical 

character,  dull  grey  sprinkled  with  small  transverse  whitish 





VinMit  Bitiols    Imp 


Plate  XXIII. 

Species  99.  (Tig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  spikalis.  Ner.  testa  transvejse  ovatd,  tenui- 
culd,  spird parvd,  parum  exsertd,  laterali,  anfractibus 
decussatim  striatk,  sidaiiffustis,  ultimo  mitice  descen- 
dente,  aperturd  oi-hiculari-ovatd,  ared  columellari  ex- 
cavatdj  virescenle-ollvaced,  sulipeUttcidd. 

The  spiral  Nekitina.  Shell  transversely  ovate,  rather 
thin,  spire  small,  but  little  exserted,  lateral,  whorls 
decussately  striated,  rather  narrow,  the  last  descend- 
ing in  front,  aperture  orbicularly  ovate,  columeUar 
area  excavated ;  greenish-olive,  subtrausparent. 

Hai. ? 

Of  a  characteristic  spiral  growth,  and  of  a  peculiar  light 


Species  100.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  striolata.  'Ner.  testd  snhglolosd,  spird  parvd, 
oMusd,  a)ifractibus  convexis,  coiicentrice  tenid-striatis, 
ared  columellari  callosd,  aperturd  parviiiscidd ;  pal- 
lida ciuereo-olivaced,  puiiclis  sparsis  nigricautibus  as- 

The  finely-striated  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  spire 
small,  obtuse,  whorls  convex,  concentrically  iinely 
striated,  columeUar  area  callous,  aperture  rather 
small ;  pale  ash-olive,  sprinkled  with  scattered  black 

Eecluz,  Sowerby  Thesam-us  Conch,  part  10.  p.  .537. 

Iliib. ? 

Of  a  dull  Jii/punaria-Yike  tone  of  colom',  sparsely  dotted 

with  black. 

Species  101.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  picta.  Ner.  testd  subglohosd,  .spird  obliisn,  an- 
fractibus convexis,  lavibus,  politis,  ared  cohniwllari 
callosd ;  pallide  grised,  carulescenle-nigro  varie  tt'iiiii 
articulutd,  area  columellari  vividc  casluneo-rubrd. 

The  painted  Neritina.  Shell  somewhat  globose,  spire 
obtuse,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  polished,  columeUar 
area  callous ;  light  grey,  variously  finely  reticulated 
with  blue-black,  columeUar  area  bright  chestnut-red. 

Sowerby,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1S33,  p.  201. 

Hub.  Panama  (on  a  raud-bauk  partially  overflowed  «ith 
fresh  water) ;  Cuming. 

A  beautifully  reticulated  grey  porceUanous  species,  with 
a  bright  chestnut-red  columeUar  area. 

Species  103.   (Fig.  u,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina   Navigatoria.     Ner.  testd  conico-lurbinald, 
spird promimild,  anfractibus  siiperne  decVmbus,dcinde 
plarw-convexis,   Icevibus,   ared  columellari  subcallosd. 

margine  tciiue  deuticulatd;  oUvaceo-nigrd,  lineis  pal- 
lidis  lutescentibus,  longitudinaliter  undalis  ornatd, 
ared  colmnellari  lutescenfe. 

The  Navigators'  Island  Neritina.  SheU  conically 
turbinated,  spire  ratiier  prominent,  whorls  slanting 
round  the  upper  part,  tlien  flatly  convex,  smooth, 
columeUar  area  rather  caUous,  finely  toothed  at  the 
edge ;  olive-black,  painted  with  faiut  longitudinaUy 
waved  yeUow  lines,  columeUar  area  yeUowish. 

Hab.  Navigators'  Island,  Pacific  Ocean. 

Of  rather  light  structure  for  this  conoidal  form  of  spe- 
cies, faintly  closely  waveil  with  yeUowish  lines  upon  an 
oUve-blaek  ground. 

Species  103.  (Fig.  a,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  pulgetrum.     Ner.  testd  subglobosd,  spird  vix 
conoided,  obtusd,  unfractibus  superui  concavis,  delude 
convexis,  Icevibws,  niteidibus,  ared  columellari  callosd ; 
vitreo-olivaced,  lineis  nigris  transverse  acute  undatis 
pulc/terrime  notatd,  ared  columellari  carneold. 
The  lightning-marked  Neritina.     SheO  subglobose, 
spire  scarcely  conoid,  obtuse,  whorls  concave  round 
the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  shining,  colu- 
meUar area  caUous  ;  glassy-olive,  beautifully  marked 
with  sharp  transversely  zigzag  black  lines,  columel- 
lar  area  carneliou. 
llab. ? 

A  smooth  yellowish-oKve  shell,  with  a  striking  glassy 
polish,  marked  with  acute  transversely  zigzag  black  lines, 
and  having  a  caruelion  callous  columeUar  area. 

Species  104.  (Fig.  103  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  GuAYAauiLENSis.  Ner.  testd  ovato-globosd, 
subdepressd,  spird  obtuse  exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis, 
dense  concentrice  striatis,  ared  columellari  callosd, 
margine  tenue  denticulatd ;  luteo-olimced,  punctis  re- 
ticulatis  marmoratd,  ared  columellari  carneold. 

The  Guayaquil  Neritina.  Shell  ovately  globose,  ra- 
ther depressed,  spire  obtusely  exserted,  whorls  con- 
vex, closely  concentrically  striated,  columeUar  area 
callous,  finely  toothed  at  the  margin  ;  yellowish-olive, 
mottled  with  reticulated  dots,  columeUar  area  carue- 

D'Orrigny,  Sowerby  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  .53(1. 

Hub.  llealcjos,  Guayaquil. 

A  somewhat  obtuse  deprcssly  globose  species,  mottled 

throughout  with  light  black-edged  dots  upon  a  bronze- 

Uke  oUve  ground. 

November,  IS 55. 

yminid  .  PL  XXIY. 



>iriccut  "Brooks  Imp 


Plate  XXIV, 

Species  105.  (Figs.  101,  105,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  Layardi.  aw.  icntd  oiaUi,  valde  depressd, 
teii-iil,  j)eUiiciJd,  fipird  ohliqiii  intortd,  deeussafim  stri- 
ata, an'd  colimii'Uari  perampld,  snperne  quadrato- 
alntd;  olkaceo-corned,  niijro  temii  retiodaid. 

Layauu's  Nekitina.  Shell  ovate,  very  depressed,  thin, 
transparent,  spire  obliquely  turned  in,  decussately 
striated,  columeUar  area  very  large,  quadrately  winged 
at  the  upper  part;  olive-horny,  finely  reticulated 
with  black. 

Ilah.  Cevloii;  F.  Layard,  Thwaites. 

Ufa  subtransparent  horny  texture,  conspicuously  square- 
winged  at  the  upper  part. 

Species  100.  (Fig.  «,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritis'a  Solomonensis.  Xat.  testa  oljUquu  ovatd,  sub- 
di'prcsm,  spird  parvd,  fere  olsoletd,  aiifractihus  con- 
vexis,  concentric!;  lirato-striatis,  apertiird  sitbexpansd, 
area  culnmeUari  ainpld,  callom,  jiixla  apicem  sinuatd ; 
olirdceii-lirviiiivd,  iiiijro  oljucure  reticidatd,  area  colu- 
Tiietluri  xnmjiiliK'O-carneuln. 

The  Solomon  Island  Nekitina.  Shell  obliquely  ovate, 
rather  depressed,  spire  small,  almost  obsolete,  whorls 
convex,  concentrically  ridge-striated,  aperture  rather 
expanded,  columellar  area  large,  callous,  sinuated 
ne.xt  the  apex ;  olive-brown,  obscurely  reticulated 
with  black,  columellar  area  blood-stained  carnelion. 

Hat).  Solomon's  Island. 

A  very  characteristic  species  in  form,  and  also  in  sculp- 
ture and  eolourins;. 

Species  107.  (Fig.  a,  b,  ;\Ius.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  Novo-Caledonica.  Nat.  testd  depresse  ovatd, 
teiiaicnld,  radiatiiii  elevato-striatd,  spird  obliqiii:  in- 
tortd, ared  coliimellari  ampld,  subdilatatd ;  .wrdide 
nigra,  iutna  cariite.xente,  ared  colnmellari  pallide  car- 

The  New  Caledonia  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  ovate, 
rather  thin,  radiately  elevately  striated,  spire  obliquely 
turned  in,  columellar  area  large,  slightly  dilated  ;  dull 
black,  interior  blue,  columellar  area  jiale  carnelion. 

Hab.  New  Caledonia. 

This  species  also  presents  a  distinct  typical  character, 

thinly  ovately  expanded  within,  radiately  striated  witliout. 

Species  108.  (Fig.  a,  b,  JIus.  Cuming.) 

Nekitina  acigulata.  Nat.  testa  depresse  ovatd,  tenui- 
ciild,  spird  pared,  oblique  laterali,  arifractibus  suban- 
gustis,  dense  radiatim  striatis,  aperturd  dilatato-e.v- 
pansd,  area  cotumeUari  decliei,  margine  denticutatd ; 
sordide  nigra. 

The  suakp-euged  Nekitina.  Shell  depressly  ovate, 
rather  thin,  spire  small,  obliquely  lateral,  whorls 
ratlier  narrow,  closely  radiately  striated,  aperture  di- 
lately  expanded,  columellar  area  slanting,  denticu- 
lated at  the  margin ;  dull  black. 

MoRCH,  MS.  !Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Island  of  Nicobar. 

Of  light  substance,  chiefly  characterized  by  an  obliqui' 

convolution  of  the  ^inre,  and  dilately  expanded  aperture. 

November,  1S55. 

yrritiiKi    PL  XXY. 




TVoote    Imp 


Species  109.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Ciiraiiig.) 

Neeitina  MiCH.iUDl.  Nff.  tesfd  siiljf/lolwm,  sp'irii phino- 
ohtusd,  siduris  impresus,  anfracdbus  mperni  pkino- 
concavis,  deinde  convi'xk,  lavibns,  poUtis,  urea  colu- 
mellari  callosd ;  luteo-oUvaced,  lineis  ttlgris  ncii/c 
tratiseerse  undatis  ornata. 

Michaud's  Neritina.  Shell  subg-lobose,  spire  llutly 
obtuse,  sutures  impressed,  whorls  flatly  concave  round 
the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  polished,  colu- 
mellar  area  callous ;  yellowish-olive,  ornamented  with 
sliarp  transversely  zigzag  black  lines. 

Recluz,  I'ro.  Zool.  Soc.  1841,  p.  31.5. 

Ilah.  Panama. 

Of  a  polished   glassy  substance,   neatly  paiuted  with 

sharp  transversely  zigzag  black  lines. 

Species  110.  (Fig.  «,  4,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  lentiginosa.  Ncr.  testa,  couoideo-r/lobosd,  so- 
lidiiisculd,  splrd  ohtnad,  aiifnictibiis  siipcnie  declivlbiia 
et  subntde  pli(;i/u-.slrui//i,  ami  cii/in,ie/!iii-i  siibcallvm  ; 
oVwacL'd,  jiiiiivUs  iiiniiilia  alhix,  iihjro  nmbndk,  pro- 
miscue  leuthiinusd. 
The  freckled  Neritina.  Shell  couoidly  globose,  rather 
solid,  spire  obtuse,  whorls  slanting  round  the  upper 
part,  and  rather  rudely  plicately  striated,  columellar 
area  rather  callous ;  olive,  promiscuously  freckled 
with  miuute  black-shaded  white  dots. 
Hab.  Pacific  Islands. 

A  dark  olive  Faludinu-Vika  species,  freckled  with  pro- 
miscuous black-shaded  white  dots. 

Species  111.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  pulchra.  Ni/r.  testa  ovato-coiwided,  solidd, 
spird  siibe.csertd,  avfractibm  s/ipenie  coiicavo-dect/ri- 
bus,  ddnde  conve.vis,  taeibus,  niteuttbus,  area  cohuiii'l- 
tari  callosd ;  intense  fiilvd,  macidis  yrandibus  niijris 
tessellatd  aid  fasciatd,  interdum  rnfo  parti m  tinctd. 

The  pretty  Neritina.  Shell  ovately  conoid,  solid, 
spire  rather  exserted,  whorls  concavely  slanting  round 
the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  shining,  colu- 
mellar area  callous ;  dark  fulvous,  tessellated  or 
banded  with  large  black  spots,  sometimes  partially 
tinged  with  red. 

SowERiiY,  Couch.  Illustrations,  f  59. 

Hab.  Panama. 

A  dark  shining  fulvous  species,  prettily  tessellated  uidi 

black  blotches,  sometimes  ranging  in  bauds. 

Species  113.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  meleagris.    Ner.  testa  conoideo-ijlobosd,  spird 
brevi,  obtiisd,  anfractibus  convexis,  Icevibus,  area  colu- 
mellari  calloso-declivi ;  albidd,  yriseo  rarie  reticulata 
et  Hieoso-punctatd. 
The  guinea-fowl  Neritina.     Shell  conoidly  globose, 
spire  short,  obtuse,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  columellar 
area  callously  slanting ;  whitish,  variously  reticulated 
with  grey  and  snow-flaked. 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  575. 
Hab.  Honduras  Bay  ;  Dyson. 

Distinguished  by  a  characteristic  pattern  of  grey  net- 
work interspersed  with  small  white  flakes. 

Species  113.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Feaseri.  Ner.  testa  depresso-subglobosd,  spird 
pannii  exsertd,  anfractibus  superne  concavis,  deinde 
convexis,  concerdrice  plicato-Uratis,  ared  colmneltari 
latiusculd,  declivi ;  nir/ricante-olivaced. 

Frasee's  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  subglobose,  spire 
but  little  exserted,  whorls  concave  round  the  upper 
part,  concentrically  plicately  ridged,  columellar  area 
rather  broad,  slanting  ;  blackish-olive. 

Hab.  West  Africa ;  Fraser. 

A  dark  olive  species,  with  a  characteristic  sculpture  of 


jber,  1855. 







Plate  XXVI. 

Species  114.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming-.) 

Neritina  aspeksa.  Ner.  testa  suhglohosd,  teuuiciila, 
spird  ubtiise  jdanatd,  anfractibus  eorriiffato-lim/is, 
sujjenit'  inn/iihilh,    ciil   (iiigiihiui    loiii/i-sjiiiio.sis,    area 

COluiin-lhin    Jrrlir 


alhd,  piincth  liiln\  uiinulk  olisriire  axpi'isd. 

The  sprinkled  Nekitina.  Shell  subglobose,  rather 
thin,  spire  obtusely  flattened,  whorls  wrinkle-ridged, 
angled  round  the  upper  part,  long-spined  at  the  an- 
gle, columellar  area  slanting,  a  little  sinuated  at  the 
upper  part  ;  coal-black,  obscurely  sprinkled  with 
minute  yellowish  dots. 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming ;  Sowcrby  Thesam'us  Conch, 
part  10.  p.  534. 

Hab.  Sandwich  Islands. 

Generally  of  small  size,  wrinkle-ridged  throughout,  and 
crowned  with  long  spines. 

Species  115.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Souleyetana.     Ner.  tentd  sithrilobosd,  spird 
plano-obtmd,  avfractibiis  lavihiis,   .snjimir  cimjithifiis, 
ad  angulum  rude  tuberctdatis  ccl  spiiinxh,  xpii/is  prr- 
paucis  distantibiis,  area  colinnrllnri  dfcliri,  nmnjiiir 
subarcuatd ;  virescenie-ollvaced,  liiieis  liUeis  luiigitn- 
dinalibus  mibjlexuosis  uitide  pictd. 
Souleyet's   Neritina.     Shell  subglobose,   spire  flatly 
obtuse,  whorls  smooth,  angled  round  the  upper  part, 
rudely  tubercled  or  spined  at  the  angle,  spines  few 
and  distant,  columellar  area  slanting,  slightly  arched 
at  the  margin ;  greenish-olive,  neatly  painted  with 
slightly  flexuous  longitudinal  yellow  lines. 
Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienue,  1843,  p.  183. 
Hab.  Marquesas  Islands. 

The  waved  linear  yellow  painting  of  this  species  is  per- 
haps the  most  striking  characteristic. 

Species  IIG.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  obtusa.  Ner.  testd  siilKiiKidniln-nrdli,  spird 
obtitsd,  anfractibus  siiperne  subcunrtivii-ilfi-lirihns,  de- 
inde  plano-convexis,  midique  oblique  rude  plicafo- 
striatis,  area  colmnellari  callosd,  snjierne  sinuatd, 
tnargine  arcnatd  et  deiiticulatd ;  sordide  olivaced, 
judiclis  miii/itis  albidis  traiisversis  leiitiginosd. 

The  obtuse  Neritina.  Shell  somewhat  squarely  oval, 
spire  obtuse,  whorls  rather  concavely  slanting  round 
the  upper  part,  then  flatly  convex,  everywhere  ob- 
liquely, rudely,  plicately  striated,  columellar  area  cal- 
lous, sinuated  at  the  upper  part,  arched  and  denticu- 
lated at  the  margin ;  dull  olive,  freckled  with  small 
transverse  white  dots. 

Benson,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part.  10.  p.  517. 

Ilab.  Banks  of  the  Ganges,  Calcutta. 

A  solid  obtuse  species,  of  a  dark  olive-colour,  freckled 

throughout  with  small  white  dots,  splashed  transversely. 

Species  117.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Jovis.  Ner.  testa  conoideo-globosd,  spira  bre- 
viiiscidd,  anfractibus  superue  declivibus,  deinde  ro- 
tundatis,  lambns,  area,  columellari  declivi,  margine 
arcuald  et  iiiiniite  denticulatd ;  nitenle-atrd,  punctis 
lineisqiicfidgnratis  albidis  pallide  uotatd. 

Jupiter's  Neritina.  Shell  conoidly  globose,  spire  ra- 
ther short,  whorls  slanting  round  the  upper  part, 
then  rounded,  smooth,  columellar  area  slanting,  arched 
and  minutely  toothed  at  the  margin ;  shining  black, 
faintly  marked  with  whitish  dots  and  lightning 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Eab. ? 

A  smooth,  shining,  black,  conoidly  globose  shell,  marked 

with  faint  white  dots  and  zigzag  lines. 

Species  118.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  cassiculum.  Ner.  testd  obtuse  conoided,  sub- 
globosd,  solidd,  spird  vix  exsertd,  anfractibus  subplano- 
coinr.fis,  iired  columellari  callosd,  margine  corrugato- 
striald;  luleo-olimced,  nigro  tenue  retictdatd,  area 
columellari  pallide  curneold. 

The  little  helmet  Neritina.  Shell  obtusely  conoid, 
rather  globose,  solid,  spire  scarcely  exserted,  whorls 
rather  flatly  convex,  columellar  area  callous,  wrinkle- 
striated  at  the  margin  ;  yellowish-olive,  finely  reticu- 
lated with  black,  columellar  area  pale  flesh-tinged. 

Sowerby,  Conch.  Illustrations,  f.  55. 

Hab. ? 

A  solid  bluntly  conoid  species,  of  a  dark  oUve-colour, 

covered  with  a  fine  lacing  of  black. 

November,  1855. 




N  E  R I T I  N  A. 

Plate  XXYIL 

Species  119.   (Fig.  a,  h,  Miis.  Cuming.) 

Neuitina  SiauiJORENSls.  Ner.  teUd  oblonyo-ovald,  spird 
intortd,  mij'ractibus  suhangusth,  compressis,  lavihns, 
area  colnmeUari  lata,  wargine  contliiuo  ;  sordide  cor- 
ned, nit/ro  obscure  reticulata,  Interdum  roseo-radiutd. 

The  Siquijor  Neritina.  Shell  obloug-ovate,  spire 
twisted  inwards,  whorls  rather  narrow,  compressed, 
smooth,  columellar  area  broad,  with  the  margin  con- 
tinuous ;  dull  horny,  obscurely  reticulated  with  black, 
sometimes  pink-rayed. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  198. 

Hub.  Island  of  Siquijor,  Philippines  (in  a  small  stream)  ; 

A  narrow  compressed  species,  with  a  broad  columellar 
area,  having  a  raised  edge  continuous  with  the  margin  of 
the  aperture. 

Species  120.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  Guadianensis.    Ner.  testd  obhnijo-conmded, 
solidd,  spird  snlprominuld,  obtusd,  aufractibm  superne 
declivibus,  iii/ertie  gibbosis,  avfractu  ultimo  antice  de- 
Hcendenie,   area    colmnellari    callosd ;    sordid^   albd, 
griseo-uigro  dense  reticulata. 
The  Guadiana  Neritina.     Shell  oblong-conoid,  solid, 
spire  rather  prominent,  obtuse,  whorls  slanting  round 
the  upper  part,  gibbous  round  the  lower  part,  last 
whorl  descending  in  front,  columellar  ai-ea  callous ; 
dull  wliite,  densely  reticulated  with  greyish-black. 
JIoRELET,  Moll,  du  Portugal,  p.  97.  pi.  9.  f.  3. 
Hab.  Guadiana,  Portugal. 

A  solid  Natica-Yiks  species,  witli  the  last  whorl  un- 
usually descending  in  front,  closely  reticulated  with  grey- 

Species  121.  (Pig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina   reticulata.      Ner.  te-itd  ovatd,   spird  sub- 
exserid,  anfractibus  subangustis,  radiatim  sulco-striatis, 
area  colmnellari  declivi,  subexcavatd ;  lacteo-albd,  in- 
tense nigro  laxe  reticulatd. 

The  reticulated  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  slightly 
exserted,  whorls  rather  narrow,  radiately  groove- 
striated,  columellar  area  slanting,  slightly  excavated  ; 
cream-coloured,  openly  reticidated  with  jet-black. 

SowERBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1832,  Couch.  lUus.  f.  2. 

Hab.  Lord  Hood's  Island  (on  saud  in  brackish  water)  : 

Distinguished  by  a  loosely  reticulated  pattern  of  jet- 
black  upon  a  cream-coloured  ground. 

Species  122.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Danhbialis.  Ner.  testd  ovatd,  spird  vix  ex- 
nertd,  anfractibus  snbai/gustis,  lavibus,  ared  columet- 
Inri  excavato-declivi ;  albidd,  strigis  nigricantibus 
Jtexuosis  undique  tramversim  pictd. 

The  Danubian  Neuitina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  scarcely 
exserted,  whorls  rather  narrow,  smooth,  columellar 
area  excavately  slanting ;  whitish,  painted  through- 
out with  transverse  flexuous  black  streaks. 

Ziegler,  Deshayes  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  .592. 
Neritina  serratiliueata,  Ziegler. 

Hab.  The  Danube. 

Painted  transversely  with  Hexuous  black  lines,  ranged 

throughout  with  2;reat  regularity. 

Species  133.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  violacea.  Ner.  testd  ovatd,  spird  vix  exsertd, 
anfractibus  subangustis,  lavibtis,  area  colmnellari plano- 
dnTn-ibus ;  violacea,  lineis  griseis  acute  undatis  dense 

The  violet-tinged  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  scarcely 
exserted,  whorls  rather  narrow,  smooth,  columellar 
area  flatly  slanting;  violet-tinged,  thickly  clouded 
with  zigzag  grey  lines. 

Morelet,  Moll,  du  Portugal,  p.  92.  pi.  9.  f  1. 

HaL.  Coimbra,  Portugal. 

A  rather  narrow  violet-tinged  species,  densely  clouded 

throughout  with  sharply  zigzag  grey-black  lines. 

January,  1856. 


Qsidra'aiK    .nlarged      ) 


Plate  XXYIII. 

Species  13-i.  (Fig.  «,  b,  iMus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Pekrotettiana.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  suhdepressa, 
spird  vix  exsertd,  obtusd,  anfractibus  superne  coiwavo- 
impressis,  deinde  convexis,  lavibm,  ared  colitmellarl 
htiuscnld ;  carboHario-nigrd. 

Perkotett's  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  somewhat  de- 
pressed, spire  scarcely  exserted,  obtuse,  whorls  cou- 
cavely  impressed  on  the  upper  part,  then  convex, 
smooth,  columellar  area  rather  broad ;  coal-black. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1S41,  p.  3.37. 

Hab.  Ceylon;  Dr.  Gardner. 

A  smooth,  coal-black,  rather  depressed   species,   but 

little  smaller  in  size  than  the  accompanying  figure.     Tlie 

inscription,  "  considerably  enlarged,"  in  the  opposite  Plate, 

should  be  "  slightly  enlarged." 

Species  125.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  fluviatilis.  Ner.  testa  obloiigo-ovatd,  spird 
parvd,  perspicue  convolutd,  anfractibus  subatujmtis, 
IcBvibus,  nitentibtis,  ared  columellari  latiusculd;  nigri- 
cante-molaced,  macuUs  albis  reticulate  aspersd. 

The  fluviatile  Neritina.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  spire 
small,  perspicuously  convoluted,  whorls  rather  nar- 
row, smooth,  shining,  columellar  area  rather  broad  ; 
blackish-violet,  sprinkled  with  a  network  of  white 

Nerilajliwiatilis,  Linneeus,  Syst.  Nat.  12th  edit.  p.  1253. 
Neritina  Balmatica,  Partch. 

Hab.  Elvers  of  France  and  England. 

A   rather   narrow   oblong  species,  painted   with   pale 
blackish-violet,  splashed  ivith  white  subelongated  spots. 

Species  126.  (Fig.  a,  4,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Listeri.     Ner.  testd  suhglobosd,  spird  obtuse 

planatd,  anfractibus  convexis,  lavibus,  ared  columellari 

callosd,  tumidd ;  lutescente-olivaced,  lineis  nigris Jlexu- 

osis  confertis  pictd. 

Lister's  Neritina.      Shell  subglobose,  spire  obtusely 

llattened,  wiiorls  convex,  smooth,  colnmellar  area 
callous,  swollen ;  yellowish-olive,  painted  with  close- 
set  flexuous  black  lines. 

Pfeiffer,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Coneh.  part  10.  p.  .534. 

Ilab.  St.  John's  River,  Nicaragua. 

A  subglobose,  rather  callous  species,  very  i 
ith  close-set  fle\uous  black  lines. 

ally  painted 

Species  127.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina   1>aconi.     Ner.  testd  .mboblongo-ovatd,   spird 
subexserlii,  ohliisil^    anfractihns   convexis,   concentrice 
stria/is,  iii/('i////iin.  (irrii  i-uhiniellari  subcallosd ;  sor- 
dide  ciiien/v,  iiigni  iint  niiciilafd  aut  Jle.vuoso-Uneatd. 
Bacon's  Neritina.  Shell  suboblong-ovate,  spire  slightly 
exserted,  obtuse,  whorls  convex,  concentrically  stri- 
ated,   shining,  columellar  area  rather  callous  ;  dull 
ash-colour,   reticulated  or    ilexuously    lineated    with 
Ilab.  Swan  River ;  Dr.  Bacon. 

Somewhat  resembling  the  preceding  species  in  respect 
of  its  linear  variety  of  painting,  but  of  a  more  spirally  co- 
noid form,  and  uarrouer. 

Species  138.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Guinerii.  Ner.  testd  depresso-orbiculari,  spird 
obtuse  planatd,  anfractibus  angustis,  versus  aperturam 
lalioribus,  spiraliter  lineari-sulcatis,  aperturd  rotun- 
dato-expansd,  ared  columellari  declivi  ;  carbonario- 

GuiNEit's  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  orbicular,  spire 
obtusely  flattened,  whorls  narrow,  broader  towards 
the  aperture,  spirally  linearly  grooved,  aperture  ro- 
tundately  expanded,  columellar  area  slanting  ;  coal- 

Recluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  541. 


Distinguished    by   its    pinched   compre; 
round  expanded  aperture. 

ed    spire    and 

January,  185G. 


#  ^ 

%  # 



Vmcent    broolis    [mp 
(  SliRl.tK.   r,J,-u-sed    ) 


Species  129.  (Fig.  n,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Jordani.  'Ner.  testa  obtuse  conoided,  ohesd, 
spird  vix  exaertd,  anfractibus  plano-decUvibm,  lavibm, 
nitentibm,  area  coliimeUari  callosd ;  olivaceo-Jlavm- 
cente,  slrujin  fmc'ia flexuom  deme pictd. 

The  Jordan  Nebitina.  Shell  obtusely  conoid,  stout, 
spire  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  flatly  slanting,  sniooth, 
shining,  columellar  area  callous  ;  olive-yellow,  densely 
painted  with  flexuous  brown  streaks. 

SowERBY,  Conch.  lUus.  f.  49.     Thesaurus  Conch,  part  1 0. 
p.  531.  pi.  115.  f.  213-215. 
N.  Elleppenniiiin,  Eccluz. 

Hab.  River  Jordan. 

A  stout  solid  species,  painted  tliroughout  with  close-set 

red-brown  flexuous  streaks. 

Fig.  130.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
The  specimen  here  figured  proves  to  be  a  characteris- 
tic variety  of  N.  violacea,  represented  at  Plate  XXVII., 
Fig.  123. 

Species  131.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina    tenebricosa.      Ner.  tedd  depresne  ylobo-vl, 

teuuiculd,  spird  parvd,  parmn   exsertd,   anJ'riirlUnis 

subplano-comexh,   ared  columellari  angustd,  dirliri, 

ape/i/ira  .•i/'fji>„//i/ci ;  fumeo-oUvaced,  lineis  nigrk  acute 

undid ut I  V  I niiisrri-hl'i  p'lctd. 

The  dakk-suaued  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  globose, 
rather  thin,  spire  small,  but  little  exserted,  whorls 
rather  flatly  convex,  columeUar  area  narrow,  slanting, 
aperture  rather  large ;  smoky-olive,  painted  with 
sharply  zig/ag  transverse  black  lines. 

C.  B.  Adams,  Contributions  to  Conchology,  p.  175. 

Hab.  Jamaica. 

A  light  subglobose  species,  painted  with  close-set  sharply 
zigzag  black  Hues  upon  a  dull  smoky-olive  ground. 

Species  132.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Dringii.     Ner.  testd  depresse  oblongd,  subcon- 
tortd,  .ipird  vix  exsertd,  plus  minus  erosd,  anfractibms 

super  He  u/ijn 






varie  fasi-int 

Dring's  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  obloug,  somewhat 
contorted,  spire  scarcely  exserted,  more  or  less  eroded, 
whorls  impressly  concave  round  the  upper  part,  pli- 
cately  striated,  then  convex,  columellar  area  nan-ow, 
slanting;  black,  variously  banded  with  yellow,  some- 
times painted  with  minute  waved  black  lines. 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming.     '•''- 

Hub.  North  Australia. 

Very  distinct  in  character,  both  with  respect  to  I'orni  and 

Species  133.  (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  turbida.  Ner.  testd  orbiculari,  perdepressd, 
temd,  spird  parvd,  vix  exsertd,  anfractibus  corwexis, 
concentrice  striatis,  ared  columellari  mbampld,  callosd, 
upcrturd  expansd ;  fumeo-oUvaced,  nii/ro  obscure  re- 

The  disturbed  Neritina.  Shell  orbicular,  very  de- 
pressed, thin,  spire  small,  scarcely  exserted,  whorls 
convex,  concentrically  striated,  columellar  area  rather 
large,  callous,  aperture  expanded ;  smoky-obve,  ob- 
scurely reticulated  with  black. 

Morelet,  Test.  Nov.  Americ;c  Centralis,  p.  27. 

Hab.  River  Machaquilan,  Guatemala. 

k  light,  orbicularly  depressed  shell,  peculiiuly  thinly 

rotundately  expanded. 

January,  1856. 

jcntiim , 





[  MoJeialrly  .-nlurgod  .) 

■fincent   Bioaks  Imp 


Plate  XXX. 

Species  lo-i.  (Fig.  134'  and  135,  Mus.  Cuiniug.) 

Neuitina  glabeata.  Ner.  testa  obliqtie  ovatd,  soUdd, 
■ipird  obtusd,  anfractihus  convexis,  Itsvibiis,  niteidihus, 
area  columellari  dense  callosd,  aperttird  niimdd;  hi- 
tescente-albd,  nigro  fasciatd  vel  varie  lineatd. 

The  smooth  Neritina.  Shell  obliquely  ovate,  solid, 
spire  obtuse,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  shiniug,  colu- 
mellar  area  thickly  callous,  aperture  very  small ;  yel- 
lowish-white, banded  or  variously  lineated  with  black. 

SowERBY,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  535.  pi.  116.  f. 

I  lab.  ? 

A  beautifully  polished,  callous,  pea-like  shell,  variously 
t'licii'cled  with  black  bauds  or  lines. 

136.  (Fig.  a,  b,  iVIus.  Cuming.) 

Nebitina  Desmoulinsii.  Ner.  testd  depressi  orbicit- 
lari,  spird  obtuse  plamtd,  jjliis  minus  erosd,  anfracti- 
hus convexis,  lavibiis,  ared  cotmuellari  subangustd,  de- 
dim,  aperturd  ampld,  rotnndato-expamd ;  carlonario- 

Desmoulins'  Neritina.  Shell  depressly  orbicular,  spire 
obtusely  flattened,  more  or  less  eroded,  whorls  convex, 
smooth,  columellar  area  rather  narrow,  slanting,  aper- 
ture large,  rotundately  expanded;  coal-black. 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Tahiti. 

Distinguished  chiefly  by  its  depressed  rotundately  ex- 
panded aperture. 

Species  137.  (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  lutesta.  Ner.  testd  ovatd,  tenuiculd,  spird 
subexsertd,  anfractihus  convexis,  concentrice  -itriatis, 
ared  columellari  declivi,  aperturd  subexpansd ;  sordide 
fulod,  rufo-fiiscescente  obscure  tessellatd. 

The  soiled  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  rather  thin,  spire 
moderately  cxsorted,  whorls  convex,  concentrically 
striated,  columellar  area  slanting,  aperture  slightly 
expanded ;  dull  fulvous,  obscurely  tessellated  with 

Mouelet,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Portugal. 

A  thin,  dull-looking  species,  almost  of  the  texture  of  a 
Lyiinuea,  but  nevertheless  prettily  variegated  with  rudily 

Species  138.  (Pig.  r^  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Afbicana.  Ner.  testd  sttborbicutari,  spird 
parrd,  vix  exsertd,  anfraclibiis  plam-convexis,  area 
columellari  subangustd,  declioi;  sordide  nlbd,  liueis 
uigricantibus  eximiisjlexuosis  iuterrupiis  nofafd. 

The  African  Neritina.  Shell  suborbicular,  spire  small, 
scarcely  exserted,  whorls  flatly  convex,  columellar 
area  rather  narrow,  slanting ;  dull  white,  marked  with 
delicate  interrupted  black  flexuous  lines. 

Ilah.  Africa. 

A  small,  rather  compressly  convoluted  species,  markeil 

with  characteristic  faintly  pencilled  blackish  flexuous  lines, 

more  or  less  interrupted. 

January,  1S56. 





Plate  XXXI. 

Species  13y.  (Fig.  n,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Macri.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird  subexsertd, 
plus  minus  erosd,  anfractibus  superne  leviter  impressis, 
cleinde  convexis,  1/svibns,  area  cohtmelluri  decUvi ;  ni- 

The  Macri  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  slightly  ex- 
serted,  more  or  less  eroded,  whorls  faiutly  impressed 
round  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  columel- 
lar  area  slanting  -,  shining  black. 

Recluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  531.  pi. 
116.  f.  222. 

Hab.  Asia  Minor;  Lieutenant  Spratt,  R.N. 

A  small  shining  jet-black  species,  with  the  spii'e  gene- 
rally more  or  less  eroded. 

Species  140.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  carinata.  Ner.  testd  subglobosd,  spird  pla- 
natd,  plus  muiiis  erosd,  anfractibus  superne  concam- 
angulatis,  deinde  rotutidato-carinatis,  infra  convexis, 
ared  columelhiri  decliri ;  pallide  virescenfe,  lineis  oll- 
caceo-nigrisjlexuosis  confertim  pictd. 

The  keeled  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  spire  flat- 
tened, more  or  less  eroded,  whorls  concavely  angled 
round  the  upper  part,  then  rotundately  keeled,  con- 
vex beneath,  columellar  area  slanting;  pale  green, 
painted  with  close-set  flexuous,  olive-black  lines. 

Koch,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  516.  pi. 
114.  f.  157,  15S. 

Hab. ■? 

Strongly  characterized  by  a  prominent  rounded  keel, 
which  gives  a  concavely  angled  structure  to  the  upper  part 
of  the  whorls. 

Species  lU.  (Fig.  «,/.,  c,  r/,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Mertoniana.  Ner.  testd  ovatd,  suhjlobosd, 
solidd,  spird  parnm  exsertd,  obtusd,  anfractibus  con- 
vexis, lavibns,  nitentibus,  ared  columellari  plus  miiias 
callosd ;  fjriseo-albd,  itigricante  varic  retictdutd  et 

Merton's  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  subglobose,  solid, 
spire  but  little  exserted,  obtuse,  whorls  convex, 
smooth,  shining,  columellar  area  more  or  less  callous  ; 
greyish-white,  variously  reticulated  and  banded  with 

Eeclcz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  71. 
Neritina  nehulata,  Recluz. 

Hab.  Island  of  Negros,  Philippines  (on  stones  in  a  small 
stream) ;  Cuming. 
A  subglobose  callous  shining  species,  variously  rcticu- 

lately  banded  and  enlaced  with  black  upon  a  greyish-white 


Species  142.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Rangiana.  Ner.  testd  oblongo-ovatd,  depre.'ixd, 
Haliotidiformi,  .^pird pared,  iJj/iiw'rid,  anfractibus 
superne  rude  angulatis,  dfiii<h'  pliimitis,  urea  columel- 
lari subampld,  callosd ;  pitHiili-  virrnvinde,  liiieis  Jlcx- 
uosis  nigris,  opaco-alho  margiuatis. 

Rang's  Neritina.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  depressed,  ila- 
liotis-shaped,  spire  small,  obtusely  exserted,  whorls 
rudely  angled  round  the  upper  part,  then  flattened, 
columellar  area  rather  large,  callous ;  pale  green, 
marked  with  flexuous  black  lines,  edged  with  opake 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  339. 

Hab.  Dumaguete,  Island  of  Negros,  Philippines  (on  stones 
in  a  small  stream) ;  Cuming. 
This  species,  it  will  be  observed,  is  of  a  very  peculiar 

form,  and  singularly  niarknl. 

February,  1850. 



(  R^UTc-s    in..<liTatelv     mUrS.-.l  ) 

Viiiceiu    3ti^<*s    Ii^T 


Figj.  11-3  and  14G.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 
The  shuUs  here  figui-ed  represent  respectively  the  N. 
Immvenalis,  Ziegler,  and  N.  rarispina,  Recluz,  and  are 
varieties  of  the  European  N.fluviatiUs. 

Species  144.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nekitina  TRiSTis.     Ner.  fenUl  subylobosd,  spird  pand, 

mhexserld,  lavigatd,  arvd  rolumellari  declivi ;  cteru- 

ho-niyrd,  puncth  attls  dfiisS  aspersd. 
TnK    SAD    Neritina.     Shell   subglobose,   spire   small, 

rather  exserted,  smooth,  eolumellar  area   slanting; 

hlue-black,  densely  sprinkled  with  white  dots. 
D'Orbigny,  Hist.  Moll.  Cuba. 
IM.  Cuba. 

A  small  pea-shaped  species  of  a  dark  blue-black  colour, 
densely  sprinkled  with  minute  white  dots. 

Species  145.  (Fig.  a,  /;,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina    Adansoniana.      Ner.  testa   oblique  conicd, 
crasuusculd,  spird  obtusd,  aufractibus  declivibus,  basi 
iumidiifsculis,  area  columellari  callosd ;  ftilnd,  Uneis 
nigris  reticulalis  vel  strigatis. 

Adaxson's  Neritina.  Shell  obliquely  conical,  rather 
thick,  spire  obtuse,  whorls  slanting,  rather  swollen  at 
the  base,  eolumellar  area  callous ;  fulvous,  reticulated 
or  streaked  with  black  lines. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1S41,  p.  313. 

Hab.  Senegal. 

Of  a  solid  conical  form,  with  an  obtusely  exserted  spire. 

Species  147.  (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  tuifasciata.  Ner.  testa  subcompresse  ovatd, 
teiiiii,  semipellHcidd,  spird  parvd,  obtuse  planatd,  an- 
fractibus  stibangttstis,  lavibits,  area  columellari  ampld, 
plano-coiicavd ;  pallid^  cinered,  nigricante  pallidi  tri- 

The  tiieee-banded  Neritina.  Shell  somewhat  com- 
pressly  ovate,  thin,  semipellueid,  spire  small,  ob- 
tusely flattened,  whorls  rather  naiTow,  smooth,  eolu- 
mellar area  large,  flatly  concave ;  pale  ash-colour, 
encircled  with  three  faint  blackish  l)ands. 

Mexke,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  ? 

Closely  aUied  to  the  European  N.  jtuoiatilis,  but  having 

the  spire  flattened. 

Fel)ruary,  1856. 

^',rmnJi  n.wi. 


*l   ; 

(  Fiftiirfs  inoilcratJ-K-  ciilM-i«l.) 


Bioolte   Imp 


Plate  XXXIII. 

Species  14S.  (Fig.  a,  h,  iliis.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Anatolica.  Ner.  k'std  siibr/lobosd,  spira  parvii, 
subexsertd,  anfradibus  eonvexis,  lavibiis,  area  colii- 
mellari  declivi ;  dilute  nUjro  i'mctd et  lineatd. 

The  Anatolia  Neritina.  Shell  subglobose,  spire  small, 
slightly  exserted,  whoi-Is  convex,  smooth,  columellar 
area  slanting ;  lineated  and  stained  with  dilute  black. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  342. 

Hab.    Symrua,  Aleppo,  Sidon,  and  Scio  (in  fountains) ; 
A  solid  smooth  subglobular  species,  stained  with  dilute 


149.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  C 


Neritina  Boueguignakti.  Ner.  tedd  subattenuato- 
oblongd,  spird  coiispkui  convoluid,  anfractilus  sub- 
compressis,  lavibits,  ared  coliimellari  ampld,  siibexca- 
vaid;  carbonario-atrd,  sape  erosd. 

Bourguignart's  Neritina.  Shell  subattenuatcly  ob- 
long, spire  conspicuously  covoluted,  whorls  rather 
compressed,  smooth,  columellar  area  large,  slightly 
excavated ;  coal-black,  often  eroded. 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming.     '•  ' 

Hab.  ? 

Of  rather  narrow  elegant  spiral  growth,  with  a  rather 

large  slightly  excavated  columellar  area. 

Species  150.  (Fig.  o,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  Christovalensis.  Ner.  testd  subquadrato- 
orbiculari,  depressd,  spird  obliqiie  intortd,  anfradibus 
eonvexis,  iitriuque  auriculaid,  aperturd  ampliier  dila- 
tatd,  ared  columellari  declivi,  margine  minute  denti- 
culatd;  lutescente-albd,  pwpnreo-roseo  pulcherrinie 
The  Christotal  Neritina.  Shell  somewhat  squarely 
orbicular,  depressed,  spire  obliquely  twisted  in,  whorls 
convex,  auriculated  on  both  sides,  aperture  largely 

dilated,  columellar  area  sh 
lated  at  the  edge ;  yellowi 
with  purple-rose. 
Hab.  St.  Christoval,  Solomon's  Island: 

ing,  minutely  denticu- 
white,  prettily  mottled 


A  solid  compressly  raised  shell,  auriculated  on  each  side 
with  a  largely  dilated  aperture,  prettily  mottled  witii  pur- 
ple rose. 

Species  151.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  rostrata.  Ner.  testd  oblomjo-quadratd,  spird 
inlortd,  snhcentrali,  valdi:  productd,  quasi  rostrata, 
anfradibus  elcmtis,  perangustis,  aperturd  dilatatd, 
ared  coUumellari  ampld,  supenie  quadrato-anriculatd : 
intense  fHSco-oUvaced,  intus  rufescente-fuscd. 

The  beaked  Neritina.  Shell  oblong  square,  spire 
twisted  inwards,  almost  central,  much  produced,  as 
if  beaked,  whorls  raised,  very  narrow,  aperture  di- 
lated, columellar  area  large,  squarely  auriculated  at 
the  upper  part ;  dark  brownisfa-olive,  interior  red- 

Hab.  Ceylon ;  F.  Layard. 

A  narrow  rather  compressed  species,  with  a  squarely 

dilated  aperture  curiously  distinguished  by  the  produced 

beak-like  structure  of  the  spire. 

Species  152.  (Fig.  «,  i,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  pisiformis.  Ner.  testd  globosd,  spird  pand, 
vix  exsertd,  anfradibus  rotundatis,  subrugoso-striatis, 
ared  columellari  subampld,  declici ;  carbonario-atrd. 

The  pea-shaped  Neritina.  Siiell  globose,  spire  small, 
scarcely  exserted,  whorls  rounded,  somewhat  rougidy 
striated,  columellar  area  rather  large,  slanting  ;  conl- 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1842,  p.  181. 

Hah.  Tahiti? 

A  solid  globular  species,  deep  black,  rather  rougidy 

striated  and  more  or  less  eroded. 

February,  1856. 









y-.ucj.X.    binok.s   IlT 


Plate  XXXIV. 

Species  153.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Neritina  vibidis.  Nei\  testa,  oblique  civali,  spird parvd, 
parmn  exsertd,  anfmctibm  convexis,  subcaiffustis,  lavi- 
bus,  Hiteutibus,  area  columellari  callosd ;  pellucido- 
virescente,  pmictk  albis  Unmqite  iM/ris  cnpiMarlbi/s 

The  okeen  Neeitina.  Shell  obliquely  oval,  spire  small, 
but  little  e.xserted,  whorls  convex,  rathei-  narrow, 
smooth,  shining,  columellar  area  callous  :  transparent 
green,  variegated  with  black  hair  lines  and  white 

LiNN^us,  Syst.  Nat.  (12th  rdit.),  p   12.54. 

Hab.  West  Indies. 

Chiefly  distinguished    by    its    narrow   nbl 
form,  and  semitransparont  substance. 


and  Wttn 

Figs.  154  and  156.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
The  specimens  iiere  figured  represent  the  N.  Michaudi 
<ia  nl'  Becluz,  and  are  varieties  of  N.fliiviatilis. 

Species  155.   (JIus.  Cuming.) 
PREVOSTIANA.     Ner.   ledd   Hnbobllque  ovali. 

spird  inliJe  tiirbi until,  niifriictibus  co/wexin,  snbangus- 
tis,  area  ciiliimflhiri  e.rcavato-planatd ;  intense  caru- 
Puevost's  Neritina.  Shell  somewhat  obliquely  oval, 
spire  neatly  turbinated,  whorls  convex,  rather  narrow, 
columellar  area  excavately  flattened ;  deep  blue- 

SOWEKBY,  Conch.   Illus.  |)     If) 
Hab.  ? 

Of  a  rather  narrow  uljli(|uely  oval  fori 
ing  blue-black. 

very  dark  shin- 

Species  157.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Neritina  Nilotica.  Ner.  testa  subgloboso-ovatd,  spird 
subexsertd,  unjractibus  rotundaiis,  area  columellari 
subcallosd ;  hdescente,  olivaceo  dense  lineatd. 

The  Nile  Neeitina.  Shell  somewhat  globosely  ovate, 
spire  a  little  exserted,  whorls  rounded,  columellar 
area  rather  callous ;  yellowish,  densely  lineated  with 

Hab.  Banks  of  the  Nile. 

Of  a  peculiar  subglobose  fornj,  painted  with  close-set 

waved  olive  lines  upon  a  yellowish  t;-round. 




Sowcri)'  Sal  et  inl  ^  -   ^^  Aincent  Broaiv  Imp 

(     Jloaei-alfly         enlai-aed      ) 


Species  158.  (Fig.  a,  i,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Sdccinea.  Ner.  testa  ol)loiigo-ovatd,  tenni, 
pellucidd,  spirit  parm,  anfractibus  Itsvidiis,  s/ipen/e 
concavo-planaid,  area  columellari  siibampld ;  colore 

The  Succinea  Neritina.  Shell  obloiig-ovate,  thin, 
transparent,  spire  small,  whorls  smooth,  concavely 
flattened  at  the  upper  part,  eoluraellar  area  rather 
large ;  amber  colour. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  See.  Cuvierienne,  18+1,  p.  343. 

Hab.  Guadaloupe. 

A  small,  transparent,  Succiuea-like  species,  resembling 
X.  fliimntllis  in  form. 

Species  159.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Peloponnesa.  Ner.  testa  augusti  ovatd,  spird 
subnmpM,  phm  inuim  erosd,  anfractibus  convexis,  con- 
centrice  a/rifi/ist,  area  columellari  .inhanipld ;  nitenfe 

The  Pelopoxnesian  Neritina.  Shell  narrowly  ovate, 
spire  rather  large,  more  or  less  eroded,  whorls  convex, 
concentrically  striated,  columellar  area  rather  large; 
shining  black. 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hah.  The  Morea. 

Distinguished  from  N.  Jiiwiatili^  by  its  spiral  plan  of 
convolution  and  concentric  strife. 

Species  160.  (Fig.  o,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina    lugubris.     Ner.   testd  ovatd,   spird  parvd, 
appressd,  anfractibus  angiistis,  versus  aperturam  e.v- 
paiisis,  area  columellari  lata;  nitente  caruleo-nigrd. 
The   mourning  Neritina.     Shell  ovate,   spire   small, 

appressed,   whorls   narrow,   expanded    towards   the 
aperture,  columellar  area  broad  ;  shining  blue-black. 

Philippi,  Abbild.  und  Besch.  Conch,  pi.  1.  f.  9. 

Hab.  Sandwich  Islands. 

A  shining  black  species,  with  a  rather  expanding  aper- 

Species  161.  (Fig.  o,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  siderea.  Ner.  testa  ovato-turhinatd,  spird 
subexsertd,  anfraclibns  convexis,  stiperne  leviter  im- 
pressis,  lavibus,  area  columellari  deelivi ;  nitente  atrd. 

The  shining  Neritina.  Shell  ovately  turbinated,  spire 
rather  exserted,  whorls  convex,  slightly  impressed 
round  the  upper  part,  smooth,  columellar  area  slant- 
ing ;  shining  black. 

Gould,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hah.  Sandwich  Islands. 

A  smaU,  shining  black  species, 

th  a  rather  turbinated 

Species  163.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  ldctuosa.  Ner.  testd  ovato-conicd,  spird  tur- 
hinutd,  anfractibus  convexis,  superne  leviter  coucavis, 
obscure  concentrice  striatis,  ared  columellari  deelivi, 
suhe.rcavatd ;  nitente  atrd. 

The  sad  Neritina.  Shell  ovately  conical,  spire  turbi- 
nated, whorls  convex,  slightly  concave  round  the 
upper  part,  obscurely  concentrically  striated,  colu- 
mellar area  slanting,  subexcavated  ;  shining  black. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  IS-H,  p.  317. 

Hah. ? 

A  shining  black  shell,  distinguished  from  t 
species  by  its  more  turbinated  conoidal  form. 


March.  1856. 



rtry  i\A  d.Mi 

Ymoe-Tit  IBxoQk&  imp 

(  Moaei  ately        enlarged 


Plate  XXXVI, 

Species  163.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  zebrixa.   Ner.  lesid  oblique  ovaiti,  siibaiiffusift, 
sjjird  co/itractd,  anfraciibm  convexis,  versus  ajierturam 
expansd,  area  coluniellari  latiusculd ;  lutescente,  lineis 
acute  undatis  dense  strigatd. 
The  little  zebra  Neritina.     Shell  obliquely  ovate, 
rather  narrow,  spire  contracted,  whorls  convex,  ex- 
panded towards  the  aperture,  columellar  area  rather 
broad  ;  yellowish,  densely  striped  with  zigzag  lines. 
Hecluz,  Bevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienue,  1841,  p.  341. 
Hab.  Montpellier. 

This  may  probably  be  a  variety  oi  N.JiuviatiUs,  but  we 
have  been  led  to  figure  it  because  more  varieties  of  Neri- 
tina have  been  indiscriminately  referred  to  that  species 
than  are  admissible. 

Species  164.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Michouii.  Ner.  testd  ovatd,  spirdparvd,  plus 
minus  erosd,  anfractibus  convexis,  lavibus,  area  colu- 
niellari declivi ;  nitente  atrd. 

MiCHOu's  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  small,  more  or 
less  eroded,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  columellar  area 
slanting;  shining  black. 

Bourguinati,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab. ? 

A  small  shining  black  species,  with  an  eroded  apex. 

165.  (Fig.  «,  i,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina  meridionalis.   Ner.  testd  anguste  ovatd,  spird 
parvd,  dislincte  convoliitd,  anfractibus  convexis,  sub- 
compressis,  lavibus,  ared  columellari  laid,  plano-ex- 
cavatd ;    lutescente-albd,  olivaceo-nigro   dense  reticu- 
The  meridian  Neritina.     Shell  narrowly  ovate,  spire 
small,  distinctly  convoluted,  whorls    convex,  rather 
compressed,  smooth,  columellar  area  broad,  flatly  ex- 
cavated ;    yellowish-white,  densely  reticulated  with 
Philippi,  Enum.  MoU.  Sicil.  p.  159.  pi.  9,  f.  13. 
Neritina  Moreleti,  Recluz. 
Neritina  elongatula,  Morelet. 

Hab.  Sicily,  Portugal. 

Rather  elongately  convoluted,  and  painted  wi 
network  of  olive. 

Species  166.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritixa  Anatensis.  Ner.  testd  oblongd,  compresse  ro- 
tundatd,  solidd,  spird  parvd,  subobscitrd,  anfractibus 
convexis,  nitentibiis,  ared  columellari  perainpld,  cal- 
losd ;  peUucido-ctsrulescente,  strigis  griseis  obliipie  no- 

The  An  ato  Neritina.  Shell  oblong,  compressly  rounded, 
solid,  spire  small,  rather  obscure,  whorls  convex, 
shining,  columellar  area  very  large,  callous ;  trans- 
parent-bluish, marked  with  oblique  raised  streaks, 

Eecluz,  Sowerby,  Theasarus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  535.  pi. 
116.  f.  247,  248. 

Hab.  Portugal. 

A  polished  pea-like  shell,  of  a  compressed  oblong  form, 
with  the  spire  indistinctly  exserted. 

Fig.  167.   (Mus.  Cuming,) 
The  shell  here  figured,  Neritina  thermalis,  Boube,  must 
1)6  regarded  as  a  variety  of  N.ftiwiatilis. 

Species  168.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Oualanensis.  Ner.  testd  rotundato-ovatd, 
spird  parvd,  obscurd,  anfractihis  rolundatis,  leevibm, 
politis,  area  columellari  sttbangnstd,  callosd;  lutes- 
cente-albd, griseo  varie  Uueatd  aiit  reticulato-fasciatd. 

The  Odalay  Neritina.  Shell  rotundately  ovate,  spire 
small,  obscure,  whorls  rounded,  smooth,  polished, 
columellar  area  rather  narrow,  callous ;  yellowish- 
white,  variously  lineated  or  rcticulately  banded  with 

Recldz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Neritina  Mertoniana,  var.,  Sowerby. 

Hab.  Oualay,  Sandwich  Islands. 

Distinguished  chiefly  from  N.  Mertnniaua,  which  in- 
habits the  Philippine  Islands,  by  its  thinner  substance 
and  rounded  pea-like  form. 

March,  1856. 





So-.vw'r-;  ael.ellrth 

VanciSit  Brociks  3mj  . 


Plate  XXXVll. 

Species  161).   {Vig.  a,  l>,  Mus.  Cdimiiig.) 

Neritina  Numidica.  Ner.  lestd  omtd,  sjiird parvd,  iJu- 
ftucfd,  mifractibtts  comexis,  tumidimculh,  lavibiis, 
nred  columellari  subnmpid,  excavato-planata ;  nigra. 

The  Numidian  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spire  small,  dis- 
tinct, whorls  convex,  slightly  tumid,  smootli,  colu- 
mellar  area  rather  large,  excavately  flattened  ;  black. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  .3tfl. 
f.  179. 

llah.  Numidia. 

A  black  ovate  form  of  N .  jlmnatUh. 

Species  170.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  arctilineata.  Ner.  testa  subobUqiie  ovatd, 
spird  parvd,  mifractibus  convexis,  lavibus,  area  colu- 
mellari siibangiistd ;  lutencente,  Vmeis  nigris  Jlexuosis 
dense  pictd. 

Tfie  close-lined  Neritina.  Shell  rather  obliquely 
ovate,  spire  small,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  columellnr 
area  rather  narrow ;  yeUowish,  densely  painted  with 
flexuous  black  lines. 

Recluz,  Sowerby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  ]>.  .5.31. 

Hub.  ■ — -? 

An  obliquely  ovate  species,  of  rather  light  substance, 
painted  with  close-set  flexuous  lines  upon  a  yellowish 

Species  171.  (Mus.  Chimmo.) 
Neritina  Chimmoi.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird  quasi  ex- 
sertfi,  erosfi,  anfractihus  superne  concavo-impressis, 
spirali/cr  sulcatis,  sulcis  superficiariis,  -vtbjlexuosis, 
irregularibus,  juxta  suturam  confertioribus,  ared  co- 
lumellari subangustd,  declivi,  leevi ;  carbonario-atrd, 
ared  columellari  tistnlato-sanguineo  intense  linctd. 
CiiiMMo's  Neritina.  Shell  ovate,  spii-e  as  though  ex- 
serted,  altogether  eroded,  whorls  concavely  impressetl 
round  the  upper  part,  spirally  grooved,  grooves  su- 
perficial, rather  flexuous,  irregular,  closer  next  the 
suture,    columellar    area    rather    narrow,    slanting, 

smootli;   cdal- 
with  scorched 
irab. ? 

lack,  columellar  art 

deeply  staine 

This  fine  species,  in  which  the  columellar  area  is  cha- 
racterized by  a  peculiar  burnt  blood-stain,  was  collected 
liy  Lieutenant  Chimmo,  we  believe,  in  Australia  or  New 
Zealand.  Owing  to  the  absence  of  the  collector  abroad  J 
.•iin  unable  to  verify  the  locality. 

Species  173.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neritina  Panayana.  Ner.  testd  oblique  ovatd,  tenui, 
tiniudiusculd,  spird  atteniiatd,  compressd,  ared  colu- 
mellari subampld,  excavato-planata ;  lutescente,  Uriels 
iiigris  tenuibm  jlexuosm  dense  pictd. 

The  Panay  Neritina.  ■  Shell  obliquely  ovate,  thin, 
rather  swollen,  spire  attenuated,  compressed,  colu- 
mellar area  rather  large,  excavately  flattened ;  yel- 
lowish, densely  painted  with  fine  fiexuous  black  lines. 

Sowekby,  Thesaurus  Conch,  part  10.  p.  517.  pi-  115. 
f.  191. 

Ilab.  River  Dingle,  Island  of  Panay  (on  small  stones)  ; 

A  delicate  shell,  of  light   semitransparent   substance, 
compressly  attenuated  towards  the  spire. 

Species  173.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neritina   inuuinata.      Ner.    testd   subquadrato-ovatu, 
spird  parvd,  anfractihus  convexis,  tumidiusculis,  ared 
columellari  subexcavaid ;  olivaced,  Uneis  tenuibus  ni- 
gris  marmoratd  et  reticulatd. 
Th£  dyed  Neritina.     Shell  somewhat  squarely  ovate, 
spire  small,  whorls  convex,  rather  swollen,  columellar 
area  slightly  excavated ;  olive,   mottled   and  reticu- 
lated with  tine  black  lines. 
JIorelet,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hub. ? 

C)f  a  rather  square  ovate  form,  closely  mottled  and  re- 
ticulated with  black  lines  upon  an  olive  ground. 


Plate.  Spfcics. 

aciculata,  March XXIV.  108 

aculeata,  Gmelin XVIII.  84 

Adansoniana,  i?«cfej XXXIl.  14.5 

adumbrata,  Reece XII.  57 

Africana,  Reeve XXX.  138 

amphibia,  Lesson II.  7 

Anatensis,  Reclii: XXXVI.  166 

Anatolica,  Recluz XXXIII.  148 

angulosa,  Recluz XL  51 

apiata,  Recluz XXII.  98 

aquatiUs,  Reere XV.  73 

arctilineata,  Recluz XXXVII.  170 

aspersa,  Recluz XXVI.  114 

asperulata,  Recluz X.  45 

aterrima,  Koch   XVI.  78 

auriculata,  Laniarck-    XVII.  83 

avellaiia,  Recluz    XIV.  64 

Bacoui,  iffwe XXVIH.  127 

Beckii,  i?(?cZ«.' in.  11 

bella,  Busch    XX.  90 

Bengalensis  {Nerita),  Cliemn.  .  .  XL  50 

bicanaliculata,  Recluz   XVII.  79 

bicolor,  Recluz    I.  5 

Bouvguignarti,  Recluz XXXllI.  149 

Brasiliana,  Recluz    XXL  92 

brevispina,  Lamarck VI.  28 

Bruguieri,  Recluz X.  46 

calata,  Recluz XIV.  67 

Caffra,  Grai/ VIII.  37 

Californica,  Rme IV.  20 

canalis,  Sowerby   I.  1 

c&nn&ta,  Koch XXXI.  140 

cariosa,  Gray XIII.  60 

cassiculum,  Sowerby XXVI.  118 

Chimmoi,  Aw«   XXXVII.  171 

chlorostoma,  Broderip XXII.  94 

Christovaleusis,  Reeve XXXIII.  15U 

cii'cumvoluta,  Recluz VIII.  35 

communis,  Quoy XIX.  88 

cornea  (Nerita),  Linn ...  II.  7 

cornuta.  Reeve XIII.  63 

corona  (Nerita),  Linn ,  .  VI.  27 

Crepidularia,  ia/«a/rX' VIII.  38 

Cumiugiana,  Recluz    IX.  41 

euprina,  Recluz XXII.  97 

Cuvieriana,  Recluz XVIII.  87 

DaUalica,  Partdi XXVIII.  125 

Danubialis,  Zieffler XXVII.  122 

depressn,  Benson XVIII.  86 

Desmoulinsii,  Recluz XXX.  136 

diadema,  Recluz   V.  22 

dilatata,  Broderip  XVII.  81 

dolium.  7?fcfa.-    III.  15 

Douovani,  Recluz   VI.  25 

Dringii,  Recluz XXIX.  133 

dubia,  Ckemmlz    XX.  90 

Elleppenensis,  Eecluz XXIX.  129 

elouffalula,  Morelet XXXVI,  165 

faba,  Sowerby   XIV.  65 

fasciata,  Lamarck XX.  90 

Floridana,  Shuttleworth XVIII.  85 

fliiviatilis,  LinucBus XXVIII.  125 

Fraseri,  Reeve XX^  .  113 

Mgetnnn,  Reeve XXIII.  103 

gagates,  Lamarck X.  47 

glabrata,  Sowerby   XXX.  134 

granosa,  Sowerby .  IV.  18 

Guadianensis,  Morelet XXVII.  120 

Guayaquilensis,  D'Orbiijny       .  .  XXIII.  104 

Gninerii,  Recluz XXVIII.  128 

inquinata,  Morelet    XXXVII.  173 

insculpta,  Reeve XV.  70 

intermedia,  Broderip III.  14 

inteiTupta,  Recluz XLV.  66 

Jordani,  Sowerby XXIX.  129 

iosii,  Recluz XXVI.  117 

Knorri,  Recluz II.  6 

labiosa,  Sotcerby I.  3 

latissima,  Broderip   III.  13 

l-A^ax&i,  Reeve XXIV.  105 

Leachii,  Eecluz   XXI,  92 

lentiginosa.  Reeve XXV.  110 

lineolata,  Lamarck XII.  54 

Listeri,  P/('#r XV.  71 

longispina,  Recluz   V.  21 

luctuoza,  Recluz XXXV.  162 

lugubris,  PhUippi XXXV.  160 

Iwiesia,  Morelet   XXX.  137 

Macgillivrayi,  Reeve IV.  16 

Macri,  Recluz XXXI.  139 

Marchionata,  Reeve HL  12 

melanostoma,  Troschel  ......       VIII.  38 

raeleagris,  Lamarck XXV.  113 

meridionalis,  PhUippi   •      XXXVI.  165 


Mortoniana,  Recht: 

Michaudi,  Rcduz 

Michouii,  Bourguignarli 

Mittrema,  Recluz  













XXXV 11. 






















.      XX. 
































sanguinea,  Sowerhy     .... 

..          X. 

...      VIII. 


serratilineata,  Ziegler  .  .  .. 

serralata,  Recluz 

siderea,  Gould 

Siquijorensis,  Recluz 

..          XXVII. 

.  . .      XII. 

.    .      XXXV. 
. .          XXVII. 

....      IX. 


MoreJeti,  Eecluz 



....      IX. 


Navigatoria,  Reeve 

nebulata,  Recluz 

Nilotica,  Reeve 

Novo-Caledonica,  Reew 

Numidioa,  Redu: 

solida,  Eecluz    

....    I. 

....      XVI. 


Solomonensis,  Reeve 

Souleyetana,  Recluz  .... 

So\erbii,  Recluz 

spinifera,  Recluz    

spinosa,  Sowerby 

spiralis.  Reeve 

....      XXIV. 
....      XXVI. 
....      XX. 
....      XI. 
....      XI. 
....      XXllI. 



obtusa,  Bemon 


Oualauensis,  Recluz 


squamosa,  Recluz 

....      XII. 


Oweniana,  Gray 


striolata,  Recluz 

..          XXlll. 


papulosa,  Jay 

subauriculata,  Recluz     ... 
subgranosa,  Recluz    

...      XVII. 



PeiTOtettiana,  Recluz     

Petitii,  Recluz 

PldUpphmmni,  Sowerby    

.      VI. 




Succinea,  Recluz   

sulcata,  Nyst  

...      XXXV. 

....      XVIII. 



piperina  [Nerila),  Chemnitz  . .  . 

Taliitensis,  Lesson 

tenebricosa,  C.  B.  Adams. 

thermalis,  Baubc 

Tourauensis,  Souleyet    .  .  . 

transversalis,  Ziegler 

trifasciata  Menke       .  . . 

...      XIII. 
....      XXIX. 

...      VIII. 
....      XXXII. 

.    .      XXXII. 



Powisiana,  Recluz 

Prevostiana,  Sowerhy 

pulclira,  Sowerby 

puUigera  (Nerita),  Liuna;iis      . 

punctulata,  Lamarck   

pupa,  Limieeiis 

Rangiana,  Recluz 

rarispina,  Recluz 


triserialis,  Sowerby 

tristis,  L)' Orh'ujny 

Tritonensis,  Le  Guillou. .  . 

turbida,  Morelet 

turrita  {Nerila),  Cherau.   . 

Tiu-toni,  Sowerhy 

vespertiiia,  Nuttall . .  ...  . 

....      XXII. 
....      XXXII. 
..    .      XIV. 
....      XXIX. 
....      VII. 
...      XVI. 
....      XIII. 
....      XXVII. 





Recluziana,  Le  Guillou 

reticulata,  Quoy   

reticulata,  Sowerhy    

rostrata.  Reeve  


virginea,  Lamarck 

viridis,  ii«« 

....      XXI. 
....      XXXIV. 


rugata,  Recluz 

Sandalina,  Recluz 

Sandwichensis,  Deshaye-s 

zebrina,  Recluz 

zebroides.  Lesson 

zigzag,  Lamarck    

....      XX.XVI. 
.  .          XX. 




N    A    T    I    C    A 

It  sees  the  oceau  to  its  bosom  clasp 

The  rocks  aad  sea-sand  with  the  kiss  of  peace ; 
It  sees  the  wild  winds  lift  it  in  their  grasp, 

And  hold  it  up,  and  shake  it  like  a  tleecc. 
The  startled  waves  leap  over  it ;  the  storm 

Smites  it  with  all  the  scourges  of  the  rain, 
And  steadily  against  its  solid  form 

Press  the  great  shouUlcrs  of  the  hurriiane." — Lunijfeliow. 

]^(jUi(^  PL  J. 




SowEfiiy  dfl  *ith 

Vmrrat    Broofe   % 


Plate  I. 

Genus  NATICA,  Adcmson. 

Tenia  globosa  vd  neritoidea,  interdiim  aperti  bijlntii,  ^pird 
irevi,  scspisslme  rix  exsertu,  aiifractibiis  pa/tcia,  iimhi- 
licum  amplum  formantUms,  mine  caUosUute  dciiad  hn- 
pleto,  nunc  callodtate  colmnnari  qjiraliter  iidrantc, 
apertiird  plerumqiie  plus  miwu^  lunari.     Operculum 
interdum,  testaceim,  sapissinie  corneum,  spirale. 
Shell  globose  or  neritoid,  sometimes  openly  inflated,  spive 
short,  very  often  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  few,  form- 
ing a  large  umbilicus,  which  is  sometimes  filled  with 
a  dense  callosity,  sometimes  with  a  columnar  callosity 
entering   spirally,  aperture   generally  more  or  less 
lunar.      Operculum  sometimes  testaceous,  generally 
horny,  spiral. 
The  comparatively  recent  discovery  that  the  soft  parts 
of  Natica  are  similar  to  tliose  of  Si(jaretm,  requii-ed  that 
these  genera,  which  in  Lamarck's  time  wore  arranged  at 
some  distance  from  each  other  in  the  system,  should  be 
brought  into  more  immediate  relationship.     By  malacolo- 
gists,  indifferent  to  the  characters  of  the  shell,  the  Natica 
have  been  removed  to  the  Siffaivli ;  but  conchologists,  un- 
willing to  lose  sight  of  their  obvious  and  long-acknow- 
ledged affinity  in  this  respect  with  the  Nerites,  have  caused 
the  Sigareii  to  be  removed  to  the  Neritacea.     It  was  by 
the  French  navigators,  MM.  Quoy  and  Gaimard,  during 
the  voyage  of  the  '  Astrolabe,'  that  the  animal  portion  of 
Natica  was  first  fully  observed,  though  figm-ed  a  century 
before  by  Adanson.     Dift'ering  essentially  from  that  of 
Nerita,  it  proved  to  be  of  very  much  larger  dimensions 
in  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  shell,  distinguished  by  a 
broad  mantle-like  expansion  of  the  foot,  and  characterized 
by  a  more  or  less  thickened  circular  ridge,  holding  the 
shell,  and  sometimes  almost  concealing  it  from  view.    The 
Natica  has,  moreover,   a  retractile  proboscis,  which  the 
Nerite  has  not,  and  it  is  of  more  predaeeous  habits.     The 
lobe  which  carries  the  operculum  is  also  largely  developed 
and  reflected  over  the  shell.     The  animal  of  Sigaretius  is 
of  similar  structure ;  and  looking  alone  to  its  distinctive 
features  of  organization,  there  is  little  family  relationship 
between  it  and  the  typical  soft  parts  of  Neritacea. 

The  shells  of  Natica  are  not  particularly  variable  in 
form.  They  are  nearly  all  of  the  same  peculiar  semiglo- 
bose,  lunar-apertured  plan  of  convolution,  which  is  cha- 
racteristic of  the  Nerites,  mostly  largely  umbilicated,  but 
having  the   umbilicus  sometimes   filled  up    with   callous 

enamel,  and  sometimes  partially  filled  with  a  peeidiar 
spiral  columnar  callosity.  Little,  however,  as  this  varia- 
tion is,  the  Natica  have  been  divided  into  seven  genera  : — 
Natica  proper  {N.  canrena),  Liouitin,  Lamarck  (iV.  moidli- 
fera),  Neverita,  Kisso  {N.  alhiimeii),  Ampullina,  Lamarck 
{N.Jliwtuata),  Ruma,  Chemnitz  {N.  Maura),  Mamma,  Klein 
(iV.  mamiiiiUa),  and  Naticiiia,  Gray  (iV.  papilla).  The 
chief  conchological  distinction  between  the  genera  Nerita 
and  Natica  is,  that  whilst  the  Nerites  are  mostly  strongly 
grooved,  and  otherwise  sculptured,  and  richly  painted,  the 
Natica  are  smooth  and  polished,  as  is  almost  invariably 
the  ease  with  shells  more  or  less  enveloped  by  the  soft 
parts  of  the  animal,  and  painted,  generally  with  light  co- 

The  Nulira'  live  mostly  in  sandy  and  muddy  beaches, 
at  about  low-water  mark,  and  are  strictly  caruivorous. 
Speaking  of  a  large  species,  N.  /leros,  inhabiting  the 
shores  of  Massachusetts,  Dr.  Gould  says,  in  his  history  of 
the  Invcrtebrata  of  that  State; — "This,  in  common  with 
other  species  of  Natica,  is  very  voracious,  and  plays  a 
conspicuous  part  in  devouring  the  dead  fish  and  other 
animals  which  are  thrown  up  by  the  tide.  Many  of  the 
shells  thrown  upon  the  shore  are  found  to  be  perforated 
with  a  small  round  hole :  this  is  done  principally  by  the 
difi'erent  species  of  Natica.  They  have  the  power  of  per- 
forating shells,  it  is  generally  supposed,  by  discharging  an 
acid  which  decomposes  the  shell,  and  through  the  aper- 
ture they  extract  the  juices,  and  destroy  the  lives  of  the 
otherwise  secure  inhabitants.  Their  foot  is  very  large,  so 
as  to  completely  envelope  the  objects  on  which  they  prey. 
In  moving,  they  burrow  in  the  sand,  so  as  to  be  almost 
entirely  concealed  by  it,  and  their  place  is  generally  indi- 
cated by  a  small  heap  of  sand.  The  singular  nidus  in 
which  the  animal  of  Natica  deposits  its  eggs  has  been  an 
object  of  much  curiosity  and  speculation.  It  is  a  mass  of 
sand  glued  together  into  the  shape  of  a  broad  bowl,  open 
at  the  bottom,  and  broken  at  one  side.  Its  thickness  is 
about  that  of  an  orange-peel,  easily  bent  without  breaking 
when  damp,  and  when  held  up  to  the  light  will  be  found 
to  be  filled  with  little  cells,  arranged  in  quincunx  order. 
Each  of  these  cells  contains  a  gelatinous  egg,  having  a 
yellow  nucleus,  which  is  the  embryo  shell." 

Species  1.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natic.\  Ca.aipeachiensis..     N,iI.  Icsld  umliiticatd,  de 

April,  185 

NATICA.— Plate  I. 

presso-globosd,  crasm,  suhtus  cancavd,  spird  parvd, 
coHvexo-depressd,  anfractihm  ohliqiie  striatic,  superne 
coiicavo-declwibus,  deiiide  rotundafis,  aperturd  pyri- 
formi-ovatd,  Iwrizontali,  coltmidld  teiiuicidd,  ciillo- 
sitate  ampld  laid  spirali  mnblUciim  fere  impletitp ; 
pallide  grised,  callositate  et  aperturce  fauce  caataneo- 

The  Campeachy  Natica.  Shell  umbilicated,  depressly 
globose,  thick,  concave  beneath,  spire  small,  coii- 
vexly  depressed,  whorls  obliquely  striated,  concavely 
slanting  at  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  aperture 
pyi-iformly  ovate,  horizontal,  columella  rather  thiu, 
with  a  large  broad  spiral  callosity  nearly  filling  the 
umbilicus;  light  grey,  callosity  and  interior  of  the 
aperture  chestnut-fawn. 

Eecluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hall.  Campeachy  Bay,  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

This  fine  species  is  distinguished  from  its  congeners  of 
the  same  gigantic  dimensions,  by  its  more  depressly  glo- 
bose fonn  and  flattened  spire. 

Species  3.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  heros.  Nat.  testa profimde  umbilicatd,  globom- 
tiirbinatd,  temdcidd,  injlatd,  spird  subexsertd,  a/ifrac- 
J'ractibus  rotimdatis,  liBvit/atis,  superne  subdepressis, 
juxta  suturam  obsolete  plicato-margbudk,  aperturd 
mboblongd;  sordide  c'mered,  epidermide  temii  fidvidd 
indidd,  intiis  fmcescente. 

The  hero  Natica.  Shell  deeply  umbilicated,  globosely 
turbinated,  rather  thin,  inflated,  spire  rather  ex- 
serted,  whorls  rounded,  smooth,  slightly  depressed 
at  the  upper  part,  obsoletely  plicately  margined  nest 

the  suture,  aperture  suboblong;  dirty  ash,  covered 
with  a  thin  fulvous  epidermis,  interior  brownish. 

Say,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  vol.  ii.  p.  248. 

Hab.  Bay  of  Massachusetts,  United  States  (on  sandy  and 
muddy  beaches) ;  Gould. 

This  fine  species,  distinguished  by  a  rather  light,  glo- 
bose form,  is  very  closely  allied  to  iV.  diipUcata,  so  near, 
indeed,  that  we  have  great  doubt  of  its  being  actually 

Species  3.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Recluziana.  Nat.  testd  obtecte  mnbUicatd,  co- 
idco-tiirbinatd,  cramssimd,  snbtns  excavato-depressd, 
xpird  siihi'xsertd,  obtusd,  anfractibns  Icsvibus,  .vipeme 
dc'divihus,  Infra  convexis,  aperturd  oblique  contractd, 
colmnelld  callositate  densissime  super  umMlicum  crasse 
refle.vd ;  sordidi  cinered,  juxta  stduram  obscure  fmco- 
fasciutd,  c(dlositate  carueo-fnscescade. 

Recluz's  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus,  co- 
nicaUy  turbinated,  very  thick,  excavately  depressed 
beneath,  spire  rather  exserted,  obtuse,  whorls  smooth, 
slanting  at  the  upper  part,  convex  below,  aperture 
obliquely  contracted,  columeOa  with  a  very  dense 
callosity  thickly  reflected  back  over  the  umbilicus; 
dirty  ash,  obscurely  brown-banded  next  the  sutm'e, 
callosity  flesh-brown. 

Deshayes,  Mag.  de  Zool.  1841.  Moll.  pi.  37. 

Hab.  California;  Plinds. 

This  fine  species  is  remarkably  characterized  by    its 

heavy  growth  and  monstrous  callosity.     The  shell  figured 

by  Dr.  Gould  at  No.  1G4  of  his  work  on  the  Invertebrata 

of  Massachusetts  as  a  variety  of  iV.  dupUcata  appears  to 

be  an  immatm-e  N.  Reclu:iaua. 






Species  -1-.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

NiTICA     DUPLICATA.      Nat.    tl'dii    SIlMll'Cli    lUilbUicilId, 

siihoUongo-globosd,  spird  exsertd,  anfractibus  IcBvibus, 
rotimdalis,  s/ipenie  subdi'press'iK,  ad  mtnrnni  obsolete 
liiartjbiatis,  aperturd  snboblongd,  lahro  coluhidlari  mib- 
callom  ;  sordide  cinered,  epidermide  tfiini  fidrhh!  in- 
The  duplicate  Natica.     Shell  with  a  slightly  covered 
umbilicus,  suboblong-globose,  spire  exserted,  whorls 
smooth,  rounded,  a  little  depi-essed  at   the   ujiper 
part,  obsoletely  margined   at   the   suture,   aperture 
rather  oblong,  columellar  lip  rather  callous;   dirty- 
ash,  covered  with  a  thin  fulvous  epidimnis. 
Say,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphin,  vol.  ii.  p.  iM. 
Hob.  Bay  of  Massachusetts,  United  States ;  Newfoundland. 
This  species  scarcely  differs  from  N.  Iicros,  inhabiting 
the  same  locality,  except  in  being  of  a  more  oblong  form, 
which  is  of  doubtful  importance.     The  shell  iigured  by 
Dr.  Gould  for  this  species,  in  his  work  on  the  Invertebrata 
of  JIassachu.setts,  at  No.  164,  appears  to  be  N.  R('dii:iana. 

Species  5.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  glauca.  Nat.  testa  snpcrjicialifcr  iiinhilicald,  Jc- 
pri'.'iso-orbicidari, .11114118  excavatd,  tciui'iciild,  spird  brc- 
rmiind, plano-concavd,  anfractiius  dense  arcnuto-slr'ia- 
tk,  dedm-convexis,  ad  peripheriam.  obsolete  rot  audit  to- 
car'matis,  aperturd  depresso-obllqud,  labia  saperiie  le- 
riter  siniiato,  columeUd  callositate  insigni  spirali,  e.v- 
tits  ptanatd ;  plus  minus  glaued,  intus  nitente-castancd, 
cnllositate  intense  custancd. 

The  grey  Natica.  Shell  superficially  umbilicated,  dc- 
pressly  orbicular,  excavated  beneath,  rather  thin, 
spire  very  short,  flatly  concave,  whorls  densely  ar- 
cuately  striated,  slantingly  convex,  obsoletely  rotun- 
dately  keeled  at  the  periphery,  aperture  deprcssly 
oblique,  lip  slightly  sinuated  at  the  upper  part,  co- 
lumella with  a  peculiar  spiral  callosity,  outwardly 
flattened ;  more  or  less  grey,  interior  shining  chest- 
nut, callosity  dark  chestnut. 

Humboldt,  Deshaj^es,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  ('>.)1. 
Natica patnla,  Sowerby  in  Zool.  Journ.  vol.  i.  p.  GO, 
pi.  5. 

Hah.  West  Columbia  (in  sandy  mud,  deep  water) ;  Cuming. 
A  light,  concavely  depressed  species,  with  an  extremely 

characteristic,  flatly-abraded,  spiral  callosity.    Humboldt's 

name  for  this  species  not  having  been  fairly  published  by 

the  illustrious  traveller,  would  seem  to  give  Mr.  Sowerby's 
some  authority,  but  that  there  is  a  fossil  Natica  patnla.. 

Species  G.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Lamakckiana.    Nat.  testa  aperte  umbllicaid,  de- 
presso-globosd,  spird  convexd,  vix  elevatd,  anfractibus 
lavigatis,  minute  dny/ssfitljii  s/rialis,  aperturd  oblongu- 
ovatd,  subawpld,  cului.ii'lUl  tfimiculd,  callositate  lata, 
sulcata,  rccurrd,  uuibiUco  ainplili'r  angulato-o'caxvito  ; 
spadiceo-grised,  obscure  fa  sci  aid,  callositate  castaned. 
Lamakok's  Natica.    Shell  openly  umbilicated,  depressly 
globose,  spire  convex,  scarcely  raised,  whorls  smooth, 
minutely  decussately  striated,  aperture  oblong-ovate, 
rather  large,  columella  rather  thin,  with  a  broad, 
grooved,  recurved  callosity,  umbilicus  largely  angu- 
larly excavated  ;  fawn-grey,  obscurely  banded,  callo- 
sity chestnut. 
Recluz,  MS.,  ]\Ius.  Cuming. 

Ilab.  ? 

Eesembling  N.  problematica  in  form  and  colour,  but  of 
larger  size,  and  differing  slightly  at  the  suture  and  umbi- 
lical excavation. 

Species  7.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Ciiejinitzii.  Nut.  testa  anguste  subobtecti  um- 
bilicatu,  globosd,  spird  conve.tu,parum  elevatd,  anfrac- 
tibus oblique  .^triatis,  superne  depresso-concavis,  deinde 
rotundulis,  aperturd  pyrifurmi-oratd,  colunielUl  tenui- 
culd,  callositate  latissinid,  recurcd,  .sulcata  ;  pluuibeo- 
grised,  subtus  albidd,  callositate  et  apertures  fa  uce  cas- 

Chemnitz's  Natica.  Shell  with  a  narrow  partially  co- 
vered umbilicus,  globose,  spire  convex,  but  little 
raised,  whorls  obliquely  sti'iated,  depressly  concave 
round  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  aperture  pyri- 
formly  ovate,  columella  rather  thin,  with  a  very 
Ijroad,  recurved,  grooved  callosity ;  lead-grey,  whitish 
beneath,  callosity  and  interior  of  the  aperture  chest- 


Keclvz,  J\IS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Ilab. ? 

This  species  presents  exactly  the  same  typical  charac- 
teristics as  the  preceding,  more  globose  in  form,  with  the 
umbilicus  only  slightly  angularly  excavated,  and  the  cal- 
losity broader  and  entirely  pressed  back. 








Tincent  'Irook  Imp 


Plate  III. 

Species  8.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  glaucina.  Nat.  testa,  depresw-globosd,  siiHus  e.v- 
cuvatd,  (uiipliter  muhUicatS.,  callou'dute  crami,  spirali, 
spird  obtiisd,  anfmctibiis  rotmidatia,  pnrtim  leeviliiis, 
nitentihus,  partim  oblique  striatis,  apcrtiird  parviun- 
c/tld,  semilunar i ;  carneo-cinered,  spadieed  infra  su- 
turam,  callo  et  apertura  fauce  purpurascente  iiiictis. 

The  glaucine  Natica.  Shell  depressly  globose,  exca- 
vated beneath,  largely  umbilicated,  with  a  thick, 
spiral  callosity,  spire  obtuse,  whorls  rounded,  partly 
smooth  and  shiniug,  partly  obliquely  striated,  aper- 
ture rather  small,  semilunar;  flesh-tiuged  ash,  bufl' 
beneath  the  suture,  callosity  and  interior  of  the  aper- 
ture tinged  with  purple. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  62.5. 
Nerita  glancina,  Linnaeus. 

Hab.  Mediterranean. 

This  shell,  inhabiting  the  Mediterranean,  is,  M.  Des- 

haycs  thinks,  the  recent  analogue  of  the  fossil  N.  olhi  of 

M.  Marcel  de  Serres. 

Species  9.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Xatica  spadicea.  Nat.  testd  profundi  urMUmld,  (jlo- 
bosd,  spird  brevi,  aufractibus  rotundatis,  juxta.  sutu- 
ram  concavo-depressis  et  pUcato-striatis,  apertiird  lu- 
nari-ovatd,  ampld,  suhiffusd,  cohmieUd  callositate  spi- 
rali mediocri ;  albidd,  fasciis  casta/ico-fuscis  diluiis 
cingulatd,  epidermide  tenui  indutd. 

The  fawn  Natica.  Shell  deeply  umbilicated,  globose, 
spire  short,  whorls  rounded,  concavely  depressed  and 
plicately  striated  next  the  suture,  aperture  lunar-ovate, 
large,  somewhat  eft'used,  columella  with  a  moderate 
spiral  callosity ;  whitish,  encircled  with  chestnut-fawn 
dilated  bands,  covered  with  a  thin  epidermis. 

Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed. 

Hab.  Singapore  (iu  sandy  mud  at  a  depth  of  six  fathoms) ; 
A  fine,  elegantly  spiral  species,  encircled  with  broad, 

undefined,  diluted  chestnut-fawn  bands. 

Species  10.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  fllx'TUAta.  Nal.  testd  iviperforatd,  subrjlobosd, 
spird  brevissimd,  apice  acutd,  aufractibus  teiiuissinti 
striatis,  ultimo  peramjdo,  oblique  effuso,  aperturd  am- 
pld, patidd,  cohimclld  dense  encaustd;  palUde  spa- 
diced,  striffis  albidis  fluctuatis  nolatd,  columella  ebur- 
iied,  intense  castaneo  marginatd. 

The  waved  Natica.  Shell  imperforated,  subgiobose, 
spire  very  short,  sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  very  finely 
striated,  the  last  very  large,  obliquely  effused,  aper- 
ture large,  open,  columella  densely  enamelled ;  light 
fawn,  marked  with  waved  white  streaks,  columella 
ivory-white,  edged  with  deep  chestnut. 

SowERBY,  Tankerville  Catalogue,  Appendix,  p.  12. 

Hab.  Island  of  Mindoro,  Philippines  ;  Cuming. 

This  fine  Natica  is  distinguished  from  all  other  species 

of  the   genus  by  its  obliquely  effused  form,  waved  and 

chestnut-stained  colouring,  and  absence  of  umbilicus. 

Species  11.  (ilus.  Cuming.) 
Xatica  Panamaensis.    Nat.  testd  subanguste  umbilicatd, 
ovato-globosd,  subventricosd,  subponderosd,  spird  brevi, 
apice  acutd,  anfructibus  superne  conve.vis,  medio  declivi- 
depressis,  ad  basin  snbexpansis,  minntissime  decttssatim 
striatis,  apertiird  oblongo-semilimari,  columella  callosd; 
eburued,  epidermide  temdssimd  indutd. 
The  Panama  Natica.     Shell  rather  narrowly  umbili- 
cated,   ovately-globose,    slightly   ventricose,    rather 
heavy,  spire  short,  sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  convex 
at  the  upper  part,  slantingly  depressed  in  the  middle, 
rather  expanded  round  the  base,  very  minutely  de- 
cussately striated,  aperture  oblong-semilunar,   colu- 
mella callous  ;  ivory-white,  covered  with  a  very  thin 
Pecluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  181.3,  p.  208. 
llab.  Bay  of  Panama  (in  fine  sand  at  ten  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
A  rounded  species,  of  very  pure  white  substance,  pecu- 
liarly slantingly  depressed  round  the  middle,  and  densely 
encircled  with  very  minute  stria;. 

April,  1855, 










Species  13.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  prrspicua.  Nat.  testa  compreme  perspective 
nmliilicata,  ohlongo-oriitii,  spird  fnihtiirhbiatd,  olitnsd, 
anfractibus  snperiie  di-c/iri-roi/rr.r/s,  dtiiiife  rotiiinhilis, 
/■aviffatis,  vel  minutissiiue  deciixsulim  slriulis,  nJtiiiiu 
conspicue  descendeiite,  aperturd  limari,  cohuiieUd  cal- 
losd,  prtccipiie  ad  partem  superiorem;  rosaceo-albd, 
nmbilico  castaneo. 

The  perspicuous  Natica.  Shell  compressly  perspec- 
tively  umbilicated,  oblong-ovate,  spire  slightly  turbi- 
nated, obtuse,  whorls  slantingly  convex,  then  rounded, 
smooth,  or  minutely  decussately  striated,  last  whorl 
conspicuously  descending,  aperture  lunar,  columella 
callous,  especially  at  the  upjier  part ;  pink-white, 
umbilicus  chestnut. 

Recluz,  Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  370.  pi.  14.  f.  1,  3. 

Hab.    Mouth  of  the   Oregon   Eiver,  Upper   California; 
Lieut.  Baskerville. 
The  chief  characteristic  of  this  species  consists  in  its 

open,  compressly  perspective  purple-chestnut  umbilicus, 

arising  from  the  last  whorl  being  loosely  convoluted,  and 

more  than  usually  descending  below  the  other. 

Species  1.3.   (^lus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Cumingiana.  Nat.  testa  prof/mdissime perspec- 
tive umbilicatd,  ovato-veiitricosd,  solidiuscidd,  spird 
obttmo-conoided,  apice  acuta,  anfractibus  lavibus,  ni- 
teutibus,  vel  miuutissime  striatis,  ad  sjttiiras  callosis, 
deinde  declivi-convexis,  aperturd  semitutiari,  columelld 
leviter  calloso-rejlexd ;  anrantid  vel  aiirantio-spadiced, 
fasciis  duabus  albis  dilntis  spiratibiis  jiixta  svtnras. 

Cuming's  Natica.  Shell  very  deeply  perspectively  umbi- 
licated, ovately  ventricose,  rathei;  solid,  spire  obtusely 
conoid,  sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  smooth,  shining, 
or  very  minutely  striated,  callous  at  the  sutures, 
then  slantingly  convex,  aperture  semilunar,  columella 
slightly  callously  reflected ;  orange,  or  orange-fawn, 
with  two  spiral  infused  white  bauds  next  the  suture. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1813,  p.  310. 
Eadera,  Natica  paUiidii,  Recluz. 

Hab.  Island  of  Cuyo,  Philippines  (in   sandy  mud,  deep 
water) ;  Cuming. 
This  fine  species  is  chiefly  characterized  by  its  infused 

white  double  sutural  band,  and  deep  perspective  umbili- 
cus, on  the  columellar  side  of  which  there  is  only  a  mode- 
rate callosity. 

Species  14.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  canrena.     Nat.  testa  sitbangiiste  profunde  miibi- 
licatd,  siibglobosd,  ventricosd,  spird  brevi,  subprominula, 
aiifracfib/is  lavibus,  spiraliler  rotimdatli,  ultimo  antice 
suhdescciidente,  aperturd  semilmiari,  colimdld  callosi- 
tate  mediocri;  rufesceiite-cnsfaneu,  :oiiis  pallidis  cin- 
gulatd,  zonis  strigis  nigricaute-fHScis  uiidntis  longitu- 
dinaliter  pictis,  basi  alba. 
The    flamed   Natica.     Shell  rather  narrowly  deeply 
umbilicated,    subglobose,    ventricose,    spire    short, 
rather  prominent,  whorls  smooth,  spirally  rounded, 
the  last  somewhat  descending  in  front,  aperture  semi- 
lunar,  columella  with  moderate  callosity;    reddish- 
chestnut,  encircled  with   pale   zones   longitudinally 
painted    with   zigzag    blackish-brown   streaks,  base 
LiNN.Eus,  Mus.  Ulr.  p.  674. 
Hab.  West  Indies. 

The  zigzag-marked  bands  of  this  well-known  species 
are  sometimes  neatly  articulated.  The  operculum  is  cu- 
rious in  being  of  a  solid  testaceous  substance  circularly 

Species  15.  (JIus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  effusa.     Nat.  iestd  profundi  nvMlicatd,  ovato- 
ventricosi,   spird  brevissimd,   mamiUari,   anfractibus 
convexis,  nitentibus,  miuutissime  decussatim  striatis, 
ad  siitiiras  opaco-callosis,  nltimo  subeffuso,  aperturd 
sewiluiiari,  columelld  callositate  mediocri;   subpellu- 
The  EFFUSED  Natica.    Shell  deeply  umbilicated,  ovately 
ventricose,  spire  very  short,  mamillary,  whorls  con- 
vex,  shining,   very    minutely   decussately    striated, 
opakely  callous  at  the  sutures,  last  whorl  rather  ef- 
fused, aperture  semilunar,  columella  with  a  moderate 
callosity ;  subtranspareut-white. 
SwMiNSON,  Zoological  Illustrations,  pi.  104. 
Ilab.  Moluccas. 

A  rather  light  subpellucid-white  effuseil  mamillary  spe- 
cies, a  Uttle  opake  in  the  sutures. 

April,  1855. 


Xalicd .  PL  V. 







Species  10.  (^^Eus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  pyeifoumis.  Nat.  testa  oUecte  umbilkatd,  oh- 
lougo-pyriformi,  spird  parvd,  mamillari,  atifractihns 
superiie  coiicavo-declivibus,  delude  convexis,  ultiiiio 
siibeffuso,  aperturd  semiltmari,  colmnelld  callosd,  cal- 
toutate  lata,  mnbilicimi  impleide ;  nitente-ebiirned. 

The  pear-shaped  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  um- 
bilicus, obloug  pear-shaped,  spire  small,  mamillary, 
whorls  concavely  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  then 
convex,  the  last  somewhat  effused,  apertm-e  semi- 
lunar, columella  callous,  callosity  broad,  tilling  np 
the  umbilicus ;  shining  ivory-white. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  311. 

Hab.  Ilo  Ilo,  Island  of  Panay,  Phihppines  (on  the  sand  at 

low  water);  Cuming.     Mouth  of  the  Huan  Iviver, 

Australia  (in  sandy  mud,  ten  fathoms) ;  Lieut.  Collie. 

A  polished  ivoiy  species,  chiefly  distinguished  by  its 

oblong-pyriform  effused  growth. 

Species  17.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Petiveriana.  Nat.  testa  aperti  umbilkatd,  de- 
presso-orbicidari,  subtus  concavd,  spird  brevi,  parum 
exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  lavlbtis,  vel  minute  de- 
cussatim  striafis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  Jwri:oufali, 
columella  tenuicnld,  caUositate  proiuiuente  spirali  sul- 
cata, mnbilico  subanrjidato-excavato ;  cinereo-griscd, 
pal/ide  carulesceide  stricjatd,  subtus  alliidd,  callosi- 
tate  et  aperturee  fance  castaneis. 

Petiver's  Natica.  Shell  operdy  umbilicated,  depressly 
orbicular,  concave  beneath,  spire  short,  but  little  ex- 
serted,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  or  minutely  decus- 
sately striated,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  horizontal,  colu- 
mella rather  thin,  with  a  prominent  grooved  spiral 
callosity,  umbilicus  slightly  angularly  excavated  ;  ash- 
grey,  faintly  blue-streaked,  whitish  beneath,  callosity 
and  interior  of  the  aperture  chestnut. 

Recluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Catbalonga,  Island  of  Samar,  PhiKppiues  (on  sand 
banks  at  low  water) ;  Cuming. 

Distinguished  from  several  allied  species  of  the  same 
type,  by  its  compressly  orbicular  form. 

Species  IS.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  maculata.  Nat.  testa  umbilicafd,  ijlolmd,  tur- 
gidd,  spird  paululicm  exsertd,  aiifractibns  lavibus,  vel 
obsolete  strialis,  rotmtdatis,  aperturd  semilnnari,  levi- 
ter  effitsd,  columelld  callositate  spirali  umbiticiim  ui- 
traute ;  Uvido-albidd,  fulvo-sanguineo  viaciihtd,  mu- 
cidis  obscure  trizonatis,  iutus  rubescente-violaced. 

The  spotted  Natica.  Shell  umbilicated,  globose,  tur- 
gid, spire  a  little  exserted,  whorls  smooth,  or  obso- 
letely  striated,  rounded,  aperture  semilunar,  sbghtly 
effused,  columella  with  a  spiral  callosity  entering  the 
umbilicus;  livid  white,  spotted  with  fulvous-red, 
spots  obscurely  three-zoned,  interior  reddish-violet. 

Desiiates,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  045. 
Natica  dense  maculata,  Chemnitz. 
Natica  adspersa,  Menke. 
Natica  millepuudata,  var.,  Philippi. 

Ilab.  Mediterranean. 

The  spots  of  this  well-known  species  are  more  or  less 

promiscuously  blotched,  and  gather  obscurely  into  IIhtc 


Species  19.  (ilus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  columnaris.  Nat.  testd  aperte  perspectice  um- 
bilicatd,  ovato-globosd,  venttkosd,  spird  mJuuUl,  i-i.r 
elevatd,  anfractibus  conve.vis,  lavigatis,  ad  suturiim 
corrugato-striatis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  subumpld, 
effusd,  colmnelld  callositate  conspicud  spirali,  umbdicu 
late  angulato-excavato  ;  eburned. 

The  columnar  Natica.  Shell  openly  perspectively  um- 
bilicated, ovately  globose,  ventricose,  spire  very  small, 
scarcely  raised,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  wrinkle-stri- 
ated at  the  suture,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  rather  large, 
efi'used,  columella  with  a  conspicuous  spiral  callosity, 
umbilicus  broadly  angularly  excavated  ;  ivory-white. 

Recluz,  Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  391. 

Uab.  Pasacao,   Province   of  South  Camarines,   Island  ul' 
Luzon,  Philippines  (iu  sandy  mud  at  six  fathonjs) ; 
A  shining  white  neritoid  species,  ventricose  and  effused, 

with  a  peculiarly  open  spirally  excavated  umbilicus. 

Api-il,  1855. 

Natica  ,P/.  17. 


.ciii    Biooks   Imp 


Species  20.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
N.\TICA  AURANTiA.  Nat.  tedd  obkcte  miiliUcald,  ohlottr/o- 
ovatd,  crassissimd,  ponderosd,  spird  parvd,  subcallom, 
apice  didincto,  anfradibus  -minutissime  decusmtim 
driatk,  mperne  concavo-dedivibus,  ieinde  subplaii/i- 
luto-co/ifp.ri.':,  apertiird  parra^  semilnnari,  cohuneJld 
callosd,  call  nail  II 1 1'  hild,  tii^ihiViciim  hiiplnnle  ;  vividi; 
fulvo-annii/lui,  riillo.vfalf  rhiiriied. 
The  orange  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus, 
obloiig-ovate,  very  thick,  ponderous,  spire  small, 
rather  callous,  apex  distinct,  whorls  very  minutely 
decussately  striated,  concavely  slanting  at  the  upper 
part,  then  somewhat  flatly  convex,  aperture  small, 
semilunar,  columella  callous,  callosity  broad,  filling 
up  the  umbilicus ;  briglit  fulvous  orange,  callosity 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Dcshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 

Hab.  Island  of  Ticao,  Philippines  (on  the  reefs) ;  Cuming. 
A  shell  of  very  solid  ponderous  growth,  of  a  brilliant 
fulvous-orange  colour,  distinguished  by  the  delicate  con- 
trast of  the  bright  ivory-white  enamelled  callosity,  which 
fills  up  the  umbilicus. 

Species  31.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  problematica.  Kal.  tedd  laQ  aperte  lunbUicafd, 
depnsso-orbicidari,  subtus  planatd,  spird  vix  elevntu 
anfradibus  convexis,  siiperno  concavo-drpressis  et  sub- 
tiliter  plicato-s/ria/ix,  u per  turd  liniari-oriitd,  lwri:oii- 
tali,  columelld  caltusitnlr  parrd,  iiuihijico  hdisdmi  cx- 
cavaio;  fflaitco-ci/wreii,  rcrs/rs  apicmi  cn-rnleiiccufe,ca/- 
lositate  etfauce  apertnra  castanns. 

The  problematic  N.atica.  Shell  broadly  openly  um- 
bilicated,  depressly  orbicular,  flattened  beneath,  spire 
scarcely  raised,  whorls  convex,  concavely  depressed, 
and  finely  plicately  striated  at  the  upper  part,  aper- 
ture lunar-ovate,  horizontal,  columella  with  a  small 
callosity,  umbilicus  very  broadly  excavated  ;  glaucous- 
ash,  bluish  towards  the  apex,  callosity  and  interior 
of  the  aperture  chestnut. 

Naticg  intermedia,  Eecluz  (not  of  Philippi). 

Hab.  China. 

A  depressed  glaucous  species,  bluish  towards  the  apex, 

but  tinged  with  bright  yelk-yellow  beneath  the  suture. 

Species  22.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Powisiana.  Nat.  testa  aperte  oblique  iirnbili- 
catd,  ovato-vcnlricosd,  spird  brevi,  siibcallosd,  apice 
aciild,  anfradibus  hcribiis,  nitentibus,  snperne  siibcal- 
losis,  coiivexis,  apertiird  semilnnari,  colitiiielld  callosi- 
tale  mediocri;  vivide  ridienie-spadiced,  fascia  vitellim 
distindd  juxta  suturam,  callositate  et  columelld  ebur- 

Powis's  Natica.  Shell  openly  obliquely  umbilicated, 
ovately  veutricose,  spire  short,  rather  callous,  sliarp 
at  the  apex,  whorls  smooth,  shining,  rather  callous 
at  the  tipper  part,  convex,  aperture  semilunar,  co- 
lumella with  a  moderate  callosity;  bright  reddish- 
fawn,  with  a  distinct  yelk-yellow  band  next  the  su- 
ture, callosity  and  columella  ivory-white. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1SI.3,  p.  210. 

Hab.  Moluccas;  Cuming. 

This  fine  species  is  well  characterized  by  the  light  band 
which  encircles  the  whorls  next  the  suture,  it  being  pecu- 
liarly distinctly  defined. 

Species  33.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  albula.  Nat.  testa  obtede  timbilicatd,  depresso- 
ijlobosd,  siibventricosd,  snbtus  planatd,  spird  minutd, 
apice  acuta,  anfradibus  subqiiadrato-convexis,  politis, 
obsolete  sulciito-sfrialis,  aperiiird  luuari-ovatd,  sub- 
effiisd,  coltiiiielld  densii  callosd,  callositate  mnbiUcimi 
inipleute ;  iiiteiite-eburiied. 

The  whitish  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbibcus, 
depressly  globose,  subventricose,  flattened  beneath, 
spire  very  small,  sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  somewhat 
s(piarely  convex,  polished,  obsoletely  groove-striated, 
aperture  lunar-ovate,  somewhat  eft'used,  columella 
densely  callous,  callosity  filling  up  the  umbilicus ; 
shining  ivory-white. 

Eecluz,  Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  ii.  p.  194-. 

Hab.  Pasacao,  Province  of  South  Caraarines,  Island  of 
Luzon,  Philippines  (in  sandy  mud  at  a  depth  of  ten 
fathoms) ;  Cuming. 

A  shining  ivory-white  species,  of  rather  square,  effused, 
inflated  growth,  with  a  very  small  spire,  and  the  umbilicus 
tilled  up  with  callous  enamel. 

April,  lS.5o. 









8owa-L)/  'M  «lit>i 

ftiicent  Brooks 

N  A  TIC  A. 

Species  34.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natic.4.  link  ATA.     Nat.  tesld  umhiUcatd,  ijlohoso-reutri- 
cusd,  ieiudcidd,  spird  subexsertd,  mifractibus  Iceciga- 
tk,  rotimdath,  aperturd  semilunari,  columelld  tenui, 
calloutale   spirali  umbillcum  semiclaudetite ;    livido- 
albii/d,  liiieh  riifis  JovgilnJhialibiis,  leciU-r  uiidnlalis 
nndiqne  pktd. 
The  lineated   Natica.      Shell  umbilicated,  globosely 
veiitricose,    rather   thin,    spire    somewhat   exserted, 
whorls  smooth,  rounded,  aperture  semilunar,  colu- 
mella thiu,  with  a   spiral  callosity,  half-closing  the 
umbilicus  ;    livid   white,    paiuted    throughout   with 
longitudinal,  slightly  waved  red  lines. 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshaycs'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  ]>. 

Hab.  Singapore  (in  sandy  mud  at  six  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
This  elegantly  formed  species,  which  is  painted  through- 
out with  close-set  slightly  waved  red  lines,  has  a  particu- 
larly columnar  spiral  callosity.  It  has  also  a  shelly  oper- 

Species  35.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Maura.    Nat.  testd  anguste  suhobtecte  umbilicald, 
ovnto-centricosd,  spird  parvd,  anfradibus  deciissatim 
striaiis,  siibquadrato-cotwexh,  aperturd  ohlonrjo-semi- 
lunari,  subampld,  basi  sicbeffusd,  coltonelld  lamina  en- 
caiuid  super  umbUicum   reoolutd ;     undiq%ie   intense 
The  Moor  Natica.     Shell  with  a  narrow  nearly  covered 
umbilicus,  ovately  ventricose,  spire  small,  whorls  de- 
cussately striated,  somewhat  squarely  convex,  aper- 
ture oblong-semilunar,  rather  large,  a  little  efl'used 
towards  the  base,   columella  with  enamelled  lamina 
roUed  back    over  the   umbilicus  ;    everywhere   deep 
Beuguiere,  Encyclop.  Methodique,  pi.  453.  f.  4  a,  b. 

Natica  melttuostoiiia,  var.  b,  Lamarck. 
Hab.  San  Nicolas,  Island  of  Zebu,   Philippines  (on  the 
reefs) ;  Cuniiiig. 
It  may  still  be  doubted  whether  this  species  is  not  a 
variety  of  N.  melanostomu ;   it  is,  however,  generally  of   [ 
shorter  and  more  square  growth,  and  they  arc  from  dif- 
ferent localities.  ! 

Species  36.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  millepuxctata.  Nat.  tesld  late  aperte  umbili- 
cahl.  ijhjhf)so-i-i-ntricosd,  spird  suhe.csertd,  mifractibus 
l/rrii/iili.i,  rulinidalis,  ultimo  gradaiim  descendente, 
a  per  I  lira  si'iiiUunari,  columelld  mediocri,  callositate 
parviusculd  spirali ;  lutesceide-albd,  pu/ictis  rujis  con- 
fertis  undique  pictd. 

The  thousand-spotted  Natica.  Shell  broadly  openly 
umbilicated,  globosely  ventricose,  spire  rather  ex- 
serted, whorls  smooth,  rounded,  the  last  gradually 
descending,  aperture  semilunar,  columella  middling, 
with  a  rather  small  spiral  callosity ;  yellowish-white, 
everywhere  paiuted  with  thick-set  red  dots. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 

Le  Mille  Points,  Favanue. 
Natica  sterci/s-MUScarum,  Enc.  Methodique. 

Hab.  Mediterranean. 

Distinguished  by  its  characteristic  painting  of  red  dots, 

which  in  N.  maculata,  of  the  same  typical  form,  from  the 

same  locality,  are  represented  by  confused  blotches. 

Species  37.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  jiamilla.  Nat.  testd  obtccte  mnbiUcatd,  sub- 
pyriformi-ovatd,  ventricosd,  spird  parvd,  anfradibus 
IcBvigatis,  nitentibus,  superne  declivibus,  deinde  con- 
vexis,  anfraciu  ■ultimo  antiee  descendenie,  oblique  ef- 
fuse, aperturd  semilmiari,  columelld  dense  callosd, 
callositate  laid,  mnbiUeum  implente  ;  undique  eburned. 

The  nipple  Natica.  SheU  with  a  covered  umbilicus, 
somewhat  pyriformly  ovate,  ventricose,  spire  small, 
whorls  smooth,  shining,  slanting  at  the  upper  part, 
then  convex,  last  whorl  descending  in  front,  ob- 
liquely effused,  aperture  semilunar,  columella  densely 
callous,  callosity  broad,  filling  the  umbilicus ;  every- 
where ivory-white. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 
Nerita  mauiilla,  LinucCus. 

Uab.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (in  sandy  mud,  seven 
fathoms);    Cuming. 
This  we  take  to  be  the  original  type  of  the  old  Liini;ean 

Nerita  n/amilla. 

April,  1S55 


Swverbv  dd ,  st  iith 

ViTicent.  Brook;;  Imp 

N  A  T  I  C  A. 

Plate  Vllf. 

Species  28.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Natica  candidissima.  Nat.  testa,  sidobtecte  umhiUcaid, 
glohom,  poiiderosd,  spird  mimttd,  vix  elevatd,  apice 
distindd,  aufractibus  decUvi-convexis,  deinde  roimi- 
datis,  miiiutissinw  decussatim  striatis,  aperturd  parvd, 
obliqiid,  semibmari,  colxmeUd  dense  ca/losd ;  nifetite- 

The  very  white  Natica.  Shell  witli  a  nearly  covered 
umbilicus,  globose,  ponderous,  spire  very  small, 
scarcely  raised,  distinct  at  the  apex,  whorls  slant- 
ingly convex,  then  rounded,  very  minutely  decus- 
sately striated,  aperture  small,  oblif[ue,  semilunar ; 
columella  densely  callous,  shell  white. 

Le  Guillou,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  IS  12,  p.  10.5. 

llab.  Moluccas. 

Of  a  peculiarly  short  globose  form,  the  spire  being  only 

faintly  indicated,  although  distinctly  developed  at  the  apex. 

Species  29.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica    mamillaris.     Nat.   testa  suhamjmle  profiinde 
vmbilicatd,  conoideo-ovatd,   crassd,  spird  siibclaeatd, 
anfractibiis   superm   depresso-declivibus,   deinde   con- 
vexis,  minutissime  decussatim  .•striatis,  aperturd  semi- 
lunari,  parviusculd,   colmnelld  callosilate  imdiocri ; 
fulvo-rubescente,  basi  alba. 
The  mamillary  Natica.      Shell  rather  narrowly  deeply 
umbilicated,  conoidly  ovate,  thick,  spire  somewhat 
raised,  whorls  depressly  slanting  at  the  upper  part, 
then  convex,  very  minutely  decussately  striated,  aper- 
ture semilunar,  rather  small,  columella  with  a  mode- 
rate callosity ;  fulvous-red,  white  at  the  base. 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  j). 

Hab.  West  Indies. 

M.  Deshayes  has  shown,  in  an  elaborate  note  on  this 
species,  that  the  Linnrean  Natica  mamiUaris  must  refer 
to  a  freshwater  shell,  probably  a  Lyinnea.  The  shell  re- 
presented in  the  accompanying  Plate,  which  Lamarck  took 
for  his  type,  is  well  figured  by  Chemnitz. 

uiiihilicntd,  ublonijo-ovatd,  subpyrijornii,  inmidd,  spird 
parvd,  anfractibus  obligtie  rude  striatis,  striis  minu- 
tissimis  spiralibtts  impi-es-ns,  anfractn  ultimo  sub(ffuso, 
aperturd  oblonyo-semiliniari,  niihdiiiphi,  vuliiniclld  lu- 
viiud  eucausld  super  iniibHicuHi  rrrulnhi ;  nlhidil.  car- 
neo-fnscesceule  pallide  hitijn.scinld,  ml mia-lhl  i-t  vircu 
umbiUcum.  intense  castaned. 

The  black  mouth  Natica.  Sliell  with  a  narrow  nearly 
covered  umbilicus,  oblong-ovate,  somewhat  pear- 
shaped,  swollen,  spire  small,  whorls  obliquely  rudely 
striated,  impressed  with  very  minute  spiral  strias, 
last  whorl  somewhat  efl'used,  aperture  oblong-semi- 
lunar,  rather  large,  columella  with  enamelled  lamina, 
rolled  back  over  the  umbilicus  ;  whitish,  faintly  broad- 
ly banded  with  light  flesh-brown,  columella  and 
round  the  umbilicus  dark  chestnut. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 

Nerita  melanostoma,  Gmelin. 
Natica  opaca,  llecluz. 

Ilab.  Sechelle  Islands. 

Of  a  swollen,  effused,  somewhat   pear-shaped,   ovate 

form,  very  faintly  dusky  flesh-banded,  rich  dark  chestnut 

on  the  columellar  lamina  and  region  of  the  umbilicus. 

Species  30.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica    melanostoma.     Nat.   testa   anijuste   subobtecte 

Species  31.  (Mus.  Cu 

Natica  albumen.  Nat.  tenUi  iirrdmiilili-r  n„ibiticatd,,  subtus  e.i'ciiriihj-ijIiiiKild.  yiird  )ui- 
nutd,  anfractibus  convexli,  lirriyntn,  ad  iniinilin.sime 
decussatim  striatis,  aperturd  subanguste  semilunari, 
umbilico  late  canaliculato,  callositate  conspicud  cen- 
trali ;  aurantio-ruhescente,  subtus  albd. 

The  albumen  Natica.     Shell  very  largely  umbilicated, 
'  convexly  depressed,  excavately  flattened  beneath,  spire 

i  very  small,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  or  very  minutely 

decussately  striated,  aperture  rather  narrowly  semi- 
lunar, umbilicus  broadly  channelled,  with  a  conspi- 
cuous central  callosity;  orange-red,  white  beneath. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans"  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  ji. 

Hab.  Catbalonga,  Island  of  Samar,  Philippines  (in  sandy 
mud  at  six  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
Tlus  well-known  species  is  remarkably  ciiaraeterized  by 

its  very  depressed  convex  form. 

April,  18E 







Vincent  Brooks   biT' 


Plate  IX. 

Pig  33.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

This  very  delicately  coloured  shell  is  the  var.  (i,  Jidea 

sen  slraminea,  of  N.  auraiitla,  noted  by  Rechiz  in  Pro. 

Zool.  Soc.   1847,   p.  211.     It   is  from   Port   Essiugton, 

north  coast  of  New  Holland. 

Species  33.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  ALABASTEli.  Nat.  tesfS pi'oftmde  umbilicatd,  ah- 
breviato-globosa,  veiitricosn,  spird  parvd,  siihcaUosd, 
anfracfibus  lavihus,  rotiindatis,  columeUd  caUoso-re- 
volutd ;  eburned. 

The  ALABASTER  Natica.  Shell  deeply  umbilicated, 
shortly  globose,  ventricose,  spire  smaD,  rather  callous, 
whorls  smooth,  rounded,  columella  callously  rolled 
back ;  ivory-white. 

Hah.  Mazatlan. 

A    pure  white   species,    distinguished    by    an    inflated 

shortly  globose  form,  with  a  very  small  spii-e. 

Species  34.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  plumbea.  Nat.  testa  atiffiiste  prof  nude  nmbili- 
catd,  obloiKjo-turljinatd,  spird  conoided,  apice  acuta, 
anfraciibus  rude  diagonaliter  striatis,  ad  snturam.  ob- 
solete pUcatis,  deinde  rotundatis,  apertiird  ovatd,  colu- 
mella superne  calloso-encaustd ;  plicmbeo-ffrised,  plic/s 
ad  suturam  rufescentibus,  marghie  umbiUci  et  encausti 
columellari  vlvide  sanguineo. 

The  leaden  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  deeply  umbili- 
cated, oblong-turbinated,  spire  conoid,  sharp  at  the 
apex,  whorls  rudely  diagonally  striated,  obsoletely 
puckered  at  the  suture,  then  rounded,  aperture  ovate, 
columella  callously  enameDed  at  the  upper  part; 
leaden-grey,  pleats  at  the  suture  reddish,  edge  of  the 
umbilicus  and  columeUar  enamel  bright  red. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 
Natica  sordida,  Swainsou. 

Hab.  Brisbane  Water,  east  coast  of  Australia ;  Strange. 
This  fine  species  may  be  readily  distinguished  by  its 

oblong-turbinated  form  and  leaden-grey  colour,  the  colu- 

raellar    enamel   and   umbilicus   being   edged  with   deep 


Species  35.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  deiodosa.  Nat.  testa  obtecte  umbilicatd,  de- 
presso-omtd,  neritoided,  spird  inimitd,  laterali,  an- 
fraciibus tenuistriatis,  nitentibus,  couvexis,  wltimo  ob- 
lique proloiigato,  sitbtus  planato,  aperturd  semilunari, 
parviusculd,  columeUd  densissinm  callosd,  callositate 
umiilicmn  implente ;  pallide  stramined,  callositate 
The  svLriiUK  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus, 
depressly  ovate,  ncritoid,  spire  minute,  lateral,  whorls 
finely  striated,  shining,  convex,  the  last  obliquely 
prolonged,  flattened  beneath,  aperture  semilunar, 
rather  small,  columella  very  thickly  callous,  callosity 
filling  the  umbilicus ;  pale  straw-colour,  callosity 
Hab.  Australia. 

This  fine  species  agrees  in  its  debcate  tone  of  colouring 
with  the  straw-coloured  variety  of  N.  auraiitia  represented 
at  Fig.  33,  but  is  of  quite  a  distinct  form,  being  distin- 
guished by  a  particularly  contracted  Nerite-bke  growth. 

36.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Priamus.     Nat.  testa  compresse  anguste  umiili- 
catd,  abbreviato-globosd,  temdculd,  injlatd,  spird  mi- 
nutd,  laterali,  anfractibus  couvexis,  tenuistriatis,  ni- 
tentibus, aperturd  ovatd,  ampld,  effusd,  columella  la- 
iiiind  callosd  super  umbiUcum  revolutd ;  pallide  livido- 
castaned,  spiraliter  zonatd,  macnlis  brumieis  panels 
promiscue  cingnlatd. 
The  Priamus  Natica.     Shell  compressly  narrowly  um- 
bilicated, shortly  globose,  rather  thin,  inflated,  spire 
very  small,  lateral,  whorls   convex,   finely  striated, 
shining,  aperture  ovate,  large,  efi'used,  columella  with 
a  callous  lamina  rolled  back  over  the  umbOicus ;  pale 
livid  chestnut,  spii'aUy  zoned,  encircled  with  a  few 
promiscuous  brown  spots. 
Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  213. 
Ilab.  Moluccas. 

A  very  distinct  species,  allied  to  N.  Maura,  distin- 
guished by  a  pattern  of  marking  somewhat  similar  to  that 
which  is  characteristic  of  the  genus  Priamus. 

April,  1855. 







Sowerlv    Id  ct  litli 

IWent   ^ooks    Jn.) 


Species  37.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 
Natica  Baconi.     Nat.  testa  obtecte  mibillcatd,  ahhre- 
viato-irocliiformi,  crassd,  spird  brevi,  obtusd,  avfractl- 
iiis  obliqite  dense  miimtissime  striafis,  s/ijicnit:  ih'rliri- 
biis,  ad  sutiiram  rudibus  et  callosis,  ad  baiui  rutmiihttis, 
aperturd  semilunaj-i,  horiiontali,  coliiiiiel/d  sidiaciitd, 
callositate  densd  rudi  mnbiUcum  implente ;  candes- 
cente-gj-ised,  h-regulariler  pallide  strigatd,   basi   al- 
Bacon's  Natica.     Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus,  ab- 
breviately  trochus-shaped,  thick,  spire  short,  obtuse, 
whorls    obliquely,  densely,   very   minutely    striated, 
slanting  at  the  upper  part,  rude  and  callous  at  the 
suture,  rounded  at  the  base,  aperture  semilunar,  ho- 
rizontal, columella  rather  shaqi,  with  a  rude  dense 
callosity  filling  the  umbilicus ;  bluish-grey,  irregularly 
pale  streaked,  white  at  the  base. 
Hub.  Mouth  of  the  Swau  River,  New  Holland  ;  Dr.  Bacon. 
A  solid  trochoid  species,  of  rude  structure,  of  a  bluish- 
grey  colour,  irregularly  interrupted  with  pale  streaks  nm- 
nins  into  the  base,  which  is  white. 

Species  38.  (^Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  intermema.  Nai.  te.std  obtecte  nvibilicatd,  ob- 
lo/igo-globosd,,  poiide?-osd,  .ipird  pared,  mncro- 
natd,  anfractibus  lavigatis,  nitentibus,  superne  decli- 
vibus,  delude  plano-convexis,  aperturd  semilimari,  co- 
Imnetld  callositate  densis.wnd,  umbilicnm  implente ;  al- 
bidd,  riifo-ferrugiiieo  tliictd. 

The  intermediate  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  um- 
bilicus, oblong-globose,  thick,  ponderous,  spire  small, 
pointed,  whorls  smooth,  shining,  slanting  round  the 
.upper  part,  then  flatly  convex,  aperture  semilunar, 
columella  with  a  very  thick  callosity,  filling  the  um- 
bilicus ;  whitish,  stained  with  red  rust. 

Philippi,  Kuster  Conch,  pi.  18.  f.  10. 

Hab. ? 

This  species,  of  a  rather  flattened  oblong-globose  form, 
with  a  small  pointed  spire,  is  peculiarly  stained  with  red 

Species  39.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  vitellus.  Nat.  jirofnnd'i  subanyiisfe  unibilicald, 
globosd,  solidiuscidd,  spird  brevi,  apice  acuta,  anfrac- 
tibus rotundatis,  loevigatis,  aperturd  semilunari,  co- 
lumelld  callosd,  eticausto  super  umbilicum  partim  re- 
voluto  ;  ustulato-aurantid,  maculis  albis perpaucis pro- 
miscuis  interrupid,  columelld  et  apertura:  fauce  albis. 

The  egg-yolk  Natica.  Shell  deeply,  rather  narrowly 
umbilioated,  globose,  rather  solid,  spire  short,  sharp 

at  the  apes,  whorls  rounded,  smooth,  aperture  semi- 
lunar, columella  callous,  the  enamel  partially  rolled 
back  over  the  lunbilicus ;  burnt  orange,  inten-upted 
with  a  few  promiscuous  white  blotches,  columella 
and  interior  of  aperture  white. 
Lamarck,  Auim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  637. 

Nerita  vitellus,  Linnreus. 
Ilab.  Island  of  Ticao,  Philippines  (on  the  reefs) ;  Cuming. 
This  well-known  species  is  always  distinctly  charac- 
terized by  its  peculiar  burnt-orange  colouring,  interrupted 
w-ith  a  few  gaps  wanting  colour. 

Species  10.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  bifasciata.  Nat.  testd  anguste  subobtecte  umbi- 
licatd,  oblongo-globosd,  spird  subcxsertd,  anfractibus 
dense  minute  striatis,  rotundatis,  spadiceo-fuscescente, 
ad  suluras  albis,  fasciis  angustis  albis  subdistantibus 
medio  cingulatis,  aperturd  oblongo-ovatd,  columelld 
callosd,  encausto  super  mnbilicum  pai-tim  revoluto ;  en- 
causto  coluniellari  intense  violaceo-ca-staneo. 

The  two-banded  Natica.  Shell  with  a  narrow  nearly 
covered  umbilicus,  oblong-globose,  spire  rather  e.\- 
serted,  whorls  densely  minutely  striated,  rounded, 
light  fawn  brown,  white  next  the  suture,  encircled 
round  the  middle  with  two  narrow,  rather  distant, 
wliite  bands,  aperture  oblong-ovate,  columella  cal- 
lous, enamel  partially  roUed  back  over  the  umbilicus  ; 
columellar  enamel  deep  violet-chestnut. 

Gray,  Griffith's  Cuvier's  Animal  Kingdom,  pi.  1.  f.  2. 

Hab.  Guaymas,  Gulf  of  California  (on  the  sands  at  low 
water) ;  Mr.  Babb,  R.N. 
An  elegant  species,  of  a  characteristic  oblong-globose 

form,  distinguished  by  two  linear  white  bauds  upon  a  light 

fawu-brown  ground,  the  columellar  euamel  being  a  deep 


Species  41.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  dubia.  Nat.  testd  obtecte  wmbilicatd,  globosd, 
cras-id,  ponderosd,  spird  parvd,  snturd  callosd,  indis- 
tincld,  anfractibus  rotmidatis,  politis,  aperturd  semi- 
liinari,  parvd,  columelld  den-ie  callosd,  callositate  um- 
bilicum  implente;  stramineo-ebiirned. 

TnE  doubtful  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus, 
globose,  thick,  ponderous,  spire  small,  suture  callous, 
indistinct,  whorls  rounded,  polished,  aperture  semi- 
lunar, small,  columella  densely  callous,  callosity  fill- 
ing the  umbilicus ;  straw-tinted  ivory. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1S43,  p.  209. 

Hab.  ChUi  ? 

A  very  solid  globular  shell,   of  polished   surface,  lik(; 

straw-tinted  ivory. 

.\pril,  185S 





i '  ^* 


«eEb\;  dtl  ft  Mk 

Ifcncent   Brooks    Imp 


Plate  XI. 

Species  43.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 
Natica  phytelephas.  Nat.  testa  peranyuste  profunde 
umbllicatd,  globosd,  solidiusculd,  spird  parvd,  apice 
distittcfo,  anfractibus  lievibus,  vel  mitmte  decussatim 
striatis,  snperne  leviter  concavis,  deinde  plano-rotun- 
datis,  aperturd  spmihinnri,  coliimelld  caUosd,  callosi- 
tate  umb'dkiuii  paiiim  huplfnte ;  fiilvfSceHte-albd,  tmh- 
The  ivory-nut  Natica.  Shell  very  narrowly  deeply 
umbilicated,  globose,  rather  solid,  spire  small,  apex 
distinct,  whorls  smooth,  or  minutely  decussately  stri- 
ated, slightly  concave  at  the  upper  part,  then  flatly 
rounded,  aperture  semilunar,  columella  callous,  cal- 
losity partially  filling  the  umbilicus  ;  yellowish-white, 
rather  opake. 
Hab.  Australia. 

A  solid,  globose,  dead-white  shell,  rather  coiicavcly  flat- 
tened round  the  upper  part  of  the  whorls. 

Species  43.   (Mus.  Cumiug.) 
Natica  septentrionalis.    Nat.  tedd  obtecte  umbilicatd, 
globosd,  tenui,  injlatd,  sjiird sube.rsei'td,  anfractibus  ro- 
tniidutis,  inhuite  di'ciis.satiii/  alridHs,  cpiji'i-iiiidr  triini 
fnlrd  hidiild,  aperturd  subp,jnj<,,;.ii-un,l,:,   o,hnnrll,i 
tciiukidd,    callositute     alba    piin-iilii   vuihilh-iiui    i„i- 
The   northern  Natica.     Shell  with  a  small  covered 
umbilicus,  globose,  thin,  inflated,  spire  subexscrted, 
whorls  rounded,   minutely  decussately   striated,   co- 
vered with  a  thin  fulvous  epidermis,  aperture  siib- 
pyriformly  ovate,  columella  rather  thin,  with  a  rather 
small  white  callosity  filling  up  the  umbilicus. 
Beck,  Cat.  Moll. 
Rob.  Greenland. 

A  light  inflated  species  o(  JwpidlarinAike  form,  covered 
with  a  very  characteristic  close,  thin,  horny-yellowish  epi- 

Species  44.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Draparnaudi.  Nat.  testa  spiraliter  tmbUicatd, 
depresso-globosd,  iieritoided,  crassd,  ponderosd,  .spird 
parvd,  callosd,  laterali,  anfractibus  Ixcigatis,  iiitciili- 
bus,  snperne  leviter  coiicavo-impressii,  aperturd  semi- 
lunari,  columella  dense  callosd,  mnbilico  spiraliter  an- 
gulato,  callositate  intrante ;  vivide  viiellino-auranlid, 
mnbilico  et  callositate  all/is. 

Draparnaud's  Natica.  Shell  spirally  umbilieated,  de- 
pressly  globose,  neritoid,  thick,  heavy,  spire  small, 
callous,  lateral,  whorls  smooth,  shining,  slightly  con- 

cavely  impressed  round  the  upper  part,  aperture  se- 
milunar, columella  thickly  callous,  umbilicus  spirally 
angled,  with  callosity  entering;  bright  yellowisli- 
orange,  umbilicus  and  callosity  white. 
Recluz,  Petit,  Jouru.  Conch,  vol.  ii.  p.  198.  pi.  5.  f.  11. 
Ilab.  Isle  of  Bacleon,  Philippines. 

A  brilliant  yellowish-orange  neritoid  shell,  with  a  pecu- 
liar white-angled  umbilicus. 

Species  45.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Philippiana.  Nat.  testd  obtecte  umbilicatd,  de- 
presso-globosd, spird  pluHO-convexd,  vix  elevald,  an- 
fractibus concexo-declicibus,  deinde  rotundatis,  Iccri- 
gafi-1,  puli/is,  aperturd  pyriformi-ovatd,  Itorizunlali. 
coluiiii'lld  callositate  densd  rotundutd ;  fidco-cincrrit, 
spird  aurunlio-nifd,  callositate  et  aperlnra  fauci-  aia- 

PniLippi's  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus, 
depressly  globose,  spire  flatly  convex,  scarcely  raised, 
whorls  convexly  slanting,  then  rounded,  smooth,  pu- 
lished,  aperture  pyriformly  ovate,  horizontal,  eolii- 
mella  with  a  thick  rounded  callosity ;  fulvous-asli, 
spire  orange-red,  callosity  and  interior  of  the  aperture 

PiECLUz,  MS.,  jMus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Alexandria,  Mediterranean. 

A  highly  polished  reddish-ash  shell,  distinguished  fruni 

N.  glaucina  by  its  more  solid  umbilical  callosity. 

Species  4G.   (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Natica  globosa.  Nat.  testd  profundi;  uuibilirald.  glo- 
bosd, .^pird parvd,  anfractibus  Irccibiis,  uut  miuutissiuii 
decussatim  striatis,  supenie  dcclivibus,  driudc  rourt.i-i\, 
aperturd  semilunari,  columelld  parum  culhrnl ;  albii, 
apice  lirido-nigricante,  fasciis  talk  dilute  lidcuci-i'; 

The  globose  Natica.  Shell  deeply  umlnlicated,  glo- 
bose, spire  small,  whorls  smooth,  or  very  minutely 
decussately  striated,  slanting  at  the  upper  part,  then 
convex,  aperture  semilunar,  columella  but  little  cal- 
lous; white,  apex  livid  black,  encircled  with  broad 
diluted  blood-red  bands. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  :3(J7.  pi.  1^^.  pi-  l^-"'- 

Natica  helvacea,  Lamarck. 
Natica  spadicea,  car.,  Dilhvyn. 

Hab.  Singapore  (in  sandy  mud  at  six  fathoms) ;  Cumiug. 
A  globose  shell,  encircled  with  broad  diluted  lawn-red 

bands,  leaving  the  white  ground   uiost   distinct    ur\t   flit- 


April,  185.-: 

Satin,,  PI.  Xn. 









Sowerb,'  del  d  Ml 

Secret  Brooks  Inrp. 


Plate  XII. 

Species  47.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

K.VTICA  RAPULUM.  Nat.  teslii  mignste  proftmde  nmbili- 
ctttd,  globosd,  teuuiculd,  veuiricosd,  sjiird  parvd,  su6- 
exserfd,  apice  acuta,  anfraciibus  rolundalis,  7timuth- 
■ume  deciissaiim  striatis,  apertttrd  lunari-ovatd,  colii- 
melld  fenuiculd,  callosd ;  opaco-albd,  epidermide  stru- 
mined partim  indidd. 

The  little  turnip  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  dcei)ly  iim- 
bilicated,  globose,  rather  thin,  ventricose,  spire  small, 
slightly  exserted,  sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  rounded, 
very  minutely  decussately  striated,  aperture  linear- 
ovate,  columella  rather  thin,  callous  ;  opake-white, 
partially  covered  with  a  straw-coloured  epidermis. 

Hab.  Payta,  Peru  (on  mud-banks) ;  Cuming. 

A  light,  opake-white  species,  partially  covered  with  a 

light  straw-coloured  epidermis,  with  somewhat   the  form 

of  an  AmpuUaria. 

Species  48.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Xatica  conica.  Xat.  testd  anguste  partim  obtecic  nmbi- 
Ikatd,  oblongo-conicd,  so/idd,  spird  awpld,  exicrtd, 
anfractibus  oblique  tenuistriatis,  convexis,  infra  siitn- 
rarii  depresso-concavis,  aperturd  Itmari-ovatd,  columeUd 
rnllosd,  encauslo  solidiiisculo,  super  mubilicum  revoluto; 
fidvo-cinered,  columelld fmneo-caslaneo  iincld. 

The  conical  Natica.  Shell  with  a  narrow  partially 
covered  umbilicus,  oblong-conical,  solid,  spire  large, 
exserted,  whorls  obliquely  finely  striated,  convex,  de- 
pressly  concave  beneath  the  suture,  aperture  luuar- 
ovate,  columella  callous,  enamel  rather  solid,  rolled 
back  over  the  umbilicus  ;  fulvous-asli,  culumella 
stained  with  smoky-chestnut. 

li.MlARCK,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  ji. 

llnb.  Australia. 

Characterized  chiefly  by  its  conically  turbinated  form, 

and  by  the  smoky-chestnut  tinge  of  the  columellar  enamel. 

Species  49.   (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Natica  unifasciata.  Nat.  testa  umbilicald,  vciitricoso- 
globosd,  spird  subexsertd,  apice  aciitd,  anfractibus  mi- 
nute deeussatim  striatis,  rotundatis,  superne  leviter  de- 
pressis,  aperturd  lunai-i-ovatd,  efusd,  columeUd  teuui- 
culd, callositate  spirali  mubilicum  fere  implente  ;  vio- 
lascente-cinered,  fascia  albidd  liiieari  supra  medium 

The  one-banded  Natica.  Shell  urabilicated,  ventri- 
cosely  globose,  spire  rather  exserted,  sharp  at  the 
apex,  whorls  minutely  decussately  striated,  rounded, 
slightly  depressed  at  the  upper  part,  aperture  lunar- 
ovate,  effused,  columella  rather  thin,  with  a  spiral 
callosity  nearly  filling  the  umbilicus ;  violet-ash,  en- 
circled with  a  whitish  linear  band  above  the  middle. 

Lamauck,  Auini.  sans  vert.  (Dcshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 

Hub.    Eay    of   Panama    (on    mud-banks    at  low   water) ; 


This  species  has,  particularly,  the  form  and  general  as- 
pect of  an  JmpuUuria.     It  has  a  shelly  operculum. 

Species  50.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  monilifeka.  Nat.  testd  anguste  prof mde  umbili- 
catd,  globosd,  subventricosd,  spird  exsertd,  apice  acutd, 
suturd  lineari-iiiipressd,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  Icevi- 
gatis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  columeUd  temie  callosd; 
fuho-glnucescente,  superne  maculis  spadiceis  serie  unicd 

The  necklace-marked  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  deeply 
umbUicated,  globose,  subventricose,  spire  exserted, 
sharp  at  the  apex,  with  the  suture  linearly  impressed, 
whorls  rounded,  smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  co- 
lumella thiidy  callous;  pale  yellowish-glaucous,  en- 
circled at  the  upper  part  with  a  single  row  of  pale 
fawn  spots. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 

Nerila  glaucina,  Pennant  (not  of  Linn;eus). 
Nerita  catena.  Da  Costa. 
Natica  castanea,  Lamarck. 
Natica  squalida,  Macgillivray. 

Hub.  Em-opean  seas. 

Well  characterized  by  the  necklace  of  fawn-red  spots 

wiuch  encircles  the  whorls  next  the  suture. 

Species  51.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Xatica  lehcoph^a.  Nat.  testd  subanguste  pnfunde 
umbilicatd,  globoso-ventricosd,  spird  breviusculd,  ob- 
tufid,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  ad  suturam  obsolete  pli- 
ca/is, ojierfurd  piiriformi-ovatd,  columeUd  callosd,  en- 
Cdiislij  ■■iiqirr  niiibilicum  remluto  ;  plumbeo-grised,  infra 
snlnniiii  rufu  tincHi,  labro  et  encauslo  columellari  .lan- 

The  grey  Natica.  Shell  rather  narrowly  deeply  um- 
bilicatcd,  globosely  ventricose,  spire  rather  short,  ob- 
tuse, whorls  rounded,  faintly  plicated  at  the  suture, 
aperture  pyriformly  ovate,  columella  callous,  enamel 
rolling  back  over  the  umbilicus ;  leaden-grey,  stained 
with  i-ed  beneath  the  sutme,  lip  and  columellar  enamel 

Ilab.  Australia. 

A  very  characteristic  leaden-grey  shell,  of  light  Amput- 

fo;-ia-like  form,  stained  with  blood-red  along  the  edge  of 

the  lip  and  columellar  enamel,  and  round  the  upper  edge 

of  the  whorls  next  the  suture. 

Aprd,  1855. 

Xalim.PL  Xm . 










Species  52.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Natica  Maeociiiensis.  Nat.  testa  umlilicatd,  glohosu- 
ventricosd,  spird  exsertiusculd,  anfractibm  lamgatis, 
rottttidatis,  aperturd  lunar i-ovatd,  suieffusd,  columeUd 
tenniculd,  callositate  columnari  spirali  mnbilicum  fire 
implente  ;  griseo-cmrulescente  vel  squalide  rufd,  niac/dis 
trigonis  spadiceo-fimcis  plus  minus  indistincte  qninque- 
seriatiiu  cingulatd. 

The  Morocco  Natica.  Shell  umbilicated,  globosely 
veutricose,  spire  rather  exserted,  wliorls  smooth, 
rouiiiled,  aperture  hmar-ovate,  subeffused,  columella 
rather  thin,  with  a  columnar  spiral  callosity  nearly 
filling  the  umbilicus ;  greyish-blue  or  dirty  red,  en- 
circled more  or  less  indistinctly  with  five  rows  of 
arrow-headed  fawn-brown  spots, 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  f.  G4.3. 
Nerita  Marocldemis,  Gmelin. 
Natica  Ckemnitzii,  Menke  (not  of  llecluz). 

Hab.  North  Africa  and  West  Indies. 

This  species  is  always  characterized  by  being  encircled 

with  bands  of  arrow-headed  spots,  but  they  are  often  much 


Species  53.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  zebra.  Nat.  testa  umljiUcaid,  glohoso-neritoided, 
subinjlatd,  spird  obtuse  exsertd,  anfractibus  Immgalis, 
nitentibus,  su-perne  dedivibus,  delude  rotundatis,  aper- 
turd lunato-orhiculari,  columelld  tenui,  callositate  co- 
lumnari spirali,  mnbilicum  fere  implente ;  albidd,  stri- 
gis  angustis  rufis  acute  luidatis  dense  longitudinaliter 

The  zebra  Natica.  Sliell  und)ilicated,  globosely  neri- 
toid,  rather  inflated,  spire  obtusely  exserted,  whorls 
smooth,  shining,  slanting  at  the  upper  part,  then 
rounded,  aperture  lunar-orbicular,  columella  thin, 
with  a  spiral  columnar  callosity  nearly  filling  the  um- 
bilicus ;  white,  densely  longitudinally  painted  with 
narrow,  sharply  zigzag  red  streaks. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 

Hab.  Cagayau,  Province  of  Misamis,  Island  of  Mindanao, 
Philippines  (in  sandy  mud  at  twenty-five  fathoms); 

The  longitudinal  zigzag  red  streaks  which  distinguish 


this  species  are  now  narrow  and  close-set,  now  broader 
and  more  distant. 

Species  5-1.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 
Natica  UBER.     Nat.  testa  subanguste  umbiUcatd,  oblongo- 
turbinatd,  soUdinsculd,  spird  exsertd,  anfractibtts  mi- 
Hutissime  decussafim  striatis,  superne  dedivibus,  delude 
coueexis,  aperturd  lunari-oblongd,  columelld  dense  en- 
caustd,  callositate  parvd ;  alba,  epidermide  tenuissinid 
The  teat  Natica.     Shell  rather  narrowly  umbilicated, 
obloug-turbinated,  rather  soUd,  spii-e  exserted,  whorls 
very  minutely  decussately  striated,  slanting  round  the 
upper  part,  then  convex,  aperture  lunar-oblong,  co- 
lumella densely  enamelled,  with  a  small   callosity ; 
white,  covered  with  a  very  thin  epidermis. 
Valenciennes,  in  Obs.  Gcol.  Humboldt,  1833,  vol.  ii. 

p.  266. 
Hab.  Casma,  Peru  (in  muddy  sand  at  four  fathoms) ; 
This,  I  believe,  is  the  true  N.  ubcr  of  Valenciennes  col- 
lected by  Humboldt,  and  the  same  species  as  that  collected 
by  D'Orbigny  in  the  same  locality,  although  the  specimen 
figured  by  the  latter  is  of  rather  ditt'ereut  proportions. 

Species  55.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  pellis-tigrina.  Nat.  testa  subampUter perspec- 
tive imibilicatd,  globosd,  spird  exsertd,  apice  acuta,  an- 
fractibus superne  subdepressls,  deinde  convexis,  laviga- 
tis,  aperturd  lunari-omtd,  subeffusd,  columelld  superne 
eallosd,  callositate  parvd  columnari  spirali  mnbilicum- 
iutrante;  albidd,  macuUs  rnfo-pnrpureh  interdum 
cuujlu.entibus  dense  pictd. 

The  tiger's  skin  Natica.  Shell  rather  largely  per- 
spectively  umbilicated,  globose,  spire  exserted,  sharp 
at  the  ajjex,  whorls  somewhat  depressed  at  the  upper 
part,  then  convex,  smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate, 
rather  efi'used,  columella  callous  at  the  upper  part, 
with  a  small  columnar  spiral  callosity  entering  the 
umbilicns ;  whitish,  densely  painted  with  red-purple 
spots,  sometimes  flowing  together. 

Chemnitz,  Couch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  265.  pi.  187.  f.  1892 
and  IS'JS. 

NATICA.— Plate  XIII. 

Natica  variolaria,  Eecluz. 
Hab.  Swan  River  (in  sandy  mud  at  ten  fathoms) ;  Dr 
ColKe,  E.N. 

This  pretty  species  is  distinguished  liy  a  pattern  of  dark 
purple-red  spots,  quite  distinct  in  character  from  that  of 
N.  maculnsn. 

Species  5G.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Raynaudian a.  Nat.  testa,  suholtccti  tmbUkatd, 
globosd,  crassimculd,  spud  parum  exsertd,  anfractibus 
IcBvigatis,  superne  decliviius,  deinde  rokmdatis,  aper- 
turd  lunari-ovatd,  columella  dense  encaustd,  eiwausto 
mnbilicum  partim  obtegente ;  dilute  atirantlo-fulvd, 
strigis  rufo-castaims  irregulariter  reticulatis  promis- 
cuefasciatim  pictd. 

Raynaud's  Natica.  Shell  with  a  nearly  covered  umbi- 
licus, globose,  rather  thick,  spire  but  little  exserted, 
whorls  smooth,  slanting  at  the  upper  part,  then 
rounded,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  thickly  en- 
amelled, enamel  partially  covering  the  umbilicus;  pale 
orange-fulvous,  promiscuously  painted  with  ii-regu- 
lai-ly  netted  streaks  of  reddish-chestnut  bands. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  212. 

Uab.  Zanzibar ;  T.  Thorn,  Esq. 

A  solid  orange-tinted  shell,  banded  with  very  character" 
istic  chestnut  net-streaked  markings,  first  collected  at  Trin- 
comalee.  Bay  of  Ceylon,  by  M.  Raynaud. 

Species  57.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  maculosa.  Nat.  testd  anguste  nmbilicatd,  glo- 
boso-turbmatd,  spird  conico-exsertd,  anfractibus  rotim- 
datis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  colmnelld  teime  encaustd, 
callositate  parvd  columnari  spirali ;  albd,  pmictis  piir- 
pureo-fuscis  deme  pictd,  anfractibus  superue  et  inferni 

The  full-spotted  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  umbilica- 
ted,  globosely  turbinated,  spire  conically  exserted, 
whorls  rounded,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  thinly 
enamelled  with  a  small  spiral  callosity  ;  white,  densely 
crowded  with  purple-brown  dots,  whorls  at  the  upper 
and  lower  edge  unspotted. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Peshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  [i. 

Hab.  Singapore  (in  sandy  mud  at  six  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
M.  Deshayes  is  wrong  in  assigning  this  species  to  the 

N.  pelUs-tigrina  of  Ciiemnitz,  which  is  that  represented  in 

the  accompanying  Plate  at  Fig.  55. 

X<(tim  .PI.  XJY. 





SijwAy  del  ^<  Jidi 



•   *  ^  ^.T! 


Plate  XIV. 

Species  58.  (Pig.  a,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Maheense.    Nat.  testa.  imbiUcatu,  (jhhosCi,  npird 
subexsertd,   suturd  impressd,  mtfractihun   rotinKlidia, 
laviffatis,  jitxta  snturam  pecuUarUer  uliliqiu;  jilinilo- 
corriigatd,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  cohiuidld  sitpcnie 
callosd,  callositate  columnari  spirali  imibilicimi  semi- 
claudeide ;   albd,  fasci'm  dtiabns  mactdis  ferrugineo- 
spadicels  iuterrnpth  cbiyidatd. 
The  Maue  Natica.     Shell  umbilicated,  globose,  spire 
a  little  exsertcd,  suture  impressed,  whorls  rouuded, 
smooth,  peculiarly  obliquely  plicately  wrinkled  next 
the  suture,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  callous  at 
the  upper  part,  with  a  columnar  spiral  callosity  half 
filling  the  umbilicus ;  white,  encircled  with  two  in- 
terrupted bands  of  rust-fawn  blotches. 
Eecluz,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 
Hab.  Island  of  Mahe,  Seychelles. 

A  very  characteristic  species,  encircled  beneath  the  su- 
ture with  obliquely  plicated  wrinkles. 

Species  59.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Forskalii.  Nat.  testa  sitbaperte perspective  nm- 
iilicatd,  globosd,  subveidricosd,  spird  breviter  exsertd, 
anfractibim  rotuniatis,  lavibus,  juxta  sutiiram  plicato- 
striatis,  aperturd  lunnn-nndd,  ruhimelld  svperue  cal- 
loso-recurvd ;  albu,  slrigis  frnn^/ii/m-spadlceis  medio 
fascia  albd  interniptis  inuJiipn:  pield. 

Forskal's  Natica.  Shell  rather  openly  perspectively 
umbilicated,  globose,  subventricose,  spire  shortly  ex- 
sertcd, whorls  rounded,  smooth,  plicately  striated 
next  the  suture,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  cal- 
lously recurved  at  the  upper  part ;  white,  marked 
throughout  with  longitudinal  rust-fawu  streaks,  leav- 
ing a  white  band  in  the  centre. 

Nvrita  Forskalii,  Chemn.  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  xi.  pi.  197. 
f.  1901  and  1902. 

Hah. ? 

Resembling  the  preceding  species,  but  distinct  in  all  its 
detail  of  character.  The  suture  of  the  spire  is  not  simi- 
larly impressed,  the  plicated  striae  are  very  different  from 
the  wrinkles,  and  the  umbilicus  is  not  obscured  by  any 
winding  columnar  callosity. 

Species  CO.  (:\Ius,  Cuming.) 
Natica  ala-papilionis.    Nat.  testa  ampliter  umbUicutd, 
subylobosd,  spird  exsertd,  sidurd  impressd,  aiifraclibiis 
Icevigatis,  rotimdatis,  superne  depressis  et  pUcato-cor- 

rugatis,  ultimo  multo  effuso,  columelld  superne  callosd, 
callositate  coltmmari  spirali  miibilicnm  intrante ;  spa- 
dicco-cunicd,  :oiiis  qiiidiior  alhi.i  hiariilis  qniulratis 
pitrpiin'i^  ili^laiilihiis  rilhiris  riiiyiihitii,  vatlu.vtate  alhd. 

The  bl:tteufly-wixg  Natica.  Shell  largely  umbili- 
cated, subglobose,  spire  exserted,  suture  impressed, 
whorls  smooth,  rounded,  depressed  and  plicately 
wrinkled  at  the  upper  part,  last  whorl  much  effused, 
columella  callous  at  the  upper  part,  with  a  columnar 
spii-al  callosity  entering  the  umbilicus;  fawn-flesh 
tinged,  encircled  with  four  white  zones,  fiUetcd  with 
distant  square  purple  spots,  callosity  white. 

Nerita  ala-pcipilioiiis,  Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  257. 
f.  1868  to  1871. 

Natica  zouaria,  Lamarck,  I'o  Blainvillc. 
Eadem,  Natica  crenata,  llecluz. 

llab.  San  Nicolas,  Island  of  Zebu,  Philippines  (in  sandy 
mud  at  ten  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
Well  distinguished  by  its  dark  purple  filleted  zones  and 

ell'used  aperture. 

Species  02.  (Pig.  Gl  and  02,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  FULMINEA.  Nat.  tesld  jirrsiH'din'  n..ihi}icald, 
globosd,  solidd,  spird  bred,  Mifi/i,i/in'xsd,  iiiifrnftilms 
rotiindatis,  juxta  suturaiii  siibriide  plicuto-slriatis, 
aperturd  Imian-ovatd,  columelld  superne  late  callosd; 
alhd,  strigis  acute  midatis  nifo-fuscis  irregidnribits 
dense  loiigdudinaliter  pictd. 
The  lightning-marked  Natica.  Shell  perspectively 
umbilicated,  globose,  solid,  spire  short,  somewhat 
impressed,  whorls  rounded,  rudely  plicately  striated 
next  the  suture,  aperture  limar-ovate,  columella 
broadly  callous  at  the  upper  part ;  wlute,  densely 
longitudinally  painted  with  irregular  zigzag  red- 
brown  streaks. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  v.  p.  01- 1. 
NerilafiilMiiiea,  GmeUn. 
Nerita  araclmoidea,  Gmelin. 
Nalica  urucliHuideu,  Lamarck. 
Natica  criientatu,  Lamarck. 
Ndlini  piiHctitla,  Swainson. 
Nidii-n  bif(,.sci,il,i,  llecluz. 
Niilini.  Seitiyidoiiis,  llecluz. 
Nalica  Boiirgiiignali,  Reduz. 

llah.  Senegal. 

Of  this  species,  from  Senegal,  varying  more  or  less  in 

its  markings  of  dots,  blotches,  and  zigzag  flames,  too  many 

spm-ious  species  have  been  made. 

April,  185 

XaUca.Pl.  If. 







Sowerby    dd    f'  ith 

Vimml     Eroiib     liny 

N  A  T  I  C  A. 

Species  G3.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  tinctuhata.  Nat.  tedd  perspeetwe  iimb'dicatd, 
globosd,  neriioided,  spird  breviusculd,  anfructibus  lieoi- 
bits,  politis,  siiperne  depresm,  deinde  subquadrato-ro- 
tundatis,  aperlurd  lunari-ovatd,  columelld  superne  cal- 
losd;  Uvescente-albd,  pimctis  palUde  aurantiis  wacnli" 
peramplis  obliquis  el  faseiis  angnstis  vUtalis  pictd. 

The  stained  Natica.  Shell  perspectively  umbilicated, 
globose,  iieritoid,  spire  rather  short,  whorls  smooth, 
polished,  rather  depressed  at  the  upper  part,  theu 
somewhat  squarely  rounded,  aperture  hniar-ovate,  co- 
lumella callous  at  the  upper  part ;  livid-white,  painted 
with  pale  orange  dots,  large  oblique  blotches,  and 
narrow  filleted  bands. 

Eab.  ? 

A  beautifully-painted  porcelain  shell,  with  a  coloured 


Species  (54.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Florida.  Nat.  testa  imibilicatd,  globasd,  spird 
breviusculd,  anfractibus  lavibus,  superne  declivib/cs, 
deinde  roluudalis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  effimt,  co- 
lumelld superne  leviter  callosd,  callositate  parvd  co- 
lumnari  spirali  umbilicicm  intrante ;  albidd,  punctis 
palUde  spadiceis  confertis  undalo-aggregatis  undique 
pictd,  umbilico  spadiceo. 

The  florid  Natica.  Shell  umbilicated,  globose,  spire 
rather  short,  whorls  smooth,  slanting  at  the  upper 
part,  then  rounded,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  effused, 
columella  slightly  callous  at  the  upper  part,  with  a 
small  spiral  columnar  callosity  entering  the  umbili- 
cus ;  whitish,  paiiited  thi-ougbout  with  close-set  wavc- 
aggi-egated  light  fawn  dots,  umbilicus  fawn. 

Hab. ? 

Allied  to  the  preceding,  but  less  globose,  and  furnished 

with  a  very  characteristic  columnar  callosity. 

Species  65.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

N'atic.4.  violacea.  Nut.  testa  subtecte  imibilicatd,  coiioi- 
deo-globosd,  crussd,  spird  breviusculd,  obtusd,  anfrac- 
tibus lavibus,  politis,  supertie  decUvibus,  deinde  rotun- 
datis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  subobliqud,  columelld 
superne  late  encaustd,  encausto  umbilicum  fere  obte- 
gerite ;  albd,  maculis  aurantio-fuscis  qitadratis  seria- 
tim tessellatd,  maculis  interdum  promiscue  interruptis, 
encausto  columellari  intense  violaceo-roseo. 

The  violet  Natica.  Shell  with  a  nearly-covered  um- 
bilicus, conoid-globose,  thick,  spire  rather  short,  ob- 
tuse, whorls  smooth,  polished,  slanting  at  the  upper 
part,  then  rounded,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  rather  ob- 
lique, columella  broadly  enamelled  at  the  upper  part, 
enamel  nearly  covering  the  umbilicus  ;  white,  tessel- 
lated with  rows  of  square  orange-brown  spots,  spots 

sometimes  promiscuously  interrupted,  columellar  ena- 
mel deep  violet-rose. 

SoWERBY,  Tankerville  Catalogue,  App.  p.  xi. 
Natica  rhodosfoma,  Philippi. 

Ilab.  Island  of  Masbate,  Philippines  (in  sandy  mud  at  six 
fathoms)  ;  Cuming. 

This  very  beautiful  species  is  distinguished  from  all  others 
of  the  genua  by  the  delicate  violet-rose  colouring  of  the 
columellar  enamel. 

Species  fi6.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Broderipiana.  Nat.  testa  late  umbilicatd,  glo- 
boid, solidiicsculd,  spird  exsertd,  anfractibus  cmwexis, 
lo/igitudinaliter pUcato-sulcatis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd, 
eff'iisd,  columella  tenuiculd,  callositate  depressd  colum- 
nari  spirali  umbilicum  intrante  ;  pallide  aurantio-spa- 
diced,  fa.iciis  tribus  distantihus  castaneis  interruptis. 

Broderip's  Natica.  Shell  broadly  tmabilicated,  globose, 
rather  solid,  spire  exserted,  whorls  convex,  longitudi- 
nally pUcately  grooved,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  effused, 
columella  rather  thin,  with  a  depressed  columnar  spiral 
callosity  entering  the  umbilicus ;  light  orange-fawn, 
encu-cledwith  three  interrupteddistant  chestnut  bands. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1847,  p.  205. 
Eadem  Natica  Taslei,  Eecluz. 

Wib.  Xipixapi,  West  Colombia  (in  sandy  uuid  at  sixteen 
fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
The  surface  of  this  species  is  impressed  longitudinally 

with  grooves,  which  at  the  suture  and  base  pucker  it  into 

fine  ribs. 

Species  67.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  picta.  Nat.  testa  umbilicatd,  si/bglobosd,  ntri- 
tuided,  spird  breviusculd,  anfractibus  lavigatis,  rotun- 
dat'is,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  subproductd,  columelld 
superne  callosd,  callositate  solidd  columnari  umbilicum 
fere  iwplente ;  albidd,  linuis  aurantio-spadiceis  tenuis- 
siiiw  umlatis  in  fasciis  qnatuor  plus  minus  aperte  sa- 
gitiatis  undiipue  dense  pictd. 

The  painted  Natica.  Shell  umbilicated,  subglobose, 
ncritoid,  spire  rather  short,  whorls  smooth,  rounded, 
aperture  lunar-ovate,  rather  produced,  columella  cal- 
lous at  the  upper  part,  with  a  solid  columnar  callosity 
nearly  filling  the  umbilicus  ;  whitish,  everywhere 
densely  painted  with  very  finely-waved  orange-fawn 
lines,  more  or  less  openly  arrow-headed  in  four  bands. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  18-13,  p.  204. 

Effidem  Natica  euzona  and  Natica  elegaiis,  Recluz. 

Hab.  Basey,  Isle  of  Samar,  Philippines  (on  the  reefs) ; 
The  linear  painting  of  this  species  varies  in  being  more 

or  less  opened  out  in  pattern. 

.\pril,  1855. 






Sowcrtry  del  cl  litli 

Yiiicait   Brooks  Imj 


Fig.  fiS.   (Mus.  Cuming-.) 

Natica  ravida.  Nal.  Irsfii  profit iiJi'  perspective  nmbili- 
catd,  ijlohosd,  solid i. is  in /if,  .yiird  piirtd,  ohbtsd,  anfrac- 
tiiiis  Uemjaiis,  svpcnii:  iJeclicihiiH,  dvinde  convexis,  co- 
lumella superne  et  wfeme  densissinie  callosd,  aper- 
turd  lunari-ovatd,  parviusctdd ;  alba,  epiderrnide  temd 
luted  sidirufjosci  corned  iiidutd. 

The  tawny  Natica.  Shell  deeply  perspectively  umbili- 
cated,  globose,  very  solid,  spire  smaU,  obtuse,  whorls 
smooth,  slanting  at  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  co- 
lumella very  densely  callous,  above  and  below,  aper- 
ture lunar-ovate,  rather  small ;  white,  covered  with  a 
thin,  rough,  horny,  yellowish  epidermis. 

SouLEYET,  Voyage  de  la  Bonite. 

Hah.  St.  Elena,  West  Columbia  (in  sandy  mud  at  six 
fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
A  shell  of  pecidiar  solid  globose  growth,  marble- white, 

covered  with  a  thin,  rough,  yellowish  epidermis. 

Species  69.  (Fig.  a  to  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  orientalis.  Nat.  testa  late  imihilicatd,  sitbylo- 
bosd,  peculiariter  laxe  convolutd,  spird  parvd,  siibim- 
mersd,  suturd  imp-essd,  anfractibns  rotnndatis,  lavi- 
ffntis,  juxfa  suturam  radiatim  corrugatis,  rapid!}  lon- 
tjitudinaliter  dilatatis,  aperturd  oblongo-oeatd,  am- 
pliter  dilutato-effusd,  colmiielld  supra  et  infra  callosd, 
callositate  cohnnnari  spirali  mnljUicitm.  iidraiile,  fith-o- 
castaned  vel  elmrned. 
The  oriental  Natica.  Shell  broadly  umbilicated,  sub- 
globose,  peculiarly  loosely  convoluted,  spire  small, 
somewhat  immersed,  suture  impressed,  whorls  round- 
ed, smooth,  radiately  wrinkled  next  the  suture,  ra- 
pidly longitudinally  dilated,  aperture  oblong-ovate, 
largely  dilately  eftused,  columella  callous  above  and 
below,  with  a  columnar  spiral  callosity  entering  the 
umbilicus ;  fulvous-chestnut,  or  white. 
Nerita  orientalis,  Gmclin,  Syst.  Nat.  p.  .3673. 

Natica  ehnrnea,  Deshayes. 
Ilab.  Singapore  (in  sandy  mud,  at  four  to  six  fathoms) ; 
The  two  varieties  of  this  very  characteristic,  loosely 
convoluted,  dilately  effused  species,  arc  respectively  de- 
scribed ^by  Chemnitz  as  snbfatoa  and  ehiiriieu,  but  not 

Species  70.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  rdfa.  Nat.  testa  e.rcimilo-inubiricald,  (jlol)oso- 
neritoided,  soliditisculd,  spird  lireri,  inifruciilius  rolitii- 
datis,  snpen/i  declivib/ts  et  leiiiii  p/icti/o-corrHgatis, 
iiperliird  lunari-ovatd,  colimelld  superne  callosd,  cal- 
lusiliife  colimiuari  parvd  spirali  umhilicmn.  intrauie ; 
fulco-castaned,  fascia  pallidd  cimjalaid,  infra  et  jnxta 
suturam  albd. 

The  red  Natica.  Shell  excavately  umbilicated,  glo- 
bosely  neritoid,  rather  solid,  spire  short,  whorls 
rounded,  slanting  at  the  upper  part,  and  finely  pli- 
cately  wrinkled,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  cal- 
lous at  the  upper  part,  with  a  small  spiral  colunmar 
callosity  entering  the  umbilicus ;  fulvous-chestnut, 
encircled  with  a  pale  baud,  white  beneath  and  next 
the  suture. 

Lamarck,  Auira.  sans  vert.  (Deshayes'  edit.),  vol.  viii.  p. 
Nerita  rifn,  Born. 

Uub.  Singapore  (in  sandy  mud,  at  six  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
This  and   N.  spadir.ea  are  probably  varieties,  yet  the 

former  is  of  larger  ventricose  growth,  and  is  concavely 

impressed  next  the  suture. 

Species  71.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  solida.  Nat.  testa  suhohtecle  umhUicatd,  <jlo- 
tjoso-neritoided,  crassd,  solidd,  spird  abtrreviato-cono- 
ided,  anfractibus  superne  coitcavo-declivibus,  deinde 
rotundatis,  Ixvigatis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  columella 
superne  dense  encaustd,  encausto  super  umliiUcmn  revo- 
lutd;  violaceo-castaned,  encausto  columellari  iutense 
purpureo-castaneo,  niteute. 

The  solid  Natica.  Shell  with  a  nearly  covered  umbi- 
licus, globosely  neritoid,  thick,  solid,  spire  shortly 
conoid,  whorls  concavely  slanting  at  the  upper  part, 
theu  rounded,  smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  colu- 
mella thickly  enamelled  at  the  upper  part,  enamel 
roUed  back  over  the  umbilicus ;  violet-chestnut,  co- 
lumellar  enamel  dark  purple-chestnut,  shining.'ville,  Malacologie,  pi.  36.  f.  8. 

//(//;.  San  Nicolas,  Island  of  Zebu,  Philippines  (in  sandy 
mud,  at  ten  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
Characterized    by    a   peculiarly    dark    violet-chestaut 


April,  1855 

Nntim    Pl.m. 




ir'.^is  Iti^ 


Plate  XVII. 

Spccirs  73.  (Mus.  Ciiming.) 

Natica  filosa.  Nat.  tedd  mhanymle  umbiUcatd,  cum- 
presso-ovatd,  Siyaretoided,  spird  Irevi,  acmninatd,  un- 
fractihus  dedki-corivexis,  arcuatim  longitudinalikr 
striata,  slriis  minutis  impressis  nndulatis  spiralibm 
decussatd,  aufractu,  ultimo  injlato,  aperturd  ampld, 
columella  mblate  rejlexd ;  albidd,  fasciis  duabiis  latis 
dilute  ferrugineo-fuscis  cingidatd,  columella  purpiireo- 

The  thread-marked  Natica.  Shell  rather  narrowly 
umbilicated,  compressly  ovate,  inflated,  Sigaretus- 
shaped,  spii'e  short,  acuminated,  whorls  slantingly 
convex,  arcuately  longitudinally  striated,  decussated 
with  minute,  waved,  spiral,  impressed  iintu,  last 
whorl  large,  inflated,  aperture  large,  columella  rather 
broadly  reflected  ;  whitish,  encircled  with  two  broad, 
diluted,  rust-brown  bands,  columella  purple-black. 

SowERBY,  MS3.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  ? 

This  species,  belonging  to  the  group  of  Naticcs,  par- 
taking mostly  of  the  character  of  Sigandm,  is  distinguished 
by  its  decussated  thread-like  sculpture. 

Species  73.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Succineoides.  Nat.  tcdd  angude  obtecte  um- 
biUcatd, compresse  ovatd,  spird  brevi,  acmninatd,  an- 
fractibus  oblique  plicato-striatis,  snperne  concavo-de- 
clivibus,  delude  plano-conxexis,  aufroxiu  nUiiuo  in- 
jlato, aperturd  ampld,  basi  subeffntsd,  cnh'uieUd  phiiio- 
rcfie.xd,  mubilicum  tegente ;  alba,  qiidi:n,iide  teuui 
induta,  columelld  et  area  umbilicali  purpureo-nigris. 

The  Succinea-like  Natica.  Shell  with  a  narrow  co- 
vered umbilicus,  compressly  ovate,  spire  short,  acu- 
minated, whorls  obliquely  plicately  striated,  eoncavely 
slanting  at  the  upper  part,  then  flatly  convex,  last 
whorl  inflated,  aperture  large,  rather  eft'used  at  the 
base,  columella  flatly  reflected  at  the  back,  covering 
the  umbilicus ;  white,  covered  with  a  thin  epidermis, 
columella  and  umbilical  area  purple-black. 

Hab.  Pasacoa,  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (in  sandy  mud 
at  ten  fathoms) ;  Cuming. 

A  delicate  white  species,  having  the  characteristic  form 

of  Succii/ea,  with  the  rich  purple-black  stained  columella 
broadly  reileeted  aud  pressed  down  upon  the  umbilicus. 

Species  7k  (Fig.  a,  Mus.  Cuming  ;  Fig.  b,  Mus.  Taylor.) 

Natica  Seb.b.  Nat.  lestd  anguste  nmbilicatd,  oblongo- 
ovatd,  tenuiculd,  spird  parvd,  acuminatd,  anfractibus 
leviler  convexis,  temie  plicato-striatis,  slriis  minutis- 
.umis  .ipiralibus  impressis  decussntis,  aufractu  ultimo 
Mul/o  tiijhdo,  (iperlurd  auipld,  .^ithquudrulu-orntd,  co- 
luiiirllu  brcriiisntlii,  aiipi-nie  hile  apprcmt ;  pelhicido- 
iilhd,  j'liam  hilerdu,,,  oljseiire  fiisc'inld,  epidermide  fulm 
induta,  columelld  riohiceu-J'uscd. 

Seba's  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  umbilicated,  oblong- 
ovate,  rather  thin,  spire  small,  acuminated,  whorls 
slightly  convex,  finely  plicately  striated,  striae  decus- 
sated with  spiral,  very  minute,  impressed  stria;,  last 
whorl  much  inflated,  aperture  large,  somewhat  square- 
ly ovate,  columella  rather  short,  broadly  appressed  at 
the  upper  part ;  transparent  white,  sometimes  ob- 
scurely banded  with  brown,  covered  with  a  fulvous 
epidermis,  columella  violet-brown. 

Souleyet,  Voyage  de  la  Bonite,  pi.  3.5,  f.  0,  7. 

Hab.  San  Nicolas,   Island   of   Zebu,    Philippines  (under 
stones) ;  Cuming. 
A  fine  bold  species,  the  largest  and  most  inflated  of  the 

Sigaretus-like  group. 

Species  75.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Zanzibarica.  Nat.  testa  subobtecte  umbiUcatd, 
coiupi-esse  quadrato-ovatd,  spird  minutd,  aufractibus 
longitudinaliter  plicato-striatis,  striis  mimUissimis  im- 
pressis spiralibus  decussatis,  anfractu  ultimo  peramplo, 
injlato,  aperturd  qnndrato-ovatd,  patnld,  columelld 
late  rcjh'xd,  limhilimui  frri:  l.ycnle  :  ulhd,fiixc'id fused 
interrnpid  ahsnu-r  ninjulald.  rjjidrruiidr  fnlnl  indutd, 
columelld  el  arrd  iiiMllrali  iiigrirunle-vaslauris. 

The  Zanzibau  N.viica.  Shell  with  a  nearly  covered 
umbilicus,  compressly  quadrately  ovate,  spire  very 
small,  whorls  longitudinally  plicately  striated,  strioa 
decussated  with  very  minute  spiral  impressed  stria;, 
last  whorl  very  large,  inflated,  aperture  squarely 
ovate,  open,  columella  broadly  reflected  back,  nearly 
covering  the  umbibcus;  white,   obscurely   encircled 

NATICA.— Plate  XVII. 

with  a  brown  inten-upted  band,  covered  with  a  ful- 
vous epidermis,  columella  and  umbilical  area  blackish - 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  213. 

Hah.  Zanzibar;  Thorn. 

Distinguished  chiefly  from   the   other   species   of  the 

group  by  its  square  and  more  open  form  and  minute  spire. 

Species  76.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  SimI/E.  Nat.  testa  obtecte  umbilicatd,  ovatd,  spiril 
brevi,  anfractibw  declwi-convexis,  minute  plicato-stri- 
atis,  sttbuitewtiius,  apertvrd  oblongo-ovatd,  cohimelld 
late  rejlexd,  wmbilicum  fere  tegente;  cxrulescente-albd, 
maculis  undatis  nifescente-castamis,   bizonatim,   iii- 

terdum  trizonatim,  chignl.atd,  columella  nigricante-cas- 
The  monkey  Natica.     Shell  with  a  nearly  covered  um- 
bilicus, ovate,  spire  short,  whorls  slantingly  convex, 
minutely  plicately   striated,  rather  shining,  aperture 
oblong-ovate,  columella  broadly  reflected,  nearly  co- 
vering the  umbilicus ;  bluish-white,  encircled   with 
two,  sometimes  thj-ee,  zones  of  waved  reddish  chest- 
nut spots,  columella  blackish-chestnut. 
Deshayes,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  552. 
Ruma  Simla,  Chemnitz. 
Eadem,  Natica  Simioides,  Recluz. 
Hub.  Philippine  Islands. 

Distinguished  by  its  bands  of  waved  reddish  chestnut- 
streaked  spots  and  shining  sui-face. 

Xunra  ,  /7,  JUII. 


Sowalv  dci  t  liri 


Plate  XVIII. 

Species  77.  (Mus.  Ciimiug.) 

N.VTICA  IMPERFORATA.  Nat.  testd  ohtecti  umbiUcatd,  ylo- 
bosd,  solidd,  spird  suhexsertd,  obtum,  anfractihm  sn- 
penie  subcoiicavo-impressis,  deinde  convexis,  aperturd 
semilimari,  colunielld  dense  callom,  callodlate  late 
expansd,  umbilicum  implente ;  Iwido-albd,  Jlammis 
irevibus  rufis  infra  suturani  cimjulatd,  deinde  p/mciis 
rvfs  UHihjne  aspersd. 

The  imperforated  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbi- 
licus, globose,  solid,  spire  somewhat  exscrted,  obtuse, 
whorls  somewhat  eoncavely  impressed  round  the 
upper  part,  then  convex,  aperture  semilunar,  colu- 
mella densely  callous,  callosity  broadly  spread,  filling 
up  the  umbilicus ;  livid-white,  encircled  beneath  the 
suture  with  short  red  flames,  then  everywhere  sprin- 
kled with  red  dots. 

SowEEBY,  Zool.  Beechey's  Voyage,  p.  135.  pi.  37.  f.  1. 

Hab.  Buffalo,  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

A  very  distinct  solid  species,  encircled  beneath  the  su- 
ture with  a  characteristic  fringe  of  irregular  red  flames, 
the  remainder  of  the  shell  being  freckled  with  dots  of  the 
same  colom-.  The  callosity  thickly  overspreads  the  um- 

Species  78.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  melastoma.  Nat.  testd  obtecte  iimbi/imtd, 
ovatd,  subtits  plaiiimculd,  spird  obtusd,  aufractibus  sii- 
penie  superJlciaUter  concaco-excavatis,  oblique  striatis, 
striisfere  obsoletis,  aperiurd  ovatd,  colunielld  late  cal- 
losd,  calhsitate  nmbilicimi  daudente ;  limh-cinered, 
callositate  sanguined. 

The  black-modth  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  um- 
bilicus, ovate,  rather  flattened  beneath,  spire  obtus  e 
whorls  faintly  eoncavely  excavated  round  the  upper 
part,  obliquely  striated,  strife  almost  obsolete,  aper- 
ture ovate,  columella  broadly  callous,  callosity  over- 
spreading the  umbilicus;  livid-ash,  callosity  blood-red. 

SwAiNSON,  Zool.  lUus.  1st  Series,  pi.  79. 
Natica  sanyuinoleida,  Deshayes. 

Hah.  Mouth  of  the  Brisbane  Eiver,  Australia. 

The  umbilicus  of  this  species  is  entirely  overspread  bv 

a  delicate  blood-stained  callosity. 

Species  79.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  ianthostoma.  Nat.  testd  sidjoblecte  iimbilicatd, 
fflobosd,  subii/flatd,  spird  subexsertd,  apice  acntd,  uii- 
fractibus  rotundatis,  obsolete  plicato-striatd,  aperturd 
ovato-avriformi,  columelld  tenwi,  uiMUco  parvo,  cal- 
lositate fere  impleto  ;  fidvo-fusceseeute,  aperturd  vio- 
lascente  tiuctd. 

The  violet-mouthed  Natica.  Shell  with  a  nearly 
covered  umbilicus,  globose,  somewhat  inflated,  spire 

rather  exserted,  sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  rounded, 
obsoletely  pHcately  striated,  aperture  ovately  ear- 
shaped,  columella  tliiu,  umbilicus  small,  nearly  filled 
with  the  callosity ;  fulvous-brown,  aperture  stained 
with  violet. 

Deshayes,  Guerin's  Mag.  de  Zool.  pi.  45. 

Hab.  Kamtschatka. 

There  is  but  a  faint  tinge  of  violet  in  the  specimen  of 

this  species  here  figured,  but  the  colour  is  well  shown  in 

the  original  figure  of  M.  Deshayes. 

Species  SO.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Flemingiana.  Nat.  testd  mnbilico  parmuscido, 
pyrifurmi-ocatd,  crassissimd,  solidd,  ■•spird  subexsertd, 
obtusi  callosd,  a)ifractibus  superne  callosis,  lavibus, 
aperturd  si'iiiiJiiiiari,  parviusculd,  columelld  s/iperue 
dense  callosd ;  omnino  uitente-ebumed.'s  Natica.  Shell  with  a  rather  small  umbili- 
cus, ]5_\Tiformly  ovate,  very  thick,  solid,  spire  rather 
exserted,  obtusely  callous,  whorls  slanting  at  the 
upper  part,  smooth,  apertiu'c  semilunar,  rather  small, 
columella  densely  callous  at  the  upper  part ;  every- 
where shining  ivory-white. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  209. 

Hab.  Sorsogon,  Isle  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (among  sand 
and  small  stones) ;  Cuming. 
A  very  solid,  shining,  ivory-white  shell  of  peculiar  form 

and  character. 

Species  81.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Stkangei.  Nat.  testa  subanguste perspective  iim- 
bilicatd, globoso-ovatd,  spird  subexsertd,  anfractibus 
■wpcrne  superficialiter  coiwavo-excatmtis,  et  obliijui 
pticato-striatis,  deinde  rotundatis,  kevibus,  aperturd 
pi/riformi-lunari,  columelld  superne  late  callosd j  li- 
cido-ciuered,  fascia  angnstd  sanguined  infra  sutnram, 
apice  cmrnleo-nigro,  ared  umbilicaU  labia  et  murgine 
callositatis  vivide  sanguineis. 

Strange's  Natica.  Shell  rather  naiTowly  perspectively 
umbilicated,  globosely  ovate,  spire  somewhat  ex- 
serted, whorls  faintly  eoncavely  excavated  round  the 
upper  part,  and  obliquely  pHoately  striated,  then 
rounded  and  smooth,  aperture  pyriformly  lunar,  co- 
lumella broadly  callous  at  the  upper  part ;  livid-ash, 
with  a  narrow  blood-red  band  beneath  the  suture, 
apex  blue-black,  umbilical  area,  lip,  and  edge  of  the 
callosity  bright  blood-red. 

Hab.  Port  Jackson,   South   Australia   (on   mud   bank^)  ; 
A  solid  species,  allied  to  .V.  pln.nbea,  of  a  delicate  slate 

or  livid-ash  colour,  stained  with  deep  blood-red  round  tin- 

aperture  and  within  the  umbibcal  area,  wilh  a  lighter  baud 

of  the  same  colour  beneath  the  suture. 








Species  82.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  CniNENSls.  Nat.  testa,  siihohtcde  umhiltcald, 
semiglohoscl,  sjiird  brevi,  stdiird  imjn'essd,  anguste  ca- 
naUmlatd,  npice  acuta,  afifraciibm  mperne  plicato- 
■\lr'wtis,  dfinde  lavlhns,  couce.rix,  a/irrt/ira  sciiiihiiiar/, 
xnhi'll'iixi! ,  luiihiUco  amplo,  cuUosituli'  laid  '<i'„iii,iiiilrlii ; 
nlhd,  mandis  castaueis  sidiqnadi-ntis  dixtiiiiUbiiti  i-cMidi 
ciiigulald,  epldermide  tenia  indatd. 

The  Chinese  Natica.  Shell  with  a  uenrly  covered  uiii- 
bUicus,  seniiglobose,  spire  short,  suture  impressed, 
narrowly  cliauncUed,  apex  sharp,  whorls  plicately 
striated  round  the  upper  part,  then  smooth,  convex, 
aperture  semilunar,  somewhat  effused,  umbilicus 
large,  half-filled  with  a  broad  callosity;  white,  re- 
motely encircled  with  distant,  somewhat  square  chest- 
nut spots,  covered  with  a  thin  epidermis. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  saus  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  6i4. 

Hah.  China  and  Philippine  Islands. 

This  species  is   chiefly  distinguished  by  the  distinct 

square-like  character  and  distant  arrangement  of  the  spots. 

Species  83.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Adansoni.  Nat.  tedd  ampliter  penpectm  vui- 
biUcatd,  subglobosd,  spird  medlocri,  apice  acuta,  aii- 
fractibus  miperul  planatk  et  oblique  striatis,  delude  ro- 
tuudatis,  lisvigatis,  basin  versus  siibattenuatis,  aper- 
turd  subangicste  semilunari,  unibilico  callositate  patum 
(devoid;  carneo-albd,  pnnctis  riijis  undique  aspersd, 
maculis  subob-iciire  bifasciatd,  callositate  rufd. 

Adanson's  Natica.  Shell  largely  perspectively  umbili- 
cated,  subglobose,  spire  moderate,  sharp  at  the  apex, 
whorls  flattened  and  obliquely  striated  at  the  upper 
part,  then  rounded,  smooth,  slightly  attenuated  to- 
wards the  base,  aperture  rather  naiTOwly  semilunar, 
umbilicus  with  a  slightly  raised  callosity ;  flesh-white, 
everywhere  sprinkled  with  red  dots,  and  encircled 
with  two  obscure  bands  of  blotches,  callosity  red. 

Le  Fanel,  Adanson. 

Natica  Fanel,  Recluz. 

Hab.  East  and  west  coasts  of  Africa. 

The  name  given  to  this  species  by  the  old  French  con- 
chologist  of  Senegal  cannot  be  strictly  used  in  a  Latin 
form  of  nomenclature.  It  is  always  distinct  both  in  form 
and  colouring  from  the  allied  species  of  Senegal,  and  in- 
habits also  Zanzibar. 

Species  8i.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Jckesii.  Nat.  testa  umbilicatd,  globo'so-neri- 
toided,  soUdissimd,  crassd,  spird  mimitd,  vix  elevatd, 
anfractibus  convexis,  politis,  aperturd  semilunari,  par- 
viusculd,  columelld  late  callosd,  iimbilico  perspectim  ; 
omnino  nitente-ehurned. 

Jukes'  Natica.  Shell  umbilicated,  globosely  neritoid, 
very  solid,  thick,  spire  minute,  scarcely  elevated, 
whorls  convex,  polished,  aperture  semilunar,  rather 
small,  columella  broadly  callous,  umbilicus  perspec- 
tive ;  everywhere  shining  ivory-white. 
Natica  candidissima,  Rccluz  (not  of  Le  GuiUou). 
Iliib.  North  Australia ;  Jukes. 

A  very  solid  neritoid  shell,  of  shining  ivory-white  sub- 
stance, distinguished  by  a  particularly  small  superficial 
spire,  and  arched  perspective  umbilicus. 

Species  85.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  unimaculata.  Nat.  testd  compresse  umbilicatd, 
suJipyriJ'ormi-ovatd,  crassd,  solidd,  spird  brevi,  acumi- 
natd,  anfractibus  swperue  decUvibus,  deinde  convexis, 
Iccvigatis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  columelld  stiperne 
late  callosd,  caUosifate  umbUicali  mediocri ;  albidd, 
i-piderniide  corned  fahd  indiitd,  cuUosiiate  piirpureo- 
The  one-spotted  Natica.  Shell  compressly  umbili- 
cated, somewhat  pyriformly  ovate,  thick,  solid,  spire 
short,  acuminated,  whorls  slanting  at  the  upper  part, 
then  convex,  smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella 
broadly  callous  at  the  upper  part,  umbilical  callosity 
moderate ;  white,  covered  with  a  fulvous  horny  epi- 
dermis, callosity  stained  with  a  purple  spot. 
Hub.  Mnzatlan ;  Lieut.  Shipley. 

A  solid  shell,  of  a  pyriformly  ovate  shape,  whitish,  co- 
vered with  a  conspicuous  fulvous  epidermis.  Its  chief 
peculiarity  consists  in  there  being  a  characteristic  purple 
stain  on  the  umbiKcal  callosity. 

Species  86.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Gallapagosa.    Nai.  testd  ai/gnste  arcnatiin  um- 
bilicatd, ovato-globosd,  crassiusculd,  spird  brevitisculd, 
obtusd,  anfractibus  siiperue  declivibus,  deinde  plano- 
conrcvis,    lavigatis,   ant   teimissime    oblique   striatis, 
aperturd  ovatd,  columelld  snperne  valde  callosd ;  ci- 
nereo-plumbed,  fascia  latd  pallide  unrantid  juxta  su- 
turani,  apertura:  fa uce  fuscesceute. 
The  Gallapagos   Natica.      Shell  naiTowly  arcuately 
umbilicated,  ovately  globose,  rather  thick,  spire  rather 
short,  obtuse,  whorls  slanting  at  the  upper  part,  then 
flatly  convex,  smooth,  or  very  finely  obliquely  stri- 
ated, aperture  ovate,  columella  very  callous  at  the 
upper  part ;  ash-lead,  with  a  broad  light  orange  band 
next  the  suture,  interior  of  the  aperture  brownish. 
Kecluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  213. 
Hab.  Albemarle  Island,  Gallapagos  group  (in  coral  sand); 
An  obtusely  ovate  species,  of  a  lead-ash  colour,  encir- 
cled round  the  spire  with  a  broad  pale  orange  band. 

May,  1855. 






Plate  XX. 

Species  87.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  collaeia.     Nat.  testa  mnbilicatd,  glohosa,  sjiird 
iubproducta,  sntiird  ptanaid,  leviter  canalicuhitd,  an- 
fractibm  convexis,  aperturd  semihinari,  cohoiielld  te- 
nuicuM,  calJositate  parvd  colimmari  wmhiliciim  in- 
trante ;  albidd,  striyis  pallide  rufescente-fuscis  taidatix 
pictd,  strigis  ampHi  paticioribtis  in  fascid  pateute  infra 
The  collar  Natica.     Shell  iimbilicated,  globose,  spire 
rather  produced,  suture  flattened,  slightly  channelled, 
whorls  convex,  aperture  semilunar,  columella  rather 
thin,  with  a  small  columnar  callosity  entering  the 
umbilicus ;  wliitish,  painted  with  light  waved  reddish- 
brown  streaks,  streaks  beneath  the  sutui'e  large  and 
fewer,  in  an  open  band. 
Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  638. 
Hab.  Senegal. 

The  open  zigzag  waves  which  fonn  a  collar,  so  to  speak, 
round  the  upper  part  of  each  whorl,  are  always  charac- 
teristic of  this  species. 

Species  88.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Xatica  clausa.  Nat.  iestd  imperforatd,  ylobulari,  tenni- 
culd,  spird  hrevi,  snbexsertd,  anfractibus  ■V(peme  sub- 
depressis,  deinde  rotundaiis,  lavigatis,  aperturd  hmari- 
ovatd,  coliimeUd  tenui,  callosd,  caUositate  mubilicurn 
claudente ;  albidd  aut  fuscescente. 

The  closed  Natica.  Shell  imperforated,  globular,  rather 
thin,  spu-e  short,  rather  esserted,  whorls  a  little  de- 
pressed round  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  smooth, 
aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  thin,  caUous,  callosity 
closing  the  umbilicus;  white  or  brownish. 

BoRDEEip  and  Sowerby,  Zool.  Journal,  vol.  iv.  p.  .360. 

Hub.  North  Sea. 

Of  a  delicate  white  or  brownish  colour,  generally  thin,  but 

varpng  in  substance  according  to  circumstances  of  locality. 

Species  89.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Inch.     Nat.  tedd  ohted'e  mnbilicatd,  orhictdari- 
depressd,  solidiusculd,  spird  pluuo-obtusd,  anfruciibus 

angustis,  .viperne  declim-ronre.vis,  inferne  rotundatis, 
/i/in/„/e  dt'Cii.mitim.  .Hriatis,  aperlvrd  1  itnari-ovatd, 
//ori-on/fi/i,  cohtmeUd  si(bcicii/e  adlosd,  caUositate  lata, 
rotmidatd,  in  ared  umbilicali ;  nitente-albd. 

Ince's  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus,  orbi- 
cularly depressed,  rather  solid,  spire  flatly  obtuse, 
whorls  narrow,  slantingly  convex  at  the  upper  part, 
rounded  at  the  lower,  very  minutely  decussately 
striated,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  horizontal,  columella 
rather  sharply  callous,  callosity  broad,  round,  in  the 
umbilical  area ;  shining  white. 

Philippi,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Torres  Straits,  Australia ;  Capt.  Incc. 

A  species  of  solid  texture,  and  of  peculiarly  depressed 

growth,  with  a  large  solid  button-like  callosity  filling  up 

the  umbilical  area. 

Species  90.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Zelandica.  Nat.  testd  vix  tmibilicatd,  globoso- 
Inrbinatd,  spird  stihexsertd,  anfractibus  snperne  declivi- 
conre.vis,  deinde  rotundatis,  glabris,  aperturd  Iniiari- 
otntd,  columelld  tenui,  caUositate  rotuudnfd  in  urea 
iinibilicnii ;  liiteo-spadiced,  maculis  fuscis  circua/is 

The  New  Zealand  Natica.  Shell  scarcely  umbilieated, 
globosely  turbinated,  spii-e  rather  esserted,  whorls 
slantingly  convex  on  the  upper  part,  then  rounded, 
smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  thin,  with  a 
round  callosity  in  the  umbilical  area ;  yellowish-fawn, 
cncii-cled  with  five  zones  of  arched  brown  spots. 

QuoY  and  Gaimard,  Voy.  de  I'Astrolabe,  vol.  ii.  p.  237. 
pi.  66.  f.  11  and  13. 
Natica  afjinis,  Philippi. 

Hab.  New  Zealand. 

Of  a  smooth  porcelain-like  substance,  painted  with  five 

rows  of  arched  spots. 

Pig.  91.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
For  description  of  this  species.  A',  sulcata,  see  next  Plate, 
Sp.  95. 

Maj%  1855. 

y,iiir.i  .pi.m. 



5owerby  Wetlilh 

'Vincent    Brooks    Imp 


Plate  XXI. 

Species  92.   (Fig.  «,  Mus.  Taylor ;   Fig.  h,  c, 
Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Natica  catenata.  Nat.  testa  anifliter  excavate  imihi- 
licatd,  oblique  depresm,  siibbiflatd,  infra  concam,  npird 
parvd,  anfractibus  superne  declivibits,  dense  plicato- 
striaiis,  interstitiis  acute  impresm,  anfractmaii  medio 
et  parte  inferiori  leevibus  vel  minute  decussatim  stri- 
atis,  aperturd  lunari-ovaid,  subampld,  cffimi,  columella 
tenui,  callositate  lata  obtusd  columuari  umbilicum  iu- 
traute ;  Uvido-citiereu,  Jlammis  fulvo-fnticescentibus 
fasciatim  pictd. 

The  chained  Natica.  Shell  largely  cxcavately  umbi- 
licated,  obliquely  depressed,  somewhat  inflated,  con- 
cave beneath,  spire  small,  whorls  slanting  in  the 
upper  part,  densely  plicately  striated,  the  interstices 
being  sharply  impressed,  middle  and  lower  portion 
of  the  whorls  smooth  or  minutely  decussately  stri- 
ated, aperture  lunar-ovate,  rather  large,  effused,  co- 
lumella thin,  with  a  broad  obtuse  columnar  callosity 
entering  the  umbilicus ;  livid  ash-colour,  painted 
with  bands  of  fulvous-brown  flames. 

Philippi,  Pro.  Zool.  See.  1851. 

Hah.  Sicily. 

This  very  interesting  species  is  of  an  obliquely  de- 
pressed form,  characterized  beneath  the  suture  with  a 
dense  row  of  deeply  grooved  plicated  ridges,  which  ter- 
minate suddenly  at  about  oue-third  of  the  shell. 

A  very  solid  conical  species,  of  a  shining  white,  faintly 
tinged  with  brown. 

Species  93.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  pyeamis.  Nat.  testd  subobtecte  nmbilieatd,  co- 
noided,  crassd,  solidd,  spird  valde  exsertd,  anfractibus 
declivi-convexis,  Mimiti-  dt'cifsxnfiiu  striata,  aperturd 
parviusculd,  lunari-iirnUi,  riihi„i(>lld  superne  crasse 
callosd;  fuscescentv-idhd,  nitnile. 

The  pyramid  Natica.  Shell  with  a  nearly  covered 
umbilicus,  conoid,  thick,  soHd,  spire  much  exserted, 
whorls  slantingly  convex,  minutely  decussately  stri- 
ated, aperture  rather  small,  lunar-ovate,  columella 
thickly  callous  at  the  upper  part;  brownish-white, 

Ilab.  Mouth  of  the  Swan  Eiver,  New  Holland  (in  sandy 
mud,  at  the  depth  of  ten  fathoms);  Lieut.  Collie, 

Species  94.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Elen^.  Nat.  testd  ampliter  excavate  umbilicatu, 
oblique  depressd,  inflatd,  spird  parvd,  anfractibus  con- 
vexis,  supra  et  infra  dense  pUcaio-liraiis,  aperturd 
subampld,  lunari-ovatd,  e/pisd,  colunn-lht  .wjicriii'-  cal- 
losd, callositate  laid  cohiniiinri  i'„il)iliriijii  intmnte ; 
lutescente-albd,  lineis  fiiho-rujis  iiitrrnipl'i'  imdnlis 
dense  longitudinaliter  pictd. 

The  Elena  Natica.  Shell  largely  excavately  umbili- 
cated,  obliquely  depressed,  inflated,  spire  small, 
whorls  convex,  closely  plicately  ridged  above  and 
below,  aperture  rather  large,  lunar-ovate,  effused, 
columella  callous  at  the  upper  part,  with  a  broad 
columnar  callosity  entering  the  umbilicus ;  yellowish- 
white,  densely  longitudinally  painted  with  interrupt- 
edly waved  fulvous-red  lines. 

Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  205. 
Eadem  Natica  Haneti,  Eccluz. 

Eab.  St.  Elena,  West  Columbia  (in  sandy  mud,  at  six 
fathoms) ;  Cuming. 
Peculiarly  characterized  by  the  fulvous-red  lines  with 

which  it  is  densely  longitudinally  painted,  being  here  and 

there  suddenly  shaken  or  dislocated,  so  to  speak,  in  their 

plan  of  waving. 

Species  95.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  sulcata.  Nat.  testd  ampliter  e.vcavatii  nmbili- 
eatd, oblique  depressd,  crassiusculd,  spird  brevi,  an- 
fractibus rottmdatis,  juxta  .mturas  impressis,  undique 
fortiier  sulcatis  et  cancellatis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd, 
effusd,  columelld  superne  callosd,  callositate  laid  co- 
lumnari  umbilicum  intrante ;  alhidd,  fulvo-aurantio 
interdum  fasciatd  et  maculatd. 

The  grooved  Natica.  Shell  largely  excavately  umbi- 
licated,  obliquely  depressed,  rather  thick,  spire  short, 
whorls  round,  impressed  next  the  sutures,  strongly 
grooved  and  cancellated  throughout,  aperture  lunar- 
ovate,  effused,  columella  callous  at  the  upper  part, 
with  a  broad  columnar  callosity  entering  the  umbi- 
licus ;  white,  sometimes  banded  and  mottled  with 

June,  1855. 

NATICA.— Plate  XXI. 

Neriltt  sulcata,   Boru,  Test.    Mus.  CiEs.  Vindobonensis, 

pi.  17.  f.  5,  6. 

Nerita  cancellata,  Graelin. 

Natica  cancellata,  Lamarck. 

Natica  sulcata,  Deshayes. 
Hab.  West  Indies. 

Tlie  only  species  n^i  Natica  wliich  is  absolutely  sculptured 
throughout . 

Species  96.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Grcenlandica.     Nat.  testa  vix  vmbilicatd,  glo- 
liosd,  spird  snhampld,  exsertd,  anfractibvs  rotmuhtis, 

laviljKS,  ojiertiird  lunarl-ovatd,  colmnelld  uiferne  cal- 
loso-rffiexd ;  opaco-albd,  epidennide  virescmte-cinered 
indutd,  versus  apicem  plus  minus  erosd. 

The  Greenland  Natica.  Shell  scarcely  umbilieated, 
globose,  spire  rather  large,  exserted,  whorls  rounded, 
smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  callously  re- 
flected at  the  lower  part ;  opake-white,  covered  with 
a  greenish  -  ash  epidermis,  more  or  less  eroded  to- 
wards the  apex. 

Beck,  Moller,  Ind.  Moll.  Grccnlandia-,  p.  7. 

Hah.  Greenland  and  Norway- 

A  light  chalk-w'hite  species,  covered  with  a  peculiar 

livid-ash  smooth  horny  epidermis. 

yalira  ,PI.XnL 




T&ieent  Bioob  Imp 


Plate  XXII. 

Species  97.  (Fig.  n,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natic.\  intricata.     Na(.  tenia  subampUter  excavate  um- 
bilicatd,  subobUque  ylobosd,  solidd,  spird  mediocri,  au- 
fractibun  superni  concavo-ckpressis,  deinde  rotuudatis, 
IfBvibus,  aperturd  Itmari-ovatd,  columella  superne  cal- 
lom-reflexd ;  fuhescente-albd,  flammu  tentdbus  nifes- 
cente-fusch,  fasciisqne  vittatis  angustis. 
The  entangled  Natica.     Shell  rather   largely  exca- 
vately  umbilicated,  rather  obliquely  globose,  solid, 
spire  moderate,  whorls   concavely  depressed  round 
the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  smooth,  aperture  lunar- 
ovate,  columella  callously  reflected  at  the  upper  part ; 
fulvous-white,  painted  with  fine  reddish-brown  flames 
and  narrow  filleted  bands. 
Kerita  intricata,  Donovan,  British  Shells,  vol.  v.  pi.  \f\l. 

Natica  Vulenciennesii,  Payraudeau. 
Hab.  Mediterranean. 

Though  originally  described  as  a  British  shell,  this  spe- 
cies is  not  indigenous  to  our  coast.  It  is  an  inhabitant 
of  the  Mediterranean,  belonging  to  the  same  type  as  N. 

Pig.  98.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
The  shell  here  figured  proves  to  be  the  young  of  N. 
Simla,  represented  at  Plate  XVII.  Fig.  76. 

Species  99.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Vavaosi.  Nat.  profundi  perspective  umbiUcatd, 
oblique  ovatd,  soUdissimd,  spird  obttcsd,  stcbproducld, 
anfractibus  superiw  concavo-declivibus,  deinde  convexis, 
aperturd  parvd,  hmari-ovatd,  colmnelld  callositate  la- 
tissimd  reflexd  ad  partem  superiorem,  umbilicum  par- 
tim  tegente ;  nitente  eburned. 

The  Vavao  Natica.  Shell  deeply  perspectively  umbi- 
licated, obliquely  ovate,  very  solid,  spire  obtuse, 
rather  produced,  whorls  concavely  slanting  at  the 
upper  part,  then  convex,  aperture  small,  lunar-ovate, 
columella  with  a  very  broad  reflected  callosity  at  the 
upper  part,  partially  covering  the  umbilicus  ;  shining 

Le  Guillou,  MS.  in  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Island  of  Vavao,  South  Pacific. 

Distinguished  from  N.  candidisuma  of  the  same  author, 
from  the  same  locality,  by  its  more  obliquely  oblong  form. 

and  more  produced  apex,  and  very  broad  recurved  shelf 
of  enamel  bridged  across  the  umbUicus. 

Species  100.  (Mus.  Taylor.) 

Natica  fulgueans.  Nat.  testd  nmhilicatd,  oblique  glo- 
bosd,  subtus  concavd,  solidiusculd,  spird  mediocri,  an- 
fractibus rotuudatis.  Iambus  vel  temie  striatis,  aper- 
turd lunari-ovatd,columelld  tenuiculd,  callositate  parvd 
columnari  umbilicum  intrante ;  albd,  flammis  fulgn- 
raniibus  spadiceo-nigris  irregulariter  confluentihus 

The  LienTNiNG-MAEKED  Natica.  Shell  umbilicated, 
obliquely  globose,  concave  beneath,  rather  solid, 
spire  moderate,  whorls  rounded,  smooth  or  finely 
striated,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  rather  thin, 
with  a  small  columnar  callosity  entering  the  umbi- 
licus ;  white,  marked  with  fawn  -  black  lightning 
flames,  irregularly  flowing  together. 

Eecluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  '206. 

llab.  Senegal. 

A  solid  species,  very  characteristic  in  its  bold  irregular 

style  of  painting. 

Species  101.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  melanostomoides.  Nat.  testd  imperforatd, 
tenui,  auriformi,  hiflatd,  spird  parvd,  ohtusd,  anfrac- 
tibus convexo  -  decUvibu^,  striatis,  ultimo  permulto 
maxima,  compresso,  aperturd  perampld,  basi  efi'usd, 
colmnelld  tenue  reflexd;  peUucido-albd,  maculisfuko- 
castaneis  interruptis  triseriatim  zonatd,  epidermide 
stramined  partim  indutd,  encaustd  columeUuri  cas- 

The  melanostojioid  Natica.  Shell  imperforated, 
thin,  ear-shaped,  inflated,  spire  small,  obtuse,  whorls 
convexly  slanting,  striated,  the  last  very  much  the 
largest,  compressed,  aperture  very  large,  effused  at 
the  base,  columella  thinly  reflected;  transparent 
white,  encircled  with  three  rows  of  interrupted  ful- 
vous-chestnut spots,  partially  covered  with  a  straw- 
coloured  epidermis,  columellar  enamel  chestnut. 

QuoY  and  Gaimard,  Voy.  de  I'Astrolabe,  vol.  ii.  p.  329. 
pi.  66.  f.  4  to  8. 

Hah.  New  Guinea  and  New  Ireland ;  Quoy. 

This  species  is  the  extremest  auriform  type  of  the  Si- 

garetoid  group  of  Natica,  having  nearly  the  form  of  a 


June,  1855. 

Fatira  .J'J.IXm. 



^-.cent   Brooks  -inp  . 


Plate  XXIII. 

Species  103.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natic.v  porcellanea.     Nat.  tesid  aiujiidi pfofmule  um- 
lUicata,  oblique  glolosd,  solida,  qnrd  brevi,  obtiud, 
anfractibus  mperne  coricavo-indentaiis,  delude  convcxin. 

aperturd  lunan-oi-atil 
caUosUate  parvd  ruliin 



/«/,}  c,i//o.«, 



■  pari 

lescente-lacti'd,  epidvrni  'uh- 
The  porcelain  Natica.     Shell  iiaiTowly  deeply  umbi- 
licated,  obliquely  globose,  solid,  spire  short,  obtuse, 
whorls  coiicavely  indented  round  the  upper  part,  then 
convex,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  broadly  cal- 
lous at  the  upper  part,  with  a  small  columnar  callo- 
sity entering  the  umbilicus ;  bluish  milk-white,  par- 
tially covered  with  a  yellowish-horny  epidermis. 
D'Okbiony,  MS.  in  JIus.  Cuming. 
Hab.  BaUia. 

A  solid  milk-white  shell,  partially  covered  with  a  yel- 
lowish epidermis,  distinguished  chiefly  by  a  gently  in- 
dented opake  concavity  round  the  upper  portion  of  the 

nnfracUbws  rotmdatis,  lisvibus,   nitentihts,  aperturd 
j  tidiuri-ovatd,  colnmelld  calloso-r^exd ;  albidd,  livido- 

j  ceendfscente  plus  mimis  tiuctd,  fulvo-nifo  nndiqne  mi- 

j  niite  reticidatd  et  ad  bami  fasciatd,  encaustd  coln- 

1  meUari  fidvo-cristdiicd. 

j   The   variable   Natica.      Shell   scarcely  umbilicated, 
j            rather  obliquely  globose,  rather  solid,  spii-e  moderate, 
rather  sharp  at  the  apes,  whorls  rounded,  smooth, 
shining,  aperture  luuar-ovate,  columella  callously  re- 
flected ;  whitish,  more  or  less  stained  with  livid-blue, 
covered  with  a  fine  network  of  fulvous-red  and  banded 
at  the  base,  columellar  enamel  fulvous-chestnut. 
IvECLfz,  MS.  in  Mus.  Cuming. 
JIab. ? 

This  species  belongs  to  the  same  type  as  N.  ivtricnia, 
and  is  probaljly  from  the  J\Iediterranean. 

Species  103.  (]\Ius.  Cuming.) 

Natica  eufilabris.  Nat.  testd  obtecte  umbUicatd,  sitb- 
fflobo-sd,  teuiiicidd,  spird  mediocri,  sube.vsertd,  anfrac- 
tihns  rotundatis,  l/rvibits,  aperturd  ovafd,  columettd 
superne  callosd,  callositate  lata  reflexd  unibilicuvt  te- 
gente ;  livido-plumbed,  obsolete  fasciatd,  tiitente,  en- 
caustd columellari  et  callositate  vivide  castaneis. 

The  red-lipped  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbi- 
licus, subglobose,  rather  thin,  spire  moderate,  a  little 
exserted,  whorls  rounded,  smooth,  aperture  ovate, 
columella  caUous  at  the  upper  part,  with  a  broad  re- 
flected callosity  covering  the  umbilicus ;  Uvid  lead- 
colour,  obsoletely  banded,  shining,  columellar  enamel 
and  callosity  bright  chestnut. 

Hab.  Bahia. 

A  rather  light  shining  livid  lead-coloured  species,  with 

the  columellar  enamel  and  callosity  deep  bright  chestnut. 

Species  104.  (JIus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  variabilis.     Nat.  testd  vix  tcmbilicatd,  siibob- 
lique  gJobosd,  soUdiusculd,  spird  mediocri,  apice  acuta. 

Species  105.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Gajibi.e.  Nat.  testd  anguste  mnhilicatd,  oblique 
globosd,  crassiu.Kuld,  spird  conico-depressd,  apice  acuta, 
niifractibns  suj)erne  oblique  plicato-siilcatis,  delude 
lacihus,  rotundafis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  columelld 
callositate  lata  rejlexd,  praclpue  ad  partem  superiormi; 
alhd,  liiterdum  dilute  carneo-linctd. 

The  Gambia  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  umbilicated, 
obliquely  globose,  rather  thick,  spire  conically  de- 
pressed, sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  obliquely  plicately 
grooved  round  the  upper  part,  then  smooth,  rounded, 
aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  with  a  broad  reflected 
callosity,  particularly  at  the  upper  part ;  white,  some- 
times faintly  flesh -tinged. 

liECLUZ,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  207. 

Hab.  IMouth  of  the  River  Gambia,  West  Africa  (found  ou 
the  sands) ;  Mr.  Beale,  of  Jersey. 

A  solid  shining  flesh-wliite  shell,  well  characterized  by 
an  oblique  row  of  plicated  grooves  below  the  sutui-es. 

Species  IOC).   (Mus.  Cumuig.) 
Natica   nitida.     Nat.  testd  anguste  umbiUcatd,  conico- 

glohosd,  subveiitrlcosd,  spird  acute  conoided,  anfracti- 
bus  .Huperne  decUvi-convexis,  delude  rotundatls,  aper- 
turd Imiari-oblongd,  columelld  teuuiter  reflexd,  ad  basin 
arcuatd;  carulesceHle-albd,maculisfulvo-rufescentibus 

June,  1855. 


obscure  quinquefasciatd,   encamtd  coliimeUari  fiilro- 

The  shining  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  iimbilicated,  co- 
iiically  globose,  subventricose,  spire  sharply  couoid, 
whorls  slantingly  convex  round  the  upper  part,  then 
rounded,  aperture  lunar-oblong,  columella  thinly  re- 
flected, arched  at  the  base;  bluish-white,  obscurely 
five -banded  with  fulvous -red  blotches,  columellar 
enamel  fulvous-chestnut. 

Nerita  nitida,  Donovan,  Brit.  Shells,  vol.  iv.  pi.  Hi. 
Natica  nitida,  Fleming. 
Natica  Alderi,  Forbes. 
Natica  Chdllemitti,  Payraudeau. 

Hai.  Seas  of  Europe. 

An  elegantly  formed  species,  mostly  of  a  livid  bluish 

coloui',   obscurely  painted    with    bands    of    fulvous-red 

lilotches,  of  which  the  uppermost  is  the  most  distinct. 

Species  107.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  plicatula.     Nat.  lestd  a/iffuste  umbiUcatd,  tjlo- 
bosd,  temdculd,  sjjird  subobiusd,  aufractibus  rotuudatis, 
sttbrugosis,  rude  tenuiplicatis,  aperturd  liinari-oblongd, 
columella  tenuiter  reflexd ;  sordide  fulim,  ferrugiueo- 
riifo  tinctd. 
The  finely  plicated  Natica.     Shell  narrowly  umbi- 
licated,    globose,    rather   thin,    spire    rather  obtuse, 
whorls  rounded,  rather  rough,  rudely  finely  plicated, 
aperture    lunar-oblong,   columella    thinly   reflected ; 
dirty  fulvous,  tinged  with  rust-red. 
Nuttall,  Jay's  Catalogue  of  Shells,  p.  68. 

Hah. ? 

A  light  rough  fulvous-red  shell,  ireegularly  finely  pli- 







■feicent   Btool-s    Imp 


Species  108.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  umbtlicata.  Nat.  testa  anqAltvr  obliqui  exca- 
oate  umbilicatd,  convexo-depresscl,  Ealiotiformi,  tenui, 
semipdluciild,  qnrd  hrevi-mmd,  laterali,  anfractihus 
coKWxis,  temdter  dwussaiim  striatis,  ultimo  maximo, 
injlaio,  aperturd  ovatd,  marg'mibus  apjiroximrttis ;  siib- 
pelliicido-albd,  ferrugineo-rvfo  promiscue  stiigatu  H 

The  umbilicated  Natica.  Shell  largely  obliquely  ex- 
cavately  umbilicated,  convexly  depressed,  Haliotis- 
shaped,  thin,  semitransi5aront,  spire  very  short,  la- 
teral, whorls  convex,  finely  decussately  striated,  last 
whorl  much  the  largest,  inflated,  aperture  ovate,  with 
the  margins  approximated ;  subtransparent  white, 
promiscuously  streaked  and  spotted  with  rust-red. 

QuoY,  Voy.  de  I'Astrolabe,  vol.  ii.  p.  234.  pi.  6(5.  f.  22 
and  23. 

Hab.  Van  Diemen's  Land ;  Eonald  C.  Gunn. 

A  light  semitransparent  Haliotis-shaped  shell,  with  a 
veiy  peculiar  obliquely  excavated  umbilicus. 

Species  109.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  teisekiata.     Nat.  testa  snbanguste  mnbilicutd, 
glohosd,  sptrd  breviuscidd,  sidurd  leviter  impreum,  ai/- 
fractibiis  rotundatls,  obsolete  plicato-striatls,  aperturd 
ovatd,  columelld  super iie  calloso-reflexd ;  Imdo-grised, 
obscure  triseriutd,  hie  illic  ferrugineodinctd,  callosi- 
tiite  opaco-albd,  apertures  fauce  castaned. 
The    three-banded    Natica.      Shell  rather  narrowly 
umbilicated,    globose,    spire    rather    short,    suture 
slightly  impressed,  whorls  rounded,  ftuntly  plicately 
striated,  aperture  ovate,  columella  callously  reflected 
at  the  upper  part ;  livid  grey,  obscurely  three-banded, 
here  and  there  rust-tinged,  callously  opake-white,  in- 
terior of  aperture  chestnut. 
Say,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  vol.  v.  p.  209. 
Hab.  Bay  of  Massachusetts,  United  States. 

The  opake-white  callosity  and  chestnut  interior  of  this 
shell,  contrast  in  a  characteristic  manner  with  its  rust- 
tinged  livid  blue  exterior. 

Species  110.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  flava.  Nat.  iestd  imperforatd,  globosd,  tenui, 
tumidiusculd,  spird  brevissimd,  depressd,  anfractibns 
convexis,  ultimo  midtu  niaximo,  aperturd  ovatd,  sub- 
ampld,  columelld  temie  refiexd,  suhcontorto  ;  pelluciJo- 
albd,  epidermide  corned  decidudflam  indutd. 
The  yellow  Natica.  Shell  imperforated,  globose,  thin, 
rather  swollen,  spire  very  short,  depressed,  whorls 
convex,  the  last  much  the  largest,  aperture  ovate. 

rather  large,  columella  thinly  reflected,  slightly  twisted ; 

transparent  white,  covered  with  a  yellow  deciduous 

horny  epidermis. 
Gould,  Silliman's  Journ.  vol.  xxxviii.  p,  19('>.     Invert,  of 

Massachusetts,  p.  239.  f.  162. 
Hab.  Massachusetts  Bay,  United  States. 

A  light  inflated  globose  transparent  white  shell,  covered 
with  a  yellow  horny  deciduous  epidermis,  the  spire  being 
almost  on  a  level  with  the  upper  margin  of  the  aperture. 

Species  111.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Sagraina.     Nat.  testd  subobtecti  umbilicatd,  ob- 
lique globosd,  spird  brevi,  subobtusd,  uufractibus  su- 
perue  declivibus,  delude  convexis,  lavibus,  politis,  aper- 
turd lunari-ovatd,    columelld  callositate  lata  amptd 
inidjUicum  fere  iegente ;    alhidd,   lineis  griseo-pnrpu- 
rasci'ulibus  dense  oblique    undatd,   callosilate  fusces- 
The  Sagua  Natica.     Shell  with  a  nearly  covered  um- 
bilicus, obliquely  globose,  spire  short,  rather  obtuse, 
whorls  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  then  convex, 
smooth,    polished,    aperture   lunar-ovate,    columella 
with  a  large  broad  callosity  nearly  covering  the  um- 
bilicus;  whitish,  densely  obliquely  waved  with  grey- 
ish-purple lines,  callosity  brownish. 
D'Orbigny,  Moll.  Cuba,  pi.  IS.  f.  20  and  22. 
Hab.  Malaga. 

A  smooth  porclain-like  species,  closely  painted  through- 
out with  obliquely  waved  greyish-purple  lines  ;  the  umbi- 
licus being  nearly  covered  by  a  broad  button-like  callosity. 

Species  112.   (ilus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Colliei.     Nut.  l,:sl.i  xutiiiuiiilitrr  iiuihilicnld,  glo- 
bosd,  spird  brevi,  subr.r.^,  rfd,   luifnii-tihiin  ruluiidaHs, 
superne  obsolete  plicato-liruHs,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd, 
columelld  callositate  solidd  columnari  umbilicum  in- 
trante ;  albidd,  macidis  subquadratis,  aurantio-spadi- 
ceis,  interdum  conjlueutibus,  seriatim  pictd. 
Collie's  Natica.     Shell  rather  largely  umbilicated,  glo- 
bose, spire  short,  rather  exserted,  whorls  rounded, 
obsoletely  plicately  ridged   round   the  upper  part, 
aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  with  a  solid  columnar 
callosity   entering  the   umbilicus;    whitish,   painted 
with   rows   of  somewhat  square  orange-fawn  spots 
sometimes  flowing  together. 
Eecluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  207. 
Hab.  Swan  River,  Australia  (on  stones  at   low  water); 
Lieut.  Collie. 
Distinguished   mainly   by   its    large    obliquely    square 
orange-fawn  spots,  sometimes  flowing  longitudinally  to- 








Sowaiby  lei  *1it 

fecQit    Brook    tij 


Plate  XXV. 

Species  113.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
N.iTic.v  CLADSA.    Nat .  testa  ohtecte  iimbiUcaf.d,mhfjJobom, 
spird  brevi,  anfractibus  rotuiulatis,  lavigatis  vel  leciter 
erosis,  apertiird  seniilnnari,  labro  simplici,  columelld 
temdculd,  callositate  parvd  latd  unibilicum  implente ; 
palllde  sordidefuscescente. 
The  closed  Natica.      Shell  with  a  closed  umbilicus, 
subglobose,  spire  short,  whorls  rounded,  smooth  or 
slightly  eroded,  aperture  semilunar,  lip  simple,  colu- 
mella rather  thin,  with  a  small  broad  callosity  fUliiig 
the  umbilicus ;  light  dull  brown. 
Bkoderip  and  Sowerby,  Zool.  Joui'n.  vol.  iv.  p.  360. 
Natica  consoluhta,  Courthouy. 
Natica  borealis.  Beck. 
Natica  inipenia,  Philippi. 
Hab.  Bay  of  Massachusetts,  United  States  (taken  alive  in 
stomachs  of  iishes,  plentifully) ;  Gould. 
A  duU  pale  brownish  solid  globose  species,  having  the 
umbilicus  closed  by  a  small  broad  callosity,  and  the  aper- 
ture by  a  shelly  operculum. 

Species  114.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Gualteriana.  Nat.  testa  subampliter  mnbili- 
catd,  subyhbosd,  temdculd,  spird  brevi,  subacutd,  an- 
fractibus rotundatis,  lavigatis,  juxta  siduram  obsolete 
plicato-striatis,  ultimo  subeffuso,  aperturd  lunari- 
ovatd,  columelld  tetmicidd,  callositate  spirall  colum- 
nari  mnbiUcmn  intrante ;  stmipellucido-albd,  strujis 
pallide  aurantio-riifis  quadrifasciatd. 

Gualter's  Natica.  Shell  rather  largely  umbilicated,  sub- 
globose,  rather  thin,  spu-e  short,  rather  shai-]!,  whorls 
rounded,  smooth,  obsoletely  plicately  striated  next  the 
suture,  last  whorl  rather  effused,  aperture  lunar-ovate, 
columella  rather  thin,  with  a  spiral  columnar  callo- 
sity entering  the  umbilicus ;  semitransparent  white, 
encircled  with  four  bands  of  light  orange-red  streaks. 

Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  396. 

Hab.  Island  of  Bohol,  Philippines ;  Cuming. 

A  light  subiniiated  species,  encircled  with  four  bands 
of  faint  orange-red  close-set  streaks. 

Species  115.  (ilus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  textilis.     Nat.  testa  anguste  profundii  umbiU- 

catd,  ffloboso-turbiiiatd,  spird  subexsertd,  an/ractibiis 
rotundatis,  Icevibus,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  labro  tenui, 
cohmielld parum  callosd,  ared  nmhiUcali  spiraliter  ex- 
cavatd ;  fuscescente,  textile  irreyulari  rufo-fnsco  pictd. 

The  textile  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  and  deeply  um- 
bilicated, globosely  turbinated,  spire  slightly  exserted, 
whorls  rounded,  smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  lip 
thin,  columella  but  little  callous,  umbilical  area  spi- 
rally excavated;  brownish,  painted  with  an  irregular 
red-brown  brocade. 

IM. ? 

A  very  characteristic  species,  painted  with  a  red-brown 
brocade,  inteiTuptcd  promiscuously  with  large  open  spots, 
and  having  a  smooth  shelly  operculum. 

Species  110.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  semisulcata.     Nat.  testdprofmuU  ampUter  um- 
biUcatd,  ovatd,  spird  breviusculd,  sutnrd  canaliculatd 
et  minute  lineari-stdcatd,  avfractihns  superne  declivi- 
coarctatis,  glabris,  politis,  sidcis  quinque  ad  sex  line- 
aribus  eequidistantibus  infra  suturam  ciiigulatis,  aper- 
turd lunari-ovatd,  columelld  partm  callosd,  snpernv 
effusd;  eburned. 
The  half-geooved  Natica.     Shell  deeply  largely  um- 
bilicated, ovate,  spire  rather  short,  sutm-e  channelled 
and  minutely  linearly  grooved,  whorls  slantingly  con- 
tracted at  the  upper  part,  smooth,  polished,  encircled 
beneath  the  suture  with  five  to  six  equidistant  linear 
grooves,  aperture   lunar-ovate,  columella  but   little 
callous,  effused  at  the  upper  part ;  ivory-white. 
Gray,  Zool.  Beechey's  Voyage,  p.  137. 
Hab.  Porto  Rico. 

A  subopake  ivory-white  species,  readily  distinguished 
by  its  channelled  suture,  and  by  the  presence  of  five  to  six 
equidistant  linear  grooves  round  the  upper  contracted  por- 
tion of  the  whorls. 

Species  117.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  pusilla.  Nat.  testa  vix  umbiUcatd,  suhjlobosd, 
spird  sube.vsertd,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  aperturd  lu- 
nari-ovatd, columelld  inferue  cuUoso-reflexd,  callositate 
nmbilicum  fere  tegente ;  sordide  albd  vel  pallide  oli- 
vaced,  plus  minus  erosd. 

June,  1855. 

NATICA.— Plate  XXV. 

The  small  Natica.  Shell  scarcely  mnbilicated,  sub- 
globose,  spire  rather  exserted,  whorls  rounded,  aper- 
ture lunar-ovate,  columella  callously  reflected  at  the 
lower  part,  callosity  nearly  spread  over  the  umbilicus; 
dull  white  or  pale  olive,  more  or  less  eroded. 

Say,  Journ.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  PhOadelphia,  vol.  ii.  p.  257. 

Hab.  Bay  of  Massachusetts,  United  States  (taken  from 
fishes)  ;  Gould. 
This  little  species,  though  so  closely  allied  in  character 

and  habit  to  N.  clmtm,  ditfers  in  having  a  horny  operculum. 

The  whorls  are  more  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  and 

the  umbilicus  is  only  partially  covered,  the  columeUar  lip 

being  more  callously  reflected  towards  the  base. 

Species  118.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Caribb^a.     Nat.  testa  anguste  profundi  utuhi- 
licatd,  ovatd,  crasslitscnld,  solidd,  spird  brevi,  subob- 

tusd,  mifractibiis  Itsvibus,  decUvi-convexis,  apertura, 
lunari-ovatd,  colmnelld  callodtate  lata  demd  superni 
munitd,  callodtate  umbiUcum  fere  tegente ;  sordide 
livido-albicante,  fascia  opaco-albd  jiixta  mduram  cin- 

The  Caribbean  Natica.  Shell  nan-owly  deeply  um- 
bilicated,  ovate,  rather  thick,  solid,  spire  short,  rather 
obtuse,  whorls  smooth,  slantingly  convex,  aperture 
lunar-ovate,  columella  with  a  broad  dense  callosity 
at  the  upper  part,  callosity  almost  covering  the  um- 
bilicus ;  dull  livid  white,  encircled  with  an  opake- 
whitc  band  next  the  suture. 

Philippi,  MS.  in  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Caribbacan  Sea. 

A  small  solid  white;  shell,  of  a  peculiar  livid  aspect, 

opake  next  the  suture  ;  the  columella  being  densely  callous 

at  the  upper  part. 







litacerit     Biocis    In^ . 


Plate  XXVI. 

Species  119.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
N.iTiCA  BULBOSA.  Nat.  testa  unymii  icmbiUcatd,  ijlo- 
bosu,  tenia,  mihhijlatd,  sjiird  panm,  s/if/ird  minute  im- 
pressd,  unfractihim  rotumlntis,  /avib/is,  epidermide  vi- 
rescente-cbiered  corned  indutd,  aperturd  ovatd,  colu- 
mella teniie  calloso-refkxd,  verms  apiceni  plus  Minus 
TuE  BULBOUS  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  umbilicated, 
globose,  thin,  slightly  inflated,  spire  small,  suture 
minutely  impressed,  whorls  rounded,  smooth,  covered 
with  greenish-ash  horny  epidermis,  aperture  ovate, 
columella  thinly  callously  reflected,  more  or  less 
eroded  towards  the  apex. 

//„/;.  -i 

This  has  all  the  appearance  of  an  Arctic  species,  thinner 
in  substance  and  rounder  than  N.  Grmtlaiidica,  with  a 
shorter  spire. 

Species  120.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  borealis.  Nat.  testa  angiiste  mnlnlicatd,  rjloljosd, 
spird  brevl,  sulurd  minute  impressd,  anfractibus  rotun- 
datis,  leevibus,  aperturd  ovatd,  columella  undiqite  sub- 
calloso-reflexd ;  calcareo-albd,  epidermide  corned flari- 
cttute  indutd,  versus  apicem  leviter  erosd. 

The  northern  Natica.  Shell  naiTowly  umbilicated, 
globose,  spire  short,  suture'  minutely  impressed, 
whorls  rounded,  smooth,  aperture  ovate,  columella 
somewhat  caUously  reflected  throughout ;  chalk- 
white,  covered  with  a  yellowish-horny  epidermis,  a 
little  eroded  towards  the  apex. 

SowERBY,  Zool.  Beechey's  Voyage,  pi.  37.  f.  3. 

Hab.  North  Seas. 

Allied  to  N.  Grmilandica,  but  distinguished  from  that 
species  by  the  spire  being  less  exserted. 

Species  121.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  genuanus.  Nat.  testd  imperforatd,  subr/lobosd, 
spird  breuiusculd,  anfractibus  convexis,  Icevibus,  aper- 
turd semilunari,  columelld  eallositate  maximd  reflexd ; 
lutescente-albd,  fasci'is  tribus  angustis  distautibus  riifo- 
fusco  vittatis  cingulatd,  iuterstitiis  punctis  rufo-fuscis 
aspersis,  serie Jlammarum  juxta  suturam. 
The  gartered  Natica.  Shell  imperforated,  subglobosc, 
spire  rather  short,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  aperture 
semilunar,  columella  with  a  very  large  reflected  cal- 
losity ;  yellowish-white,  encircled  with  three  distant, 

narrow,    red  -  brown   filleted    bands,   the   interstices 
filled  with  red-brown  dots,  with  a  row  of  flames  next 
the  suture. 
Hab.  South  Africa. 

A  very  characteristic  solid  species,  in  which  the  seat  of 
the  umbUicus  is  entirely  covered  with  callous  matter,  and 
the  painting  is  pecuhar.  Eound  the  upper  part  of  the 
whorls  is  a  row  of  red-brown  flames  as  in  N.  coUaris,  the 
remainder  of  the  shell  being  painted  with  close-set  dots  of 
the  same  colom-,  inteiTupted  at  rather  distant  intervals 
with  three  filleted  bands. 

Species  123.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  cora.  Nat.  testd  anguste  profmide  umbilicatd, 
oblongo-ovatd,  crassd,  solidd,  spird  breviusculd,  co- 
noided,  anfractibus  plano-declivibus,  lavibus,  aperturd 
semilumri,  parviusculd,  columelld  superne  eallositate 
deusd  lata  mumfd;  eburned,  epidermide  tem/i  coned 
indutd,  ferrugineo-rnfo  interdum  partim  tinctd. 
The  girl  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  deeply  umbilicated, 
oblong-ovate,  thick,  solid,  spii-e  rather  short,  conoid, 
whorls  flatly  slanting,  smooth,  aperture  semilunm-, 
rather  small,  columella  with  a  thick  broad  callosity 
at  the  upper  part ;  ivory-white,  covered  with  a  thin 
horny  epidermis,  sometimes  partially  tinged  with 
D'Orbigny,  Voyage  dans  I'Amer.  merid.  pi.  78.  f.  Id 
and  11. 

Hab. ? 

A  solid  ivory-white  shell,  of  a  peculiarly  oblong-conoidal 
form,  slightly  concavely  flattened  round  the  middle,  co- 
vered with  a  thin  horny  epidermis. 

Species  123.  (ilus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Foetunei.  Nat.  testd  anguste  umbilicatd,  co- 
noideo-globosd,  tenuiculd,  .sjnrd  exsertd,  anfractibus 
couccvis,  decussatim  minutissime  striata,  aperturd 
ovatd,  columelld  tenui,  subreflexd;  limdo-eeeruled, 
carneo-fuscescente  tinctd. 

Fortune's  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  umbilicated,  co- 
noidly  globose,  rather  thin,  spire  exserted,  whoi-ls 
convex,  decussately  very  minutely  striated,  aperture 
ovate,  columella  thin,  slightly  reflected;  livid-blue, 
tinged  with  flesh-brown. 

Hab.  Shanghi,  China;  Fortune. 

Of  a  light  texture  and  livid  blue  colour,  tinged  with 

flesh-brown,  collected  at  Shanghi  by  ik.  Fortune. 




Vmcent     Bioolss    Imp 


Species  124.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Natica  glabella.  Nat.  testa  angnste  -prof audi  umbili- 
catd,  subfmiformi-oblongd,  solid iuscidu,  spird  brevius- 
culd,  exsertd,  anfractibus  decUvi-co/wexls,  lavigalu, 
politd,  aperturd  semilunari,  parvd,  colimelld  sujtenie 
callositate  lata,  reflexd;  pelhtcido-albd,  cameo  tiiictd, 
callositale  earned. 
The  smooth  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  deeply  umbili- 
cated,  subfusiformly  oblong,  rather  solid,  spire  rather 
short,  cxserted,  whorls  slantingly  convex,  smooth, 
polished,  aperture  semilunar,  small,  columella  with  a 
broad  reflected  callosity  at  the  upper  part ;  trans- 
parent white,  flesh-tinged,  callosity  flesh-coloured. 

Hab. ? 

An  elegantly  convoluted  transpareut  white  polished 
shell,  of  rather  solid  structure,  tinged  with  a  violet  flesh- 
colour,  which  is  bright  on  the  callosity. 

Species  125.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Montagui.  Nat.  testa  prof nnde  umbiUcutu,  <jlo- 
hosd,  spird  mediocri,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  leevigniis, 
aperturd  Imiari-ovatu,  colioiielld  siiperne  leviter  cal- 
losd,  callositate  coliimiiari  fere  obsoletd  umbHiciiiu  in- 
tra ntf ;  rufeseeute-albd. 

Montagu's  Natica.  Shell  deeply  umbilicatcd,  globose, 
spire  middling,  whorls  rounded,  smooth,  aperture 
lunar-ovate,  columella  a  little  thickened  at  the  upper 
part,  with  a  nearly  obsolete  columnar  callosity  en- 
tering the  umbilicus ;  rufous-white. 

FoKBES,  Malacologia  Monensis,  p.  3:2. 
Nerita  rnfa,  Montagu  (not  of  Born). 
Natica  rutilu,  ilncgillivray. 

Hab.  Britain. 

A    rufous-white  species,    inhabiting    the    British    seas 

throughout,  but  chiefly  in  the  north. 

Species  126.  (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  proxima.     Nat.  testd  nmbilicatd,  globosd,  spird 
brevi,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  IfP.vibus,  nitidis,  aperturd 
lunari-ocatd,  colmuelld  subincrassatd,  callositate  co- 

lumnari  untbilicum  intrnnfe  ;  alhidd,  jmnctis  lU/nutis 
rufescente-fuscis   indutd,  fasciis   tribus    vit/ntis   inter- 
The  allied  Natica.     Shell  umbilicatcd,  globose,  spire 
short,    whorls   rounded,  smooth,   shining,   aperture 
lunar-ovate,  columella  rather  thickened,  with  a  co- 
lumnar  callosity  entering  the   umbilicus ;    whitish, 
covered   with   minute    red-brown    dots,    interrupted 
with  three  filleted  bands. 
C.  B.  Adams,  Contributions  to  Conehology,  p.  111. 
llab.  Jamaica. 

This  belongs  to  the  same  type  of  form  and  colouring  as 
N.  canrena,  the  filleted  bands  varying  in  width  and  dis- 
tinctness in  different  species. 

Fig.  137.  (ilus.  Cuming.) 
This  specimen,  named  in  Mr.  Cuming's  collection  by 
]M.  Eecluz  A*.  Francisca,  a]3pears  to  be  a  variety  of  the 
British  A",  nitida. 

Species  12S.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Buriasexsis.  Nat.  testa  profundi  umbiliculd, 
subf/lobosd,  solidiiisculd,  spird  parvd,  subexsertd,  an- 
fractibus siiperue  decUvibus,  inferne  convexls,  Icevibus, 
polilis,  aperturd  lunari-ovatd,  parviusculd,  columulld 
superne  callositate  late  reflexd;  ccErulescente-albd, 
liueis  nifis  undatis  lomjitudinaliter  pictd,  callo.<sitate 
intense  rufd. 

The  Burias  Natica.  Shell  deeply  umbilicnted,  sub- 
globose,  rather  solid,  spire  small,  a  little  exserted, 
whorls  slanting  round  the  upper  part,  convex  at  the 
lower,  smooth,  polished,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  rather 
small,  columella  with  a  broadly  reflected  callosity  at 
the  upper  part ;  bluish-white,  painted  longitudinally 
with  fine  waved  red  lines,  callosity  deep  red. 

Eecluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1S43,  p.  212. 

Hub.  Island  of  Burias,  Philippines  ;  Cuming. 

A  solid  porcelain-like  species,  neatly  painted  throughout 

with  longitudinally  waved  red  lines,  the  callosity  lieing  of 

a  deep  red  colour. 

June,  ISc 





rl-y    del  AIiUl 

(K..1--M  ..n.-i .1,.,,;) 

Viuceta    Broot.  Imp- 


Plate  XXVIII. 

Species  129.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica   forata.     Nat.  testa  excavate  iierq)ectki  mnbili- 
catd,   depresso-glohosd,   spird    subohtusd,    anfnictihas 
juxta  siituras  suhdepressis,  deitide  9'otundatu,  uU'mo 
antice    descendente,   aperturd    semihmari,   columelld 
te>/ui,  siiperne  callosd ;  alhidd,  pimctis  et  mactdin  aii- 
rantih  eximie  pictd. 
The   bored   Natica.      Shell   excavately  perspectively 
umbilicated,  depressly  globose,  spire  rather  obtuse, 
whorls  a  little  depressed  next  the  suture,  then  round- 
ed, last  whorl  descending  iu  front,  apertm-e  semilunar, 
columella  thin,  callous  at  the  upper  part ;  whitish, 
prettily  painted  with  orange  dots  and  blotches. 
Hab.  Buifalo,  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

A  prettily  painted  species,  distinguishetl  by  a  large  pe- 
culiarly excavated  perspective  umbUicus. 

Species  130.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  fibula.  Nat.  testa  ohtecte  umbilicatd,  orbicidarl- 
depiresm,  subtus  excavatd,  spird  minutd,  arifractibiis 
ad  sutiiras  marginatis,  plano-convexis,  aperturd  ob- 
lique lunari,  columelld  brevissimd,  callositate  per- 
ampld  solidd  rotmidd  umbiVwum  implenle ;  fuhcs- 
The  button  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus, 
orbicularly  depressed,  excavated  beneath,  spu-e  very 
small,  whorls  margined  at  the  suture,  flatly  convex, 
apertm-e  obliquely  lunar,  columella  very  short,  with 
a  large  round  soUd  callosity  tilling  the  umbilicus ; 

Hab. ? 

A  small  obliquely  depressed  fulvous-white  shell,  with  a 
large  round  button-like  callosity  in  the  place  of  the  um- 

Species  131.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  Jamaicensis.  Nat.  testd  obtecte  vmbiUcatd,  ob- 
lique globosd,  subdejiressd,  spird  parvd,  anfraciibus 
juxta  suturas  plicato-sfriatis,  eonvexis,  aperturd  ht- 
nari-ovatd,  subeffusd,  columelld  tenui,  rejlexd,  callosi- 
tate lata  rotunda  umbilicum  implente ;  Uvido-griseu, 
7iitenie,  juxta  suturas  albd,  i?iferne  fascia  fulcd  lata 
interruptd  cingulatd,  callositate  intense  purpureo-cas- 

Toe  Jamaica  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbilicus, 
obliquely  globose,  sbghtly  depressed,  spire  small, 
whorls  plioately  striated  next  the  suture,  convex, 
aperture  lunar -ovate,  a  little  effused,  columella 
thinly  reflected,  with  a  broad  round  callosity  filling 
the  umbilicus;  livid  grey,  shining,  white  next  the 
suture,  encircled  at  the  lower  part  with  a  broad  in- 
terrupted fulvous  band,  callosity  deep  purple-chest- 
C.  B.  Adams,  Contributions  to  Conchology,  p.  111. 
Ilab.  Jamaica. 

Of  a  delicate  livid  grey,  encircled  with  a  broad  inter- 
rupted pale  flamed  band  round  the  lower  part,  and  with 
white  next  the  suture ;  the  callosity  and  columellar  enamel 
being  bright  purple-chestnut. 

Species  133.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  pavimentum.  Nat.  testd  obtecte  umbilicatd, glo- 
bosd, solidiusculd,  spird  parvd,  obtusd,  siiturd  lineari- 
impressd,  anfraciibus  obtuse  rotimdatis,  aperturd  semi- 
lunari,  parviusculd,  columelld  callosd,  callositate  ro- 
tundd,  mnbilicum  implente;  albd,  nitente,  macidis 
aurantio-fuscis  distantibus  tessellafd. 

The  pavement  Natica.  Shell  mth  a  covered  umbi- 
licus, globose,  rather  solid,  spire  small,  obtuse,  suture 
linearly  impressed,  whorls  obtusely  rounded,  aperture 
semilunar,  rather  small,  columella  callous,  with  a 
rounded  callosity  filling  the  umbilicus ;  white,  shi- 
ning, tessellated  with  distant  orange-brown  square 

Eecluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1813,  p.  208. 
Eadem  var.  Natica  Cailliaudi,  Recluz. 

Eab.  Island  of  Ticao,  Philippines  ;  Cuming. 

A  rounded  largely  irregularly  tessellated  shell,  shining 

like  porcelain. 

Species  133.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  macilenta.  Nat.  testd  excavate  profundi  umbi- 
licatd, globoso-ovatd,  spird  parvd,  obtuse  exsertd,  an- 
fraciibus snperne  declivibm,  delude  eonvexis,  lavibus, 
upi'iiurd  liiiinri-ornld,  vuIiimMd  calloso-reflexd ;  ful- 
vesci'iilf-tilljii.  iiili'iilr.  rnnuri-fHscescente  obscure  tinctd 
et  riltalii,  I'licaioitd  i'u/ii,,/i'//ari  castaned. 
The  lean  Natica.     Shell  excavately  deeply  urabilicated, 

June,  1855. 


globosely  ovate,  spire  small,  obtusely  exserted,  whorls 
slanting  in  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth, 
aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella  callously  reflected; 
fulvous-white,  shining,  obscurely  stained  and  filleted 
tlesh-brown,  columellar  enamel  chestnut. 

Philippi,  Abbild.  und  Besch.  Conch,  vol.  ii.  pi.  24.  f.  14. 

Hub. ? 

The  painting  of  this  little  species,  which  is  of  rather 

light  structure,  is  very  obscurely  distributed. 

Species  134.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  locellus.     Nat.  testa  minute  zimbilicata. 

(jloljom,  spird  exsertd,  apice  acuta,  anfractibus  rotwn- 
datis,  IcBviAus,  aperturd  Imiari-ovatd,  colmnelld  tenue 
callosd ;  Iwido-canied,  fidvo-aurantio  obscure  tinctd 
et  vittatd. 
The  little  purse  Natica.  Shell  minutely  umbihcated, 
subglobose,  spire  exserted,  sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls 
rouuded,  smooth,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  columella 
thinly  callous ;  Uvid  flesh-tinged,  fulvous-brown,  ob- 
scurely fiDeted  and  stained. 

Eab. ? 

More  globose  than  the  preceding  species,  with  the  spire 
more  turbinately  raised.  The  filleted  colouring  is  veiy  in- 
distinct, and  the  ground-colour  of  a  particular  livid  hue. 

yaiiai.  //.  ir/j. 





N  A  T  I  C  A. 

Plate  XXIX. 

[Figures  considerably  ni:i5iiilie,l. 

Species  135.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  pisifokmis.  Nat.  testa  oiigiiste  profinidi  iim- 
bUicatd,  ylobosd,  solidiuscidd,  sjnrd  miiintd,  aiifrac- 
tibus  siiperttH  obtuse  produclis,  di'bide  plaiio-coiiDi'xis, 
aperturd  obloiitjo-OKatd,  riitiiiin'Hd  siipi'niP  auhciillosd ; 
sordid^  albd. 

The  pea-shaped  Natica.  Shell  narrowly  deeply  umbili- 
catecl,  globose,  rather  solid,  spire  very  small,  whorls 
obtusely  produced  round  the  upper  part,  then  slightly 
convex,  aperture  oblong-ovate,  columella  slightly  cal- 
lous at  the  upper  part ;  dull  white. 

Uecluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  213. 

Huh.  Valparaiso ;  Cuming. 

.V  small  pea-like  shell,  obtusely  gibbous  round  the  upper 
])art,  with  the  umbilicus  rather  deeply  excavated. 

Species  13G.  (JIus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  asellus.  Nat.  testa  obtecte  nmbilirntd,  Mique 
globosd,  subtus  depressd,  spird  brevissimd,  anfractibus 
coiwexis,  kevigatis,  nUetitibus,  prope  snturum  obscure 
plicato-striatis,  aperturd  semilunari-ovatd,  cotumelld 
callositate  latd  umbiUcum  tegente ;  albd,  fasciis  dun- 
bus  latiusadis  caruJeo-uigricautibus  cingnlatd,  punc- 
torum  serie  minutd  in  iuterstitio. 

The  little  ass  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbili- 
cus, obliquely  globose,  depressed  beneath,  spire  very 
sliort,  whorls  convex,  smooth,  shining,  faintly  pli- 
cately  striated  next  the  suture,  aperture  semilunar- 
ovate,  columella  with  a  broad  callosity  covering  the 
umbilicus ;  white,  encircled  with  two  rather  broad 
blue-blaek  bands,  with  a  minute  series  of  dots  in  the 

llnb.  Australia. 

An  interesting  small  species,  in  which  the  painting  is 

iiut  much  unlike  that  of  the  Ci/prupa  asettiis. 

Species  137.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  Traillii.     Nat.  ti-std  MdjuM/i/if,;-  i,„ihllicatd,  co- 

iioideo-globosd,  solidiuscn/ii,   xpini  purcd,  anfractibus 

supernv  declioibus,  snbtiis  jiendhintrr  jdano-excaratis, 

aperturd  omtd,  columelld  cal/u-sitate  lata  mtdiiliviun 

fere  tegente ;  aU/idd,  lineis  rufo-fuscis  undatis  irregii- 
taribus  undique  longiindinaliter  pictd,  callositate  ruf'o- 

Tuaill's  Natica.  Shell  largely  umbilicated,  eonoidly 
globose,  rather  solid,  spire  small,  whorls  slanting 
round  the  upper  part,  peculiarly  flatly  excavated  be- 
neath, aperture  ovate,  columella  with  a  broad  callo- 
sity nearly  covering  the  umbilicus ;  whitish,  painted 
longitudinally  throughout  with  waved  irregular  red- 
brown  lines,  callosity  red-brown. 

Hah.  Malacca. 

A  characteristic  solid  species,  curiously  excavated  and 
obtusely  angled  at  the  base,  painted  throughout  with  irre- 
gularly waved  red-brown  lines. 

Species  13S.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  venustula.     Nat.  te.'iid  obtecte  umbiUcaid,  semi-,  ■'ipird  obtuse  conoided,    anfractibus  convexis, 
1             Irpribus,   nitentihus,  aperturd   lunari-ovatd,  columelld 
!             late  callosd,  mnbilicuw  inipleute ;  albd,  juxta  suturam 
vpacd,  delude  lineis  rufo-fuscis  acute  undali.i  pictd. 
The  phettily-marked  Natica.     Shell  with  a  covered 
umbilicus,  semiglobose,  spire  obtusely  conoid,  whorls 
convex,  smooth,  shining,  aperture  lunar-ovate,  colu- 
I            mella  broadly   callous,  tilling  the  umbilicus;  white, 
j           opake  next  the  suture,  then  marked  with  zigzag  red- 
[            brown  lines. 
Philippi,  Zeitschrift  fiir  ;\Ialac.  ISol. 
Hab. ? 

The  chief  peculiarity  of  this  little  species  consists  in  its 
opake-vvhite  zone  round  the  upper  portion  of  the  whorls, 
from  which  the  light  red-brown  zigzag  lines  suddenly  de- 

Species  130.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  suffusa.  Nat.  testd  oblongo-ovatd,  soUdd,  spird 
obtuse  conoided,  aufractibus  decUvi-convexm,  lavibus, 
aperturd  seii/il/o/ari-oratd,  hasi  productd,  colnmelld 
callositate  latd  uhdnliru,.!  l,yeute ;  pellucido-albd,  hie 
illic  opacd,  cersus  nj/irei/i  ciolaceo-tinctd,  callositate 

June,  1855. 

NATICA.— Plate  XXIX. 

The  sl'ffused  Natica.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  solid,  spire 
obtusely  conoid,  whoiis  slantingly  convex,  smooth, 
aperture  semilunar-ovate,  produced  at  the  base,  colu- 
mella with  a  broad  callosity  covering  tlie  umbilicus ; 
transparent  white,  here  and  there  opake,  tinged  with 
violet  towards  the  apex,  callosity  violet. 

Huh.  New  Ireland. 

An  obtusely  conoid   species,  of  solid  growth,  though 

subtransparent  in  character,  delicately  tinged  with  violet, 

the  colour  being  most  conspicuous  on  the  callosity. 

Species  140.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Xatica  nucula.  'Nat.  leda  obiecte  tiubUkatd,  subqua- 
drato-globosd,  solidd,  spird  minuid,  aiifractibus  su- 
pei-ne  obtuse  rotundatis,  deinde  subplanatis,  aperturd 
^cmilunari-ovatd,  colitmeUd  callositate  laid  rotmulatd 
iiiMUcum  tegente;  sordide  lutescente-albd,  apice  U- 
The  little  nut  Natica.  Shell  with  a  covered  umbi- 
licus, somewhat  squarely  globose,  solid,  spire  very 
small,  whorls  obtusely  rounded  at  the  upper  part, 
then  rather  flattened,  aperture  semilunar-ovate,  colu- 
mella with  a  broad  button-like  callosity  rovcring  the 
umbilicus;  dull  yellowish-white,  livid  at  the  apex. 

liab.  New  Ireland. 

This  little  solid  species,  from  the  same  locality  as  the 
preceding,  is  peculiarly  squarely  compressed  round  the 
periphery,  and  has  a  characteristic  small  livid  spire. 

Species  141.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Natica  immaculata.     Nat.  testd  angudissime  profundi 
umbilicatd,  ovato-globosd,  solidiusculd,  spird  minuid, 
subexsertd,   anfractibus  plano-convexis,    aperturd  ob- 
longo-ovatu,    cohimeUd    s/tperue    subcallo-sd  ;    sordide 
The  spotless  Natica.     Shell  very  narrowly  deeply  um- 
bilicated,  ovately  globose,  rather  solid,  spire  minute, 
a  little  exserted,  whorls  flatly  convex,  aperture  ob- 
long-ovate,  columella    rather   callous   at    the    upper 
part ;  dull  white. 
Totten,  Silliman's  Journal,  vol.  xxviii.  p.  351.  f.  G. 
Hab.  Bay  of  Massachusetts,  United  States  (found  plenti- 
fully in  the  stomachs  of  fishes) ;  Gould. 
Very  closely  allied  to  the  little  N.  pisiformis  from  Val- 
paraiso, but  the  spire  is  rather  more  exserted,  and  the 
nmbilieus  more  contracted. 



T/inr.j.l    biwfc   imp 


Plate  XXX. 

Speries  U2.  (Fig-.  U2,  144,  145,  and  14G, 
Mus.  Cumiug.) 
Natic.^  Helicoides.     Nat.  testa  vix  rimuto-umh'diciitd, 
ovatd,  Ampullariaformi,  spird  exsertd,   siiturd  cov- 
splcue  canaliculatd,  anfractiius  convexis,  basin  versus 
xuhnttenuatim  productis,  aperturd  ovatd,  Itasi  effiisd, 
rrtliimeUd  teuuite!'  marginatd ;   calcareo-nlhd ,  npider- 
atidf  Iciiiii  cormd  decidud  indtdd. 
The  Helix-like  Natica.     Shell  slightly  edge-umbili- 
cated,  ovate,  AmpuUaria-like,  spire  exserted,  suture 
conspicuously  channelled,   whorls  convex,  somewhat 
attenuately    produced   towards   the    l)ase,   aperture 
ovate,  effused  at  the  base,  columella  thinly  edged ; 
challc-white,   covered    with  a  thin   yellowish    horny 
deciduous  epidermis. 
.loHNSTON,  Trans.  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  of  Berwick-on-Tweed, 
for  1835. 

Natka  canalicidata,  Gould. 
Natica  Islandica  ?  Gmelin. 
Hnh.  North  Seas. 

The  accompanying  figures,  142,  144,  145,  and  146,  se- 
lected to  represent  N.  Helicoides,  caualiculata,  and  Is- 
Inndicn,  as  so  many  distinct  species,  are  without  doubt 

one  and  the  same.  It  has  much  the  appearance  of  an 
Ampiillaria  or  Paludina,  but  may  be  readily  distinguished 
by  its  more  calcareous  marine  aspect  and  deciduous  epi- 

Species  143.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Natica  cornea.     Nat.  testa  mimite  rimato-uyiljiliratd, 
ovatd,  teiini,  subinjlatd,  spird  exsertd,  suturd  canalicu- 
latd, anfractibus  convexis,  ad  basin  rotundato-produc- 
tis,  aperturd  ovatd,  columelld   tenniter   marginatd; 
calcareo-nlM,  epidermide  corned  fused  decidud  indutd. 
The  horny  Natica.     Shell  minutely  edge-umbilicated, 
ovate,  thin,  rather  inflated,  spire   exserted,   suture 
channelled,  whorls  convex,  rotundately  produced  at 
the   base,  aperture  ovate,   columella   thinly  edged ; 
chalk-white,  covered  with  a  brown  homy  deciduous 
MoLLER,  Ind.  Moll.  Groenlandiae,  p.  7- 
Hah.   Greenland. 

Loven  quotes  this  as  a  synonyme  of  the  preceding  spe- 
cies, but  it  is  of  a  more  broadly  inflated  form,  and  charac- 
terized by  a  darker  epidermis. 


Adaiisoni,  Reere   



ebuniea,  Desliayes 

.  . .      XVI. 


Adansoni,  Philippi   



effusa,  Su-ait/soii 



adsperm,  Jleiike 

elegans,  Uecluz 

Eleiice,  Reclu: 



affinis,  Busch   



...      XXI. 


albula,  Reclu: 



euzoim,  llecluz 

.  . .      XV. 


albumen,  Lamarck    



Panel,  llecluz 

.  . .      XIX. 


ala-papilionis  {Neriia),  Clieran. 



fibula,  Reeve 

.  . .      XXVIII. 


Alderl,  Forbes    



filosa,  Sotrerliy 



arachnoidea,  Lamarck 

flava,  Gould 

,  ,  ,      XXIV. 


asellus,  Rene   



Flcmingiana,  Reclu:     .... 

..    XV  in. 


nrticulata,  Pliilippi 



florida,  Rm-e   

. .      XV. 


aiirantia,  Lamarck 



flucluata,  Sowerhy 

forata,  Reeve 



Bacoiii,  Reeve 



.  . .      XXVIII. 


bifasciata,  G^ray   



Forskalii  {Neriia),  Chemnit 

. .      XIV. 


bifasciata,  Eecluz    



Fortunei,  Reere 

.  .  .      XXVI. 


iorealis,  Beck 



Pranrisca,  Recluz 

...      XXVII. 


borealis,  Sowerby  .  .    



fulgurans,  Reclu: 

.  . .      XXII. 


Boiirguignati,  Rechiz    



fulminea  {Nerita),  Gmelin  . 



Broderipiana,  Reclu: 



Gallapagosa,  Reclu: 

.  . .      XIX. 


bulbosa,  Reeve 



Gambiae,  Reclu: 

.  . .      XXIII. 


Buriasensis,  Reclaz 



genuanus,  Reeve   

...      XXVI. 


Cailliaudi,  Kechiz 



glabella,  Reeve 



Campeachiensis,  Rn-lit: 

eanalicidata,  Gould 



glauca,  Humholdt 

...    II. 



glaucina,  Lamarck    

. . .    III. 


cancellata,  Lamarck 



globosa,  Chemnit: 

...      XL 


candidissima,  llecluz 



Groenlandica,  Beck 

.  .  .      XXI. 


candidissima,  Le  GiiUlon    .... 



Gualteriana,  Petit 

.  . .      XXV. 


canrena,  Lhinaus 



Guillemiui,  Payi'auJeau    .  . 

.  . .      XXIII. 


Caribba3a,  Pliilippi 



ffaneti,  Kechiz 

.    .      XXI. 


cadanea,  Lamarck 



Helicoides,  Johnston  ..... 

.  . .      XXX. 


catenata,  Philippi 



helvacea,  Lamarck 

...      XL 


Chemnitzii,  Reclic  



beros,  Say 

.  .    I. 


Chemidhii,  Menke 



iantbostoma,  Deshayes  .... 

.    .      XVIII. 


Cbinensis,  Lamarck 



Lslandica  ?  Gmelin    

.  . .      XXX. 


clausa,  Brod.  and  Son: 



immaculata,  Totten 



coUaria,  Lamarck 



imperforata,  Sowerby 

.  . .      XVIII. 


Colliei,  Reclu: 



iiiipervin,  Philippi 

. . .      XXV. 


columnaris,  Reclu: 



Incii,  Philippi 

intemeratn,  Philippi 

.  . .      XX. 


conica,  Lamarck 



.  . .      IX. 


consolidata,  Courthouy 



iuteniiediii,  Piccluz 

.  . .      VI. 


cornea,  Mitller 



intricata  {Kerita),  Donovan 



cora,  D'Orhiyinj    



Jamaicensis,  C.  B.  Adams  .  . 

...      XXVIII. 


crenatn,  Reoluz 



Jukesii,  R^-eve 

.  . .      XIX. 


cruentata,  Lamarck 



Lamarckiana,  Reclu: 

...    n. 


Cumingiana,  Reclu: 



leucophffia,  Reeve 

liueata,  lAimarck 



deiodosa.  Reeve 



.  . .      VII. 


dense  maculata,  Chemnitz  .... 



locellus,  Reeve 

...      XXVIII. 


Draparnaudi,  Reclti: 



macilenta,  Philippi 

.  .  .      X.WIII. 


dubia,  Reclu:   



maculata,  Dexhayes 

.    .      V. 


duplicata,  Say 



maculosa,  Lamarck 




Maheense,  Reclus XIV. 

mamilla,  Lamarck VII. 

mamillaris,  Lamarck VIII. 

Marochiensis,  Lamarck XIII. 

Maura,  Bruguiire VII. 

melanostoma,  Lamarck VIII. 

melanostomoides,  Qiioi/ XXII. 

melastoma,  Swaiiison    XVIII. 

millepunctata,  Lamarck    VII. 

moiiilifera,  Lamarck XII. 

Montagui,  Forbes XXVII. 

nitida  (Nerita),  Donovan  ....  XXIII. 

nucula,  Rene XXIX. 

opaca, Recluz    VIII. 

orientalis  {Nerita),  Gmelin  ....  XVI. 

pallium,  Eecluz .  IV. 

Panamaensis,  Rcclaz III. 

patula,  Sowerby   II. 

pavimentum,  Recluz XXVIII. 

pellis-tigrina,  Chemnitz XIII. 

perspicua,  Recluz   IV. 

Petiveriana,  Recluz V. 

Philippiana,  Recluz XL 

phytelepbas,  Reeve XI. 

picta,  Recluz XV. 

pisiformis,  Recluz XXIX. 

plicatula,  iV«<to« XXIII. 

plumbea,  ZawM^'c/,- l.\. 

porcellanea,  LfOrhujny XXIII. 

Powisiana,  Reclaz VI. 

Priamus,  Recluz IX. 

problematica,  Reeve VI. 

proxima,  C.  £.  Adavis XXVII. 

pulicaris,  Pldlippi    XV. 

punctata,  Swainsou XIV. 

pusilla,  Say XXV. 

pyramis,  Reere X.XI. 

pyriformis,  Recluz V. 

rapulum,  Reeve XII. 

ravida,  Souleijet XVI. 

Raynaudiana,  Recluz XIII. 

Ilecluziana,  Leshayes I. 

rhodosioiua,  Pliilippi XV. 


rufa  {Nerita),  Born 

.      XVI. 



rufilabris,  Reeve 

.      XXIII. 



rutila,  Macgillivray 

.      XXVII. 



Sagraina,  D'Orbiyny 

.      XXIV. 



sanguinolenta,  Deshayes    .... 

.      XVIII. 



Sebfe  Souleyet                    ■    . 

.      XVII. 



semisulcata,  Gray 

.      XXV. 



Senet/alenais,  Recluz 

.      XIV. 



Simise  {Ruma),  Chemnitz  .  .  . 

.      XVII. 


.      XVII. 



septentrionalis,  Beck 

.      XL 



solida,  Blaiuville 

.      XVI. 



sordida,  Swainson 




spadicea,  Gmelin 




squalida,  Macgillivray 

.      XII. 



stercus-muscarum,  Enc.  IMeth. 

.      VII. 









Succinioides,  Reeve 

. .      XVII. 



suffusa,  Reeve 

.      XXIX. 



sulcata  {Nerita),  Born 

.      XXI. 



taniata,  Menke    

.      XIV. 


. .      XV. 
.      XXV. 



textilis,  Reeve 



Traillii,  Reeve 

.      XXIX. 



triseriata,  Say 

.      XXIV. 



uber,  Valenciennes    ....... 

. .      XIII. 



umbilicata,  Quoy    

.      XXIV. 



unifasciata,  Lamarck . 

.      XII. 



unimaculata,  Reeve 

.      XIX. 



Falenciennesii,  Pavraudeau     . 

.      XXII. 



variabilis,  Recluz 

.      XXIII. 



variolaria,  Recluz 

.      XIII. 

.-J  5 


Vavaosi,  Le  Guillou   




vennstula,  PliUijtjii    




vestalis,  PhUippi    




violacea,  Sowerhy ,  .    . 




vitellus,  Lamarck   

.      X. 



Zanzibarica,  Recluz 




zebra,  LAimarck 

. .      XIII. 



Zelandica,  Q^uoy   

..      XX. 



zunaria,  Lamarck   

. .      XIV. 



Sp.  33    I'd  ^ 

Sp  3s  r,.i 

Sp.  60.  Ad  1 
Sp   61.  Ail,l 
Sp.  63    For   \ 
Sp   lis    .V  C  : 


'  t.ttemeiata,  Philippi,  Pio   Zool.  Soc.  1S51. 
ul  iV  lestalii,  Pliilippi,  Pio.  Zool.  Soc.  \^:A. 
I'hihppi,  and  S.  tieumla,  Menke. 

\   /ju/tcaris,  Philippi.  Kubter,  Conch.  Cab.  AVi 
-tLience  Pro  Zool   Sue.  ISol. 

W.  pi.  13 




Whom  Nature's  works  can  charm,  with  Goil  him'^i'll' 
Molds  converse,"— raorwCo??. 





pTotis  Imp. 


Genus  NAVICELLA,  Lamarck. 
Ti'sia  oblomjo-ovata,  ckpressa,  Patellcpformis,  interdum  coii- 
centrice  striata,  sapius  lavigata,  olivaceo-lutea  vel  vi- 
rescens,  nigra  plerumque  reticulata,  spird  nulla,  vertice 
ad  marginem  suboblique  reflexo,  interdum  roslraio,  labro 
simplici,  area  columellari  tettui,pland,  septiformi,  aper- 
turd  perampld,   impressionibus   musculariius   duabus 
distinctis.     Operculum  testaceum,  mbquadratum,  pla- 
num, dente  laterali  aeuto. 
Shell  oblong-ovate,  depressed.  Patella-shaped,  sometimes 
concentrically  striated,  more  frequently  smooth,  olive- 
yellow  or  greenish,  generally  reticulated  with  black, 
no  spire,  vertex  rather  obliquely  inflected,  sometimes 
beaked,  lip  simple,  columellar  area  thin,  flat,  septum- 
like, aperture  very  largo,  muscular  impressions  two, 
distinct.     Operculum  testaceous,  nearly  square,  flat, 
with  a  sharp  toolh  at  the  side. 
The  Nnvicella  are  a  group  of  the  very  characteristic 
family  of  fresh-water  Nerites,  in  wliich  the  shell  assumes 
a  more  open  Limpet-like  form.     The  spire,  which  in  Ne- 
rlta  and  Neritina  is  convoluted  in  a  very  simple  manner, 
and  is,  in  some  species,  so  concealed  as  scarcely  to  show 
any  convolution,  is  here  transformed  into  the  simple  nu- 
cleus of  a  spire  with  the  vertex  inflected,  as  in  some  of 
the  Limpets,  into  a  beak.     The  callous  expansion  of  the 
columella,  typical  of  this  family,  which  is  often  so  broadly 
and  thinly  developed  in  Neritina,  is  in  Navicella  modified 
into  a  positive  septum  or  shelf,  forming,  so  to  speak,  the 
poop  of  the  little  boat. 

There  is  not  much  variation  either  of  form  or  painting 
in  the  Navicelhs.  They  are  mostly  of  an  olive-yellow  or 
gi-eenish  colour,  reticulated  or  blotched  with  black,  but  a 
few  are  semitransparent  and  tinged  with  rose.  Only  five 
species  were  known  to  Lamarck.  The  exploration  of  the 
rivers,  during  the  last  few  years,  in  the  islands  of  the 
Eastern  and  South-Eastern  Seas  have  brought  many 
more  species  to  light,  and  the  number  is  increased  to 
upwards  of  thirty.  The  Navicella:  are  not  found  in  Europe 
nor  in  any  part  of  the  Western  Hemisphere.  Their  chief 
habitats  are  the  Philippine  and  Australian  Islands,  the 
New  Hebrides,  New  Ireland,  and  New  Caledonia. 

dibus  reticulata,  interdum  nigra  concent  rice  maculntd ; 
intus  carulescente,  area  columellari  auratitio-tinctd. 

Janelle's  Navicell.4..  Shell  oblong-ovate,  convexly 
depressed,  olive-yellow,  reticulated  with  obliqut- 
blaekish-green  lines,  sometimes  concentrically  blotch- 
ed with  black  ;  interior  bluish,  columellar  area  tinged 
with  orange. 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  376. 

Ilab.  Guam   (in  the  river  Umata) ;    Janelle.     Philippine 
Islands  (in  mountain  streams) ;  Cuming. 
A  fine  large  oval  species,  reticulated  or  blotched  with 

blackish-green  upon  an  olive-yellow  ground. 

Species  2.   (Pig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  bimaculata.      Nav.  testd  subquadrato-ovuin, 
convexo-depressd,  lutescente,  lineis  nigris  oblique  m/i- 
culato-reticulatd ;  intus  carulescente,  ared  columellari 
angustd,  aurantio-rufo  marginatd,  maculis  duabus  ni- 
gris notatu. 
The  ttvo-spotted  Navicella.    Shell  somewhat  squarely 
ovate,  convexly  depressed,  yellowish,  obliquely  blotch- 
reticulated  with  Iilack  lines ;    interior  bluish,  colu- 
mellar area  narrow,  edged  with  orange-red,  marked 
with  two  black  blotches. 
Hab.  Mauritius. 

Characterized  by  two  black  blotches  ou  the  columellar 
area,  which  is  rather  narrov/  and  tipped  with  orange-red. 
and,  externally,  by  a  rather  blotchy  kind  of  network. 

Species  1.   (Pig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  Janelli.     Nav.  testd  oblongo-ovutd,  convex 
depressd,  olwaceo-luted,  lineis  obliquis  nigricaiite-vi) 

Species  3.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  depeessa.    Nav.  testd  obovatd,  depressd,  sub- 
tus  subexpansd,  olivaceo-luted,  nigra  maculato-reticu- 
latd;  intus  crerulescente,  ared  columellari  parviusculd, 
aurantio-rufo  tinctd. 
The  depressed   Navicella.     Shell  oblong-ovate,  de- 
pressed, rather  expanded  beneath,  olive-yellow,  blotch- 
reticulated   with   black;    interior  bluish,   cohimcllar 
area  rather  small,  tinged  with  orange-red. 
Lesson,  Voy.  de  la  Coquille,  Zool.  p.  oCS. 

Eadem  var.  Navicella  zebra,  Lesson. 
Hab.  Tahiti. 

Distinguished  by  a  dcpressly  expanded  form,  which  n> 
duces  the  columellar  area  to  a  crescent  sbn])e. 

NAVIC ELLA.— Plate  L 

4.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
N.wiCELLA  Preycineti.  Nav.  testa  ovatd,  ijibhom,  api- 
cem  versus  subrostrata,  co?tcen,trice  nitide  striata,  sor- 
dide  olivacen,  lineis  fiiscis  concentrice  dense  undulatd ; 
intus  cceridescente,  area  columellari  latiusculd,  medio 
peculiariter  liiujidata,  versus  immjinem  aurantio-rufo 
Frkvcinet's  Navicella.  Shell  ovate,  gibbous,  some- 
u'liat  beaked  towai-fls  the  apex,  concentrically  neatly 

striated,  dull  olive,  densely  concentrically  waved  with 
browu  lines ;  interior  bluish,  columellar  area  rather 
broad,  peculiarly  tongued  in  the  midde,  tinged  to- 
wards the  margin  with  orange-red. 

Eecluz,  Kevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  37-5. 

Hab.  New  Hebrides. 

Well  distinguished  by  its  gibbous  slightly  beakeil  form, 

and  peculiar  tongue-like  process  of  the  columellar  area. 





Species  5.  (Fig-,  a,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  iii;;;ii  I  la  Ms.  Nav.  testa  snborMcidari,veH- 
tricosd,!  'rticeo-nigro promisciie  reticulata 

vel  Marr'.'i  ■',  ■,,  i-iilescetite,  area  columellari  sub- 

angmtd,  miicavd. 

The  slightly  okbicclak  Navicella.  Shell  suborbi- 
cular,  veiitricose,  fulvous,  promiscuously  reticulated 
or  blotched  with  olive-black,  interior  bluish,  columel- 
lar  area  rather  narrow,  concave. 

SowERBY,  Tankerville  Catalogue,  App.  p.  10.  n.  1093. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Chiefly  distinguished  by  its  light  gibiious  form  and 
loosely  reticulated  painting. 

Species  G.  (Mus.  Cumiug.) 

Navicella  porcellana.  Nav.  testa  subtrigono-ovatii, 
solidimndd,  olivaceo-nigro  dense  I'eticulatd,  intus  c<e- 
rulescente,  margine  subexpmiso,  areii  columellari  de- 
cUvi,  ad  latera  nigra  niaculatd. 

The  porcelain  Navicella.  Shell  somewhat  triangu- 
larly ovate,  rather  solid,  closely  reticulated  with  olive- 
black,  interior  blue,  margin  rather  expanded,  colu- 
mellar  area  slanting,  blotched  with  black  at  the  sides. 

Patella  porcellana,  Linnreus,  Mus.  Lud.  Ulric.  p.  689. 
n.  411. 

Nerita porcellana,  Chemnitz. 
NaviceUa  porcellana,  Deshayes. 
Patella  Borbonica,  Bory  St.  Vincent, 
Crepidula  Borbonica,  De  Eoissy. 
Septaria  Borbonica,  De  Ferussac. 
Navicella  elliptica,  Lamarck. 
Scandalinum  pictum,  Schumacher. 

Hab.  Islands  of  Bourbon,  Eodriguez,  Mauritius,  and 
Madagascar;  Eccluz. 

The  articulated  painting  of  this  old  Linnwau  species  is 

extremely  thick-set,  leaviug  only  minute  triangular  spac 
of  yellowish  ground  at  irregular  intervals. 

Species  7.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  Cumingiana.  Nav.  tedd  subtrigono-ovatd, 
versus  apiceni  subrostratd,  ad  latera  expansd,  olivaceo- 
luted,  iiigrkante-fusco  concenirice  midulatd,  intus  ca- 
rulescente,  area  columellari  angustd,  margine  medio 

Cuming's  Navicella.  Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  slightly  beaked  towards  the  apex,  expanded 
at  the  sides,  olive-yellow,  concentrically  waved  with 
blackish-brown,  interior  bluish,  columellar  area  nar- 
row, margin  slightly  produced  in  the  middle. 

Recluz,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming. 

Ilab.  Philippine  Islands. 

The  painting  of  this  fine  species  consists  throughout  of 
concentric  rings  of  irregidarly  waved  blackish-brown  lines. 

Species  8.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  variabilis.  Nav.  testa  oblongo-ovali,  con- 
vexo-gibbosd,  versus  apicem  subrostratd,  concentrice 
striata,  sordide  olivaced,  nigra  obscure  retictdato-uu- 
bratd,  intus  livida-cmruled,  area  columellari  arcuatd. 

The  variable  Navicella.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  con- 
vexly  gibbous,  somewhat  beaked  towards  the  apex, 
concentrically  striated,  dull  olive,  obscurely  reticu- 
lately  shaded  with  black,  interior  livid  blue,  colu- 
mellar area  arched. 

Recluz,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

Of  a  very  regular  oblong-oval  form,  sculptured  with  a 

well-marked  concentric  striae,  the  network  painting  being 

obscui-ed  by  patches  of  shading. 




"Vmcant  Brooks  Imp 


Species  9.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

N.iviCELLA  LENTIGINOSA.  iVay.  tedH  subtrigono-ovatd, 
HiMus  concavo-expansd,  olivaceo-luted,  nvjricante-fmco 
uncUque  niiide  I'meatd  et  leniiginosd,  intus  carides- 
cente,  area  columellari  parvd,  concavo-decUvi. 

The  freckled  Naticella.  Shell  somewhat  triangu- 
larly ovate,  concavely  expanded  beneath,  olive-yel- 
low, neatly  lineated  and  freckled  throughout  with 
blackish-brown,  interior  bluish,  columellar  area  small, 
concavely  slanting. 

Hafj. ?  ' 

Distinguished  by  its  triangularly  expanded  form  and 

neatly  freckled  painting. 

Fig.  10.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
The  sheU  here  figured  represents  the  Navicella  elUptica 
of  Lamarck,  which  is  a  variety  of  the  Linnean  N.  por- 

Species  11.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  Luzonica.  Nav.  testa  anguste  ovatd,  g'lh- 
hosd,  ad  apiceni  coiispiciii  rostratd,  concentrice  rude 
striata,  fulvo-castaned,  immaculatd;  intus  caridescente, 
area  columellari  aurantio-rufo  tinctd. 

The  Luzon  Navicella.  Shell  narrowly  ovate,  gibbous, 
conspicuously  beaked  at  the  apex,  concentrically 
rudely  striated ;  fulvous  chestnut,  unspotted,  interior 
bluish,  columellar  area  tinged  with  orange-red. 

SouLEYET,  Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1811, 
p.  375. 

Hah.  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  (in  mountain  streams 
on  stones) ;  Cuming. 

Of  a  characte 
fulvous-chestnut  : 

stic  narrow,   gibbons 
colour,  destitute  of  a 

boat-like    for 
V  marking. 

Species  12.  (Fig.  «,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

N.wiCELLA  Nav.  iestd  oblongo-ovaid,  con- 
vexo-depressd,  siibtus  planatd,  apice  retuse  eroso,  con- 
centrice rude  striata,  nigricante-castaned,  nitente,  cor- 
ned, intus  carulescente,  area  columellari  angustissimd, 
crassd,  declivi,  cameo-rosed. 

The  beetle  Navicella.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  convexly 
depressed,  flattened  beneath,  apex  bluntly  eroded, 
concentrically  rudely  striated,  blackish  chestnut, 
shining,  horny,  interior  bluish,  columellar  area  very 
narrow,  thick,  slanting,  flesh-rose. 

Ilab.  Hamond's  Island,  Australian  Seas. 

A  very  peculiar  oblong-oval  species,  depressly  flattened 

beneath,  with  a  narrow,  thickly  callous,  columellar  area. 

The  outer  surface  of  the  shell  is  covered  with  a  hard, 

horny  epidermis. 

Species  13.  (Fig.  c,  i,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  livida.  Nav.  tesid  subtrigono-ovatd,  m?-sus 
apicem  gibbosd,  sordide  livido-olivaced,  obscure  reticu- 
latd,  intus  livido-carulesceiite,  area  columellari  con- 

The  livid  Navicella.  Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  gibbous  towards  the  apex,  dark  livid  olive, 
obscurely  reticulated,  interior  livid  blue,  eolumcllar 
area  concavely  flattened. 

Ilab. ? 

Allied  to  N.  saborbicularis,  but  of  a  dift'erent  form  and 

a;eneral  livid  hue. 

June,  1856. 

Namrlhi.  PI .  IV. 


Plate  IY. 

Species  14.   (Tig.  o,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  Cookii.  Km.  testa  mhohlomjo-ovatd,  tenni- 
cula,  yibhosd,  fulvescente,  olivaceo-nigro  ohsciire  late 
reticulata,  intus  carulescente,  medio  rufesceide  thicld, 
area  coltimellari  parvd,  pallidissime  nifescente. 

Cook's  Navicella.  Shell  suboblong-ovate,  rather  thin, 
gibbous,  light  fulvous,  obscurely  broadly  reticulated 
with  olive-black,  interior  bluish,  tinged  with  red  in 
the  middle,  columellar  area  small,  very  faintly  tinged 
with  red. 

Recluz,  MS.  JMus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands;  Cuming. 

A  light  gibbous  species,   allied   to   N.  .■inhorhicidaris, 
somewhat  peculiarly  contracted. 

Species  15.  (Fig.  o,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  affinis.  Nav.  testa  ovatd,  subtus  siibexpansd, 

olivaceo-litted,  niyro  dense  reticulatd,  intus  carules- 

cente,  area  columellari  lutescente,  concavo-declivi. 
The  allied  Navicella.     Shell  ovate,  rather  expanded 

beneath,  olive-yeUow,  densely  reticulated  with  black ; 

interior  bluish,  columellar  area  yellowish,  coucavely 

Hah.  ? 

There  is  little  to  distinguish  this  species  from  N.  de- 
pressa  in  point  of  colouring,  but  it  may  be  recognized  by 
a  difference  of  form. 

Species  16.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  magnifica.  Nav.  testa  oblongo-ovatd,  idrin- 
qui-  attenuntd,  concenirice  dense  elevato-striatd,  niyri- 
cante-fuscd,  epidermide  corned,  apice  multo  eroso, 
intus  cmrulescente,  area  columellari  plano-decUvi,  an- 
rantio-rnfo  tinctd. 
The  magnificent  Navicella.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  at- 
tenuated at  each  end,  concentrically  densely  elevately 
striated,  dark  brown,  epidermis  horny,  apex  much 

eroded,  interior  bluish,  columellar  area  flatly  slanting, 

tinged  with  orange-red. 
Ilab.  Hamond's  Island,  Australian  Seas. 

This  fine  species  is  of  a  bold  expanded  oblong-ovate 
form,  rather  attenuated  at  each  end,  covered  with  a  dark 
bright  brown  epidermis,  sculptured  throughout  with  con- 
centric rings  of  raised  stria;. 

Species  17.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  sanguiscga.     Nav.  testa  elongato-ovatd,  sub- 
oblique  curvatd,  gibbosd,   apice   obsoleto,   coucentrice 
rude    anntdato-striatd,    nigricante-fuscd,    epidermide 
corned,  intus  ccerulescente,  area  columellari  termiiiali. 
crassd,  callosd,  plus  minus  erosd. 
The  leech  Navicella.     Shell  elongately  ovate,  some- 
what obliquely  curved,  gibbous,  apex  obsolete,  concen- 
trically rudely  ring-striated,  blackish-brown,  epider- 
mis horny,  interior  bluish,  columellar  area  terminal, 
thick,  callous,  more  or  less  eroded. 
Ilab.  New  Caledonia. 

Of  a  peculiar  elongately  ovate  form,  obliquely  curved, 
with  an  eroded  sinus  on  the  inner  side,  which  seems  to 
indicate  that  this  sheH  may  prove  to  be  typical  of  a  new 
genus.  The  columellar  area  forms  a  thickly  flatly  eroded 
shelf  across  the  end.     Externally  the  epidermis  is  horny. 

Species  18.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  uaustkum.     Nav.  testa  oeatd,  subtus  exca- 
vatd,  gibbosd,    apice    rostrato,   olivaceo-luted,   nigro 

dense  reticulatd,  intus  carulescente, 
parviusculd,  albicante. 

'd  columellari 

The  scoop  Navicella.  Shell  ovate,  excavated  beneath, 
gibbous,  apex  beaked,  olive-yellow,  densely  reticu- 
lated with  black,  interior  bluish,  columellar  area 
rather  small,  whitish. 

Ilab.  New  Caledonia. 

Of  a  more  than  usual  excavated  gibbous  growth,  with 

painting  similar  in  character  to  that  of  N.  depressa. 

Miric,-/!,,.  /'/.  r. 





Sowerby-  del  ttlitli 



Species  19.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
N.ivicELLA  Crepiduloides.   Nav.  testd suhatiguste ovatd, 
de^n'essa,  versus  apicem  attenuate  rostratd,  suhtus  ex- 
cavatd,  caruleo-nigrd,  olivaceo-luteo  minute  lineatd  et 
punctata,  ared  columellari  latd,  plano-decUvi,  tenui, 
The    Cuepidula   Navicella.      Shell  rather  narrowly 
ovate,   depressed,   attenuately   beaked   towards   the 
apex,  e.\cavated  beneath,  blue-black,  miuutely  liue- 
ated  and  dotted  with  olive-yellow,  columellar  area 
broad,  flatly  slanting,  thin,  semitranspareut. 
Hah. ? 

Of  depressly  excavated  growth,  peculiarly  attenuated 
and  beaked  towards  the  apex,  the  columellar  area  having 
the  appearance  of  a  thin  septum  as  in  some  species  of 

Species  20.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella    eeticdlata.      Nav.  testd  depresse   ovatd, 
teuiti,  semipellucidd,  liitescente,  apicem  versus  roseo- 
tinctd,  olivaceo-niyro  aperte  reticiclatd,  ared  columel- 
lari pared. 
The  reticulated  Navicella.     Shell  depressly  ovate, 
thin,  semitranspareut,  yellowish,  tinged   with  rose 
towards  the  apex,  openly  reticulated  with  olive-black, 
columellar  area  small. 
Hob.  Ceylon. 

A  thin  semitranspareut  oblong-square  ovate  shell,  reti- 
culated W'ith  a  rather  large  open  pattern. 

Species  21.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  insignis.  Nav.  testd  subtrigono-ovatd,  pecu- 
liariter  depressissime  expansd,  concentrice  rude  cor- 
rugatd,  apiee  non  inarginali,  olivaceo-nigrd,  versus 
nMrginem  lutesceute  puuctatd,  iutus  carulesceute,  ared 
columellari  parvd,  contractd. 
The  remarkable  Navicella.  Shell  somewhat  trian- 
gularly ovate,  peculiarly  very  depressly   expanded. 

concentrically  rudely  wrinkled,   apex  not  marginal, 
olive-black,  dotted  with  yellow  towards  the  margin, 
interior  bluish,  columellar  area  small,  contracted. 
Hab.  Sumatra ;  Captain  Martin. 

Eemarkably  distinguished   by  its  depressly  expanded 
Patella-V\k&  form,  the  margin  being  produced  much  be- 

ad  the 

Species  22.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  apiata.  Nav.  testd  ovato-trigond,  utrinque 
nlatd,  de])ressissim.d,  oUvaceo-nigro  midi(/ue pulckerrimi 
mimttimme  retictilatd,  iiitus  cisrulesceute,maculis  sub- 
amplis  duabus  iiigris,  ared  columellari  angustd. 

The  finely-netted  Navicella.  Shell  ovately  trian- 
gidar,  winged  on  each  side,  very  depressed,  beauti- 
fully finely  netted  throughout  with  olive-black,  in- 
terior bluish,  with  two  rather  large  black  spots,  co- 
lumellar area  narrow. 

Le  Guillou,  Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  ISl-l, 
p.  376. 

Hab.  Nukuhiva,  Feejee  Islands. 

Conspicuously  characterized  by  its  depressed 
expansion,  and  peculiarly  neat  minute  reticulated  marking. 

Species  23.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  psittacea.  Nav.  testd  anguste  ovatd,  versus 
apicem  atteuuate  rostratd,  valde  gibbosd,  atrd,  obscure 
reticulatd,  iutus  ceerulescente,  ared  columellari  declivi, 
margiiie  medio  coiispicue  producto,  superiie  ru/o-tinctd. 
The  parrot-beak  Navicella.  Shell  narrowly  ovate, 
attenuately  beaked  towards  the  apex,  very  gibbous, 
black,  obscurely  reticulated,  interior  Ijluish,  columel- 
lar area  slanting,  margin  conspicuously  produced  in 
j  the  middle,  tinged  with  red  at  the  upper  part. 

j  Hab.  Australian  Islands. 

'  A  narrow  gibbous  shell,  of  light  substance,  attenuately 
I  beaked  towards  the  apex,  with  the  columellar  area  pro- 
I   duced  in  the  middle  into  a  tongue-like  process. 

y,iwr/l„  J'/.  VI. 

m     ' 


^-..  ^ 


Vmcenv    B-roolts    It, 


Species  34.  (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  clypeolum.  Nav.  testa  subquadrato-ovatd, 
teiiuiculd,  expansa,  coiweiitrice  deitse  striata,  lutescetite 
fitsco  reticulaiim  varieyatd,  satm-aie  fimco  interduw 
radiatd,  ajiice  rosea,  area  coliimellari.  curvatd. 

The  little  -  shield  Navicella.  Shell  somewhat 
squarely  ovate,  rather  thin,  expanded,  concentrically 
densely  striated,  yellowish,  reticulately  variegated 
with  brown,  sometimes  rayed  with  dark  lirovvn,  apex 
rose,  columellar  area  curved. 

Kecluz,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming. 

Easdem  varietates.  Navicella  atra  and  radiata.  Reeve, 
in  Conch.  Syst. 

Hah.  Philippine  Islands  (in  mountain-streams  on  stones) ; 

A  light  squarely  ovate  variegated  species,  with  a  cha- 
racteristic rose  apex. 

Species  25.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella   pblchella.      Nav.  testa   compressi   ovatd, 
dense  coiicentrice  striatd,  nigra,  versus  marginem  nigro 
et  Ititeo  pulclire  tessellatd,  area  columellari  parvius- 
The  pretty  Navicella.  Shell  compressly  ovate,  densely 
concentrically  striated,  black,   towards   the   margin 
prettily  tessellated  with  black  and  yellow,  columellar 
area  rather  small. 
Hab. ? 

A  black  compressly  ovate  shell,  neatly  tessellated 
wards  the  margin  with  yellow. 


Species  26.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella    eximia.      Nav.  testa  suboblongo-quadrata, 
versus    apicem   contracfd,   coneentrice  dense   striatd, 
apice  rostrato,  lutesci'iiic,  olii-nceo-iiigro  tessellntd  et 
interdum  imbeculatd,  inlii't  pilh,ci,h)-carulescente, area 
columellari  latiusculd,  niirniilio-nifo  tinctd. 
The  delicate  Navicella.      Shell  somewhat  oblong- 
square,  contracted  towards  the  apex,  concentrically 
densely  striated,  apex  beaked,  yellowish,  tessellated 
and    sometimes    clouded    with   olive-black,    interior 
transparent  blue,  cohnnellar  area  rather  broad,  tinaed 
with  orange-red. 
Ilah.  Ceylon  ;  F.  Layard. 

A  semitransparent  tessellated  species,  marked  with  a 
characteristic  pattern  and  colour. 

Species  27.  (",  h,  r,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  tessellata.    Nav.  testa  amjuste  ovatd,  tenui- 
culd,  dense  coneentrice  striatd,  apice  subrostrato,  lutes- 
cente,  olivaceo-nigro  promiscne  tessellatd  et  variegatd, 
apice  rosacea,  ared  columellari  curvatd. 
The  tessellated  Navicella.     Shell  narrowly  ovate, 
rather    tliin,   densely    concentrically   striated,   api-x 
rather  beaked,  yellowish,   promiscuously  tessellated 
and  variegated  with  olive-black,  apex  tinged   with 
rose,  columellar  area  arched. 
Lamaeck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  .56-1.. 
Nab.  Philippine  Islands  (in  mountain-streams  on  stones); 
or  a  narrower  oblong  form  than  cither  of  the  preceding 
species  of  the  same  type,  and  more  promiscuously  tessel- 



Ximrl/,,,  I'i   VII. 

Ymcent   Brooks     Imp 


Plate  VII. 

Species  2S.  (Fig.  u,  b,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  Macrocephala.  New.  testa  late  ovata,  con- 
vexo-tumida,  apice  suhamplo,  castaneo-fnscd  vel  oli- 
vaced,  linds  nigris  apeiie  unclaid,  area  columellari 
iinrantio-nifo  tinctd. 

Thk  large-headed  Navicella.  Shell  broadly-ovate, 
coiivexly  swollen,  apex  rather  large  ;  chestnut-brown 
or  olive,  laced  with  zigzag  black  lines,  columellar 
area  tinged  with  orange-red. 

fyi:  Glillou,  E«vae  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  374. 

Hdlj.  Feejee  Islands. 

.4  very  characteristic  broadly-ovate   species,  convexly 
swollen  towards  the  apex. 

Species  29.  (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
\avicella  CiEBDLESCENS.  Nav.  testd  ovatd,  apice  sub- 
rostratd,  concentrice  temcistriatd,  teiiui,  cmrulescente, 
olivaceo-nigro  varie  subtilissme  tessellatd  et  variegatd, 
intenlmti  fasciatd,  area  colmnellari  mibangndd. 
The  bluisu  Navicella.  Shell  ovate,  rather  beaked  at 
the  apex,  concentrically  finely  striated,  thin,  bluish, 

variously  finely  tessellated  and  clouded  with  olive- 
black,   sometimes    banded,   columellar   area    rather 
Hah.  Calcutta  (in  the  streets  of  the  city  and  in  the  Bo- 
tanic Gardens). 

A  light  grey  tessellated  species,  small  and  obscure  in 
pattern,  and  extremely  variable. 

Species  30.  (Fig.  a,  4,  c,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicella  Bougainvillii.  Nav.  testa  ovatd,  apicem 
versus  convexo-tumidd,  ollvaced,  lineis  nigris  undatu 
pictd,  inttts  ccerided,  ared  columellari  angustd,  maculis 
duab/is  nigris  uotatd. 

Bougainville's  Navicella.  Shell  ovate,  convexly 
swollen  towards  the  apex,  olive,  painted  with  waved 
black  lines,  interior  blue,  columellar  area  narrow, 
marked  with  two  black  spots. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  374. 

Hub.  New  Ireland. 

Distinguished  by  its  peculiar  waved-line  painting 
I    internal  black  blotches. 


June,  1856. 

Xayicclla  ,  PL   MIL 

Ymccnt   Srooba    Imp 


Species  31.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Navicell.\  lineata.  Nav.  testa  elongato-ovatd,  ad  1a- 
tera  compressd,  temii,  diaphand,  apice  rostrnto,  pel- 
lucido-liiiescente,  pnnctis  nigris  mijittiferh  axperm, 
ared  columellari  latiwsctild. 

The  lineated  Navicella.  Shell  elongately  ovate, 
compressed  at  tlie  sides,  thin,  diaphanous,  apex 
bealjed,  transparent  yellow,  sprinkled  with  black 
arrow-headed  dots,  columellar  area  rather  broad. 

Lamakck,  Encyclopddie  Mcthodique,  pi.  450.  f.  2  a,h. 
Septaria  naviculu,  De  Ferussac. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

The   most   elongated   and   transparent  of  the   genus, 

marked   with  rays   of  arrow-headed    black  dots   upon   a 

transparent  ycUowish  gi-ound. 

33.  (Fig.  a,  Ij,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella  Entrecastauxii.  Nav.  testa  subeloiigato- 
ovntd,  ad  latera  compressd,  apice  rostrato,  temd,  suh- 
diaphand,  livido-rosed  vet  pellucido-olivaced,  liiieis 
nuieculatis  reticnlantibus  radiatd,  ared  columellari 
pari'iusculd,  arcuatd. 
Entrecastaux's  Navicella.    Shell  subelongately  ovate, 

compressed  at  the  sides,  apex  beaked,  thin,  subdia- 
phanous,  livid  rose  or  transparent  olive,  rayed  with 
clouded  reticulating  lines,  columellar  area  rather 
small,  arched. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zoo!.  Soo.  Cuvierienne,  1811,  p.  380. 

Ilab.  Point  Entrccastaux,  King  George's  Harbour,  .Vus- 

Of  a  similar  transparent  substance  to  the  preceding 
species,  less  elongated  in  form,  of  a  delicate  rose-yellow 
tinge,  retioulately  rayed  with  black  lines. 

Species  33.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Navicella   oeientalis.     Nav.  testa   ovatd,  ad  latera 
subcompressd,    tenui,    suhdiapJiand,    liitescetite-grised, 
puiirtis  nigricautibus  reticulatim  aspersd,  ared  colii- 
ueUari  siibaiigustd,  arcuatd. 
The  East   Indian  Navicella.     Shell   ovate,  slightly 
compressed  at  the  sides,  thin,  subdiaphanous,  yel- 
lowish-grey, reticulately  sprinkled  with  blackish  dots, 
columellar  area  rather  narrow,  arched. 
Hab.  Calcutta  (in  the  Botanic  Garden). 

A  somewhat  rudely  compressed  semitransparent  shell, 
faintly  reticulately  sprinkled  with  black  dots. 


Genus  LATIA,  Gray. 
Testa  tennis,  subcornea,  ovata,  depresse  pileiformis,  vertice 
oblique  intorto,  ■subrosfrato ;  intus  septo  arcuato,  mar- 
giiie  subreflexo,  ad  extremitatem  imam  acute  producto. 
Shell  thin,  rather  horny,  ovate,  depressly  cap-shaped,  ver- 
tex obliquely  twisted  in  and  slightly  beaked ;  interior 
marked  with  an  arched  shelf,  a  little  turned  up  at  the 
edge,  which  is  sharply  produced  at  one  end. 
The  two  little  shells  here  figured  with  the  Navicdlre 
present   a   distinct   typical    character,   partaking   almost 
equally  in  the  general  features  of  convolution  and  texture 
with  Ancylus.     Dr.  Gray,  while  distinguishing  them  in 
our  national  collection  by  the  generic  title  of  Lafia,  places 
them  near  the  latter  genus ;  but  in  the  absence  of  any 
knowledge  of  the  animal,  their  position  in  the  system 
can  only  be  a  matter  of  conjecture.     They  are  of  thin, 
olive  or  greenish,  horny  substance,  with  the  spire  obliquely 
twisted  in,  having  an  opake  white  septum  in  the  interior, 
similar  in  a  measure  to  that  of  Navicella  or  Cahjptrea,  but 
presenting  a  peculiar  modification,  the  edge  being  slightly 
bent  upwards  and  prolonged  at  one  end  into  a  sort  of 

Both  species  are  from  New  Zealand. 

Species  1.  (Fig.  34  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Latia  Neeitoides.     Lat.  testa  ovatd,  Icevigatd,  vertice 

tmnidiusculo,  producto  ;  oUvaceo-cortieu. 
The  Neeite-like  Latia.     Shell  ovate,  smooth,  vertex 

rather  swollen,  produced  ;  olive-horny. 
Gray,  MS.  Mus.  Brit. 
Ihb.  New  Zealand  ;  Earl. 

This  species,  the  smaller  of  the  two  which  at  present 
constitute  this  genus,  has  the  vertex  the  more  swollen  and 
produced  in  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  shell. 

Species  2.  (Fig.  35  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Latia  lateealis.     Lat.  testd  subquadrato-ovaid,  subde- 

pressd,  obscure  later aliter  sulcata  ;  virescente-corned. 
The  lateeal  Latia.     Shell  somewhat  squarely  ovate, 

rather   depressed,   obscurely    grooved    at   the   side ; 

Gould,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming. 
Hab.  New  Zealand  ;  Hart,  R.N. 

Rather  larger  than  the  jireceding  species,  and  more 
squarely  depressed  in  general  contour.  The  vertex  is  less 
prominent,  and  the  side  of  the  shell  is  faintly  grooved. 


affinis.  Reeve IV.  15 

apiata,  Le  Gttillo7i V.  32 

bimaculata,  Beeve I.  3 

Boiigainvillii,  Recluz VII.  30 

cserulescens,  Reeve VII.  29 

clypeolum,  Redu: IV.  2-i 

Cookii,  Recluz IV.  11 

Crepiduloides,  Reeve V.  19 

Cumingiana,  Redu: II.  7 

depressa,  Lesson I.  3 

elliptica,  Lamarck II.  6 

Entrecastauxii,  Redu: VIII.  32 

eximia,  Reeve   VI.  2(i 

Freycineti,  Jleclu: I.  4 

haustrum,  R^eve IV.  IS 

iiisig-nis,  Reivc V.  31 

Janelli,  Recluz  . . 
leiitiginosa,  Reeve 
lineata,  Lmiiarck 

livida,  Reeve 

Luzouica,  Smdeyet      ... 
macrocephala,  Le  Chdllou 
maguifica,  Reeve  . 
orbicularis,  Sowerlji/ 
orieutalis,  Rtevt 
porcellana  {Pntella),  Linn 
psittacea,  Reeve    . 
pulchella,  Reeve    . 
reticulata,  Reeve 
sanguisuga.  Reeve 
scarabaaus,  Reeve 
tesscllata,  Lnumrdi 




"  Pait  siiiL'le.  or  with  mate. 
Graze  the  seaweed,  their  pastm-c, 
And  through  groves  of  coral  stray."— jV;//o«. 

.S(i>h(ji(irui .  /y.;. 




Genus  SIPHONARIA,  Soicerby. 

Testa  oviita,  nunc  elevaio-conica,  verticc  iiiwinato,  i/iiiic  de- 
pressa,  radiathn  costata   re/  liiri/a.  ii/ari/ine  iloiticii- 
lata.     Impressio  muscnianx  niitiiv  iiilerrupttt,  Intci-f 
caimU  phis  minus  distiiicli:  iiiilnilu. 
Shell  ovate,  sometimes  elevately  conical,  uncinate  at  the 
top,  sometimes  depressed,  radiately  ribbed  or  stri- 
ated, denticulated  at  the  margin.     Muscular  impres- 
sion  interrupted   in  front,   more  or  less  distinctly 
marked,  with  a  canal  leading  to  the  side. 
The  attention  of  Mr.  Sowerby  was  first   attracted  to 
this  group  of  Limpets,  as  distinguished  from  the  ordinary 
PaMla,  by  the  impressed  mark,  on  one  side  of  the  in- 
terior, of  an  outlying  siphon.     The  animal  was  succes- 
sively anatomized  by  De  BlainvUle  and  M.  Quoy,  and  a 
structure  corresponding  with  this  mark  was  found  to  exist 
iu  the  form  of  a  caual,  used  for  the  conveyance  of  water 
to  the  branchial  cavity,  which  proved  to  be  situated  iu 
the  back  of  the  neck.     The  first  recognized  species  were 
described  and  figured  by  Mr.  Sowerby,  in  his  '  Genera  of 
Shells.'     The  soft  parts  were  figured  by  M.  Quoy  in  the 
'  Voyage  de  TAstrolabe,'  but  several  of  the  shells  named 
iu  that  work  as  distinct  species,  and  reproduced  as  such 
by  M.  Deshayes  in  his  edition  of  Lamarck's  '  Animau.K 
sans  vertebres,'  appear  to  be  varieties  of  one  and  the  same 
species  in  different  states.     With  the  aid  of  a  numerous 
series  of  specimens  of  SlpJionaria,  collected  together  by 
Mr.  Cuming,  I  have  been  enabled  to  define  many  new 
species,  and  remove  previous  errors,  the  whole  forming  an 
exceedingly  natural  group,  all  readily  distinguished  by  their 
variations  of  form,  sculpture,  and  internal  colouring. 

The  Siphonar'uB,  as  will   be   seen  on  reference  to  the 
habitats,  are  widely  distributed  in  both  hemispheres. 

Species  1.  (Fig.  u,  h,  ^lus.  Cuming.) 
SiPHON.\RiA  DiEJiENENSis.  Sipli.  testd  ovatd,  convexd, 
vertice  aeiito,  radiaiim  costatd,  cosiis  numerosis,  rudi- 
iiis,  irregulai-'ibus ;  costis aliidis,  intent itik  versus  mar- 
yinem  cinefeo-nifesceiifibus,  niuri/ini'  iiitiis  conspici'i 
castmieo  albogue  lineolato. 
The  Van  Diemen's  Land  Siphonaria.  Shell  ovate, 
convex,  sharp  at  the  top,  radiately  ribbed,  ribs  nume- 
rous, rude,  irregular ;  ribs  white,  interstices  ash-red 
towards  the  margin,  margin  conspicuously  lincated 
withiu  with  chestnut  and  white. 

Quoy  and  Gaimakd,  Voy.  de  1' Astrolabe,  vol.  ii.  p.  337- 

pi.  25.  f.  1-13. 
IM.  Van  Diemen's  Land. 

Au  acutely  convex  species,  irregularly  closely  ribbed, 
with  the  interstices  excavately  grooved,  and  further  dis- 
tinguished by  the  inner  margin  being  conspicuously  tes- 

Species  2.   (Fig.  ff, /a  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Siphonaria  scabra.     Sijili.  testd  ortjicidari,  subdepresse 
convexd,   i-ertiec  obtuse  acumiuatd,  radiatim   costatd, 
costis  rudibus,  scabris ;  costis  sordide  albidis,  inter- 
stitiis  puipurco-fuscescentibus,  intus  purpureo-lineatd. 
The  rough  Siphonaria.     Shell  orbicular,  rather  de- 
pressly  convex,  obtusely  pointed  at  the  top,  radiately 
ribbed,  ribs  rude  and  scabrous ;  ribs  dirty-white,  in- 
terstices purple-brown,  interior  purple-liiieated. 
Jlab.  Port  Jackson,  Australia. 

Of  a  more  orbicular  form  than  the  preceding  species, 
with  the  ribs  more  rough  and  irregular,  and,  the  shell 
being  of  thinner  substance,  the  purple  linear  painting  is 
seen  running  up  further  in  the  interior. 

Species  3.  (Fig.  <i,  b.  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Siphonaria  gigas.  Siph.  testa  elevato-cuiicexd,  radia- 
tim fortiter  costatis,  cosiis  rude  aiigulatis,  aciitis,  in- 
terstitiis  striatis ;  fused,  versus  marginem  nigricanle 

The  giant  Siphonaria.  Shell  elevately  convex,  radi- 
ately strongly  ribbed,  ribs  rudely  angled,  sharp,  in- 
terstices striated;  brown,  stained  with  black  towards 
the  margin. 

Sowerby,  Tankerville  Catalogue,  App.,  p.  vii.  n.  SOS. 

Hab.  Galapagos  Islands  and  Panama. 

This  fine  species  is  well  distinguished  by  its  strong, 

rude,  angularly  raised  ribs,  radiating  from  the  top  like 


Species  4.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Siphonaria  denticulata.     Siph.  testd  ovatd.  erassii, 


culd,  snbirn'fjuliii-i,   depresse   coiwexa,   radialim  cos- 

iatd,  c(k/is  rni/i/iii.i,  alternaLim  majoribus ;  intuit  U- 

oido-casliiiieii,  mnnjitii;  albo  macnlatd. 
The  toothed  Siphonakia.     Shell  ovate,  rather  thick, 

sonievvliat    irregular,    depressly     oouvex,    radiately 

ribbed,  ribs  rude,  alternately  larger;   interior  livid 

chestnut,  white-spotted  at  the  edge. 
UuoY  and  Gaimard,  Voy,  de  I'Astrolabe,  vol.  ii.  p.  340. 

pi.  25.  f.  19  ami  20. 
llulj.  Australia. 

Chiefly  distinguished  by  the  livid  brown  eolouring  of 
the  interior  and  short  white  tessellated  spots  of  the  inner 

Species  5.  (Fig.  u,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

SiPHOXARiA  L/EviuscuLA.  Sipli.  testa  snborbicnhiri,  clc-  ecrfici'  aittire  mbincUnato,  radialim  li- 
raid  et  snlculii.  /iri\  liirihuH ;  sordide  cinered,  intios 
pitrjjnreo-riiji-tn-ii/c,  uiiirijinc  nix  denticidafd. 

The  smooth  Siphonabia.  Siiell  suborbicular,  elevately 
convex,  top  a  little  inclined  anteriorly,  radiately 
ridged  and  grooved,  ridges  smooth ;  dirty-ash,  in- 
terior purple-i'ed,  scarcely  denticulated  at  the  edge. 

De  Blainville,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  Valparaiso. 

An  orbicular  raised  shell,  with  the  top  a  little  inclini-d 
towards  the  front.  The  (uiter  surface  is  only  superticially 
ridged,  while  the  interior  is  of  a  peculiar  purple-red 

,S'i/j/ir/uf/-uf  .PI  .11  ■ 






-A    Brooks     Imp 


.Species  6.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
SipiloNARiA    FUNICUL.A.TA.     S'lpli.   testct   omtCi,    elevuta, 
promiacue  dense  costatd  et  lira/d ;  cost  is  Urisqne  opaco- 
alhis,  interstitiis  fnscescentibus. 
The  corded  Sipiionaria.     Shell  ovate,  raised,  promis- 
cuously densely  ribbed  and  ridged  ;  ribs  and  ridges 
opake  white,  interstices  light  brown. 
Hah.  Van  Diemen's  Land. 

A  raised  ovate  species,  closely  rayed  throughout  with 
opake  white  ribs  and  ridges  upon  a  light  brown  ground, 
with  the  siphon  very  distinctly  indicated  in  the  interior. 

Species  7.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Sipiionaria  cancer.  Siph.  testa,  snboblongo-ovaid,  con- 
vexo-depressd,  valde  irrei/idari,  radiatim  costatd,  costis 
fortibiis,  rwdibus,  siibcorrugatis,  tribus  prope  siphonem 
distaniibus  ;  sordide  piirpiirasce>ite-fuscd. 

The  crab  Siphonaria.  Shell  somewhat  oblong-ovate, 
couvexly  depressed,  very  irregular,  radiately  ribbed, 
ribs  strong,  rude,  subcorrugate,  three  next  the  siphon 
distant ;  dull  purple-brown. 

Hab.  New  Zealand. 

A  rather  depressly  convex  species,  rayed  with  subcoiTU- 

gate  rude  ribs,  three  of  which  on  the  side  of  the  siphon  are 

widely  separated. 

Species  8.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Siphonaria  characteristica.     Siph.  testa  rotmidatn, 
elecato-conicd,  radiatim  obscure  liratd  et  striata;  ci- 
nereo-iiigricaitte,  prope  verticem  ferrugined,  liris  ul- 

The  characteristic  Siphonaria.  Shell  rounded, 
elevately  conical,  radiately  obscurely  ridged  and  stri- 
ated ;  cinder-black,  rusty-brown  near  the  top,  ridges 

Reeve,  Conch.  Systematica,  vol.  ii.  pi.  138.  f.  3. 

Hab.  Galapagos  Islands  aud  Panama. 

Of  a  very  elevated  conical  form,  merely  sculptured  with 
rather  obscure  ridges  and  striee. 

Species  9.   (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Siphonaria  sipho.     Siph.  testa  subacute  conicd,   Bala- 
niformi,  varie  radiatim  costatd  et  liratd ;  costis  liris- 
que  opaco-albis,  interstitiis  purpurascente-fnscis. 
The  siphon  Siphonaria.     Shell  somewhat  acutely  coni- 
cal, Balanus-shaped,  variously  radiately  ribbed  and 
ridged ;  ribs  and  ridges  opake  white,  interstices  pur- 
SowERBY,  Genera  of  Shells,  Siphonaria.  f  1  and  4. 
Siphonaria  e.vigua,  Sowerby. 
Siphonaria  crebricostata,  Nuttall. 
Siphonarice  albicans,  Zelandica,  acuta,  punctata,  and 
pUcata;  Quoy  and  Gaimard. 
Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

This  species,  of  which  fine  specimens,  such  as  those 
figured,  were  collected  in  abundant  variety  by  Mr.  Cuming 
at  the  Philippine  Islands,  differs  materially  in  the  character 
of  its  sculpture,  the  ribs  being  sometimes  numerous  and 
close-set,  as  in  Mr.  Sowerby's  typical  specimen,  sometimes 
distant,  with  small  intervening  ridges,  as  in  S.  exigua  of 
the  same  author. 

,  Sip/i  ( >n  <(  rid  .  PI .  Ill . 


.jovrtrVy  t.lel    et  liUi . 


Species  10.  (Pig.  a,h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
SipiioNAEiA  VENOSA.     Siph.  testd  ovatd,  elevato-coniat, 

a-fi.musculd,  rudiaiim  dense  nfriatd,  stri'm  nigris,  e/c- 

The  veined  Siphon  aria.    Shell  ovate,  elevately  conical, 

rather  thick,  radiately  densely  striated,  stria?  black, 

somewhat  raised. 
Hfii.  Cape  Coast. 

A  raised  oblong  conical  species,  of  rather  solid  gTowth, 
characterized  within  and  without  with  pencil-black  raised 

Species  11.   (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

SipiioNARiA  LiNEOLATA.  Sifh.  testd depresm  ovatd,  teniii, 
radiatim  obtuse  costatd,  costis  lath,  versus  verticem 
obsoletis ;  peUncido-fitscd,  nir/ro  tiuctd,  costis  pellii- 

The  uneolate  Siphonaria.  Shell  depressly  ovate, 
thin,  radiately  obtusely  ribbed,  ribs  broad,  obsolete 
towards  the  top;  transparent  brown,  black-stained, 
ribs  transparent  white. 

SowERBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  183.5,  p.  6. 

Siphonaria  plana,  Quoy  and  Gaimard. 

Hah.  Chili  and  Central  America  (on  rocks  in  exposed  si- 
tuations) ;  Cuming. 

Chiefly  distinguished   by  its  broad  sinuated  transparent 
white  superficial  ribs. 

Species  12.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Siphonaria  obliquata.  Sipli.  testa  ova,to-oblon(jd,  suh- 
depressd,  radiatim  ohliqmte  liratd,  vertiee  uncinatd ; 
The  crooked  Siphonaria.  Shell  ovately  oblong,  rather 
depressed,  radiately  crookedly  ridged,  vertex  unci- 
nate;  ash-brown. 

SowERBY,  Tankerville  Catalogue,  App.  p.  7.  n.  SU9. 

Siphonaria  scutellnm,  Deshayes. 
Hah.  New  Zealand. 

This  oblong  species,  quite  unique  in  form  and  dimen- 
sions, has  a  sharp  uncinate  apex,  and  is  crookedly  distorted 

Species  13.  (F'ig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

PHONARIA   coNCiNNA.     Siph.  tesld  subdcpresse  ovatd, 
I  acnte  rude  cosfafd,   costis  numerosis ;   costis  albidis, 

1  interstiliisferrwjineo-nifjris. 

I   The    NEAT    Siphonaria.      Shell    subdepressly   ovate, 
sharply  rudely  ribbed  ;  ribs  white,  interstices  rusty- 
SowERBY,  Genera  of  Shells,  f.  1  and  3. 
Hab.  Gambia  and  Mauritius. 

Of  a  characteristic  oval  dish-shape,  neatly  coloured  witli 
shining  purple-black  between  the  white  ribs. 

Species  14..  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Siphonakia  atka.     Siph.  testa  depresse  ovatd,  temii,  ra- 
diatim costatd,  costis  subacutis,  irregularihus,  inter- 
stitiis  striatic ;  pellucido-nigrd  aitt  riifo-fuscd,  costix 
The  black  Siphonaria.     Shell  depressly  ovate,  thin, 
radiately  ribbed,  ribs  rather  sharp,  irregular,  with  the 
interstices  striated;  transparent  black  or  red-lirown, 
ribs  whitish. 
Quoy  and  Gaimakd,  Voy.  de  I'Astrolabe,  vol.  ii.  p.  337. 
pi.  25.  f.  41,  43. 

Siphonaria  Coreensis,  Adams  and  Reeve. 
Hab.  Singapore,  Corea,  Island  of  Vanikoro. 

Closely  allied  to  S.  lineoMa,  though  sufficiently  distin- 
guished by  the  ribs  being  more  pronounced,  with  inter- 
veninn;  striae. 

Sf/Jtr//r//m  ,Fl.B. 



Vmcent  BroclcE  Imp- 


Species  lo.   (Fig.  a,  h,  Mas.  Cuniiii;;'.) 
SlPHONAllIA     .EmULORATA.      Siph.    lesld    ohtOH(JO-UVal(i, 

irregulari,  conwxo-depressd,  vertke  micmatd,  dense 
rude  Urutd,  nmrgine  terme  deniiculato ;  nordide  fused, 
iiiliis  pitrpiirm-castuned. 

The  fringei)  Siphonakia.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  irregu- 
lar, coiivexly  depressed,  uncinate  at  the  top,  densely 
rudely  ridged,  margin  tinely  denticulated  ;  dirty 
brown,  purple-ciiestnnt  within. 

Gkay,  MS.,  Mus.  Curaing. 

Hcd).  Mazatlan. 

Closely  allied  to  S.  deidicidata,  but  uiieniate  at  the  top 
and  more  iinely  sculptured. 

Species  16.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Sll'llONAElA  PICA.  ShpJt.  testa  omtd,  cu/irexd,  certice 
siibacuminatd,  radktim  costatd,  costisforllbics,  dlstan- 
tihus,  interstitiis  striatis ;  inius  exlusgue  aird,  costis 

The  pied  Siphonakia.  Shell  ovate,  convex,  rather 
acuminated  at  the  top,  radiately  ribbed,  ribs  strong, 
distant,  striated  in  the  interstices  ;  black,  ribs  white, 
black  within  and  without. 

SowERBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  183.5,  p.  t;. 

Hah.  Acapulco. 

Well  characterized  by  its  distant  white  ribs  np(jn  a  black 

Species  17.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Siphonakia  Brasiliana.     Sipk.  testa  omtd,  depnssim- 
culd,  dense  cm'ritgato-costatd,  vertice  obtnso  ;  sordidi 
albicante,  intiis  fmco-uiyro  eleynnler  Hiimld. 

The  Brazilian  Siphonakia.  Shell  ovate,  rather  de- 
pressed, closely  corrugately  ribbed,  top  obtuse  ;  dirty 
white,  within  elegantly  lineated  with  brown-black. 

llah.  Rio  Janeiro. 

;V  rather  depressly  close-ribbed  shell,  elegantly  pencilled 
with  brown-black  in  the  interior. 

Species  18.  (Fig.  u,  li,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Sipli.  testa  ovatd,  sabirreyn 
dens}   striata,  striis   niyrit 

Mphonabia  palpebrum. 
lari,  convexd,  radUdii 

The  eye-lid  Siphonakia.  Shell  ovate,  somewhat  irre- 
gular, convex,  radiately  densely  striated,  strise  black, 
slightly  raised. 

Jfab.   Lisbon. 

black  strife. 

d  the  margin  with  closely-set  pencilled 

Species  1',).  (Fig.  a,  li,  Mus.  Curaing.) 

Siphonakia  costata.  Siph.  testa  omtd,  aciiminato-coH- 
ve.m,  teniii,  vertice  uncinato,  radlatim  corriigato-cos- 
fatd,  costis  interdum  partim  obsoletis  ;  sordidi  ciuered, 
iniiis  purpureo-rnfd. 

The  ribbed  Siphonakia.  Shell  ovate,  acuminately  con- 
vex, thin,  top  uncinate,  radiately  wrinkle-ribbed,  ribs 
sometimes  partially  obsolete ;  dull  ash,  interior  nur- 

SowERBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1835,  p.  0. 

Huh.  Guacama,  Central  America. 

Of  rather  tin 

i'th,    dec 

lie-red   in   tin 

Siplioiiaria  .  PI .  V. 



V   V 

x'^  "If 







So-werl"A'  0.4  et  lith 

YiTv-'iTi.X  Broo>.£  Iinp 


I'late  V. 

Species  30.  (JIus.  Cimiing.) 

SiPiiONAUiA  KuRiiACUEENSis.  fiiph.  leMd  ckprcsso- 
conicd,  subacute  coslatd,  lira  ceii/raU  stnisqne  in  in- 
terstitiis,  siplioue  suhconspicuo ;  alba,  croceo  phin 
minus  tincta, prope  verticem.  niyro  pallide  radiatd. 

The  Kureachee  Siphonakia.  Shell  depvessly  conical, 
rather  sharply  ribbed,  with  a  central  ridge  and  striio 
in  the  interstices,  siphon  rather  conspicuous ;  white, 
more  or  less  tinged  with  yellow,  faintly  rayed  with 
black  near  the  top. 

Hub.  Kurrachee,  Scinde. 

Distinctly  rayed  with  small  equidistant  ribs,  faintly  im- 
pressed towards  the  top  with  black  hair-lines  upon  a  white 
ground  tinged  with  yellow. 

Species  31.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

SiPlioNARiA  ZEBRA.  Siph.  lestd  depresso-conicd,  radia- 
tini  coslatd  et  liratd,  costis  irregularibus,  hie  itlic 
conspicuis,  sipJtone  distineto ;  alba,  maculis  uif/ris  uud 
vel  duabus. 

The  zebra  Siphonaria.  Shell  depressly  conical,  ra- 
diately  ribbed  and  ridged,  ribs  irregular,  here  and 
there  conspicuous,  siphon  distinct ;  white,  with  one 
or  two  black  blotches. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands. 

Of  more  irregular  uncouth  growth  than  the  preceding 
species,  ribbed  more  on  one  side  and  blotched  quite  pro- 
miscuously with  black. 

Species  33.   (JIus.  Cuming.) 

Siphonaria  bipurcata.  S'ipk.  tcstd perdepresse  conicd, 
tenuiculd,  radialim  coslatd,  latis,  obtusis,  subsuperji- 
ciariis ;  lutescente-albd,  coslarum  interstitiis  nigra 

The  bipukcate  Siphonaria.  Shell  very  depressly  co- 
nical, rather  thin,  radintely  ribbed,  ribs  broad,  ob- 
tuse, rather  superficial ;  yellowish-white,  interstices 
between  the  ribs  rayed  with  black. 

Hab.  Port  Jackson,  Australia  ;  Strange. 

A  rather  flat  thin  species,  rayed  with  obtuse  supcrtioial 

ribs,  the  interstices  between  which  are  stainei 

Species  33.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Siphonaria  Tristensis.  Sijih.  testa  ovato-conicd,  tenui- 
culd, rerlice  suboblique  acun/iunfo  li  inforto ;  ■Horilide 
rirrsri'nlr,  liiirii  fii.scis  irnyuftiri/i-r  nidinlin,, 
inliis  nilenle  autaiied. 

The  Tristan  Siphonaria.  Shell  ovatcly  conical, 
rather  thin,  vertex  somewhat  obliquely  acuminated 
and  twisted  in ;  dull  greenish,  irregularly  radiately 
threaded  with  bifurcate  brown  lines,  interior  shining 

SowERBY,  Genera  of  Shells,  f.  3. 
Patella  Tristensis,  Leach. 
Siphonaria  Lessoni,  Blainville. 

Hab.  Tristan  D'Acunha,  West  Indies. 

Of  the  same  obliquely  intorted  Capulus  type  as  the  pre- 
ceding species,  but  more  erect. 

Species  34.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Siphonaria  redi.micilum.  Sijjh.  testa  tumidi  conicd. 
Caput  if  arm  i,  rerlice  conspicue  oblique  intortd,  sub- 
obsolete  radialim  liratd,  tenuiculd ;  sordid e  nigra. 

The  BONNET  Siphonaria.  SheU  tumidly  conical,  Ca- 
j(»//;(.s-shaped,  with  a  vertex  conspicuously  obliquely 
twisted  in,  rather  obsoletely  radiately  ridged,  rather 
thin  ;  dirty  black. 

Hob. ■  ? 

Curiously  distinguished  by  its  light  Capulus-Wke  form, 
with  the  vertex  being  prominently  obliquely  twisted  in- 


,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Species  35 

Siphonakia  Macgilliveayi.  Siph.  testd  ovatd,  conicd, 
Capulifonni,  vertice  oblique  intorto,  oljsoletii  coslatd, 
costis  distanlibus,  sordide  fused,  intus  nitide  ca.s- 

Macgillivray"s  Siphonaria.  Shell  ovate,  conical, 
t'«y/«/««-shaped,    with   vertex   obliquely   twisted    in- 

March,  1856. 


wards,  obsoletely  ribbed,  rib?  distant ;  dirty  brown, 
interior  shining  chestnut. 
Hah.  Island  of  St.  Paul's. 

Of  the  same  Capulus  type  as  the  two  previous  species 
small  and  faintly  distantly  ribbed. 

Species  26.  (Mns.  Cuming.) 
SiPHONARiA  FEEEUGINEA.     Siplt.  testcl  subdcfvessd,  ra- 
diatim  costatis,  costis  acidis,  rudibm,  irregnlarihus. 

iiplione  conspicuo ;    sordide  lugrescente,  mtvs  niyro- 

castaneo  varie  tinetd. 
The  RrsT\   Siphonaria.      Shell  rather  depressed,  ra- 

diately  ribbed,  ribs  sharp,   rude,  irregular,  sipliou 

conspicuous  ;  dirty  blackish,  variously  stained  within 

with  blackish-chestnut. 

Hah.- ? 

A  depressed  rudely  ribbed  species,  promiscuously  stained 
within  with  blackish-chestnut,  the  margin  being  prettily 
denticulated  and  edged  with  the  same  colour. 

SawtrlTv  dd  et  ntli 



Siiihonaria  ,PL  VI. 







{SlifttUy      enlarged. 


Species  27.  (Fig.  n,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
SiPHONABiA  SiciUiJOEENsis.     Sijih.  testd  depresse  ova/u, 
radintm  Jorliter  cosiaid  et  striata,  costis  anticis  late 
dioerffeidii/is ;  pellucido-alid,   intits  ferrughieo-nigro 
partim  tbictd. 
The  Siquijor  Siphonaria.     Shell  dcpressly  ovate,  ra- 
diately  strongly  ribbed   and  striated,  anterior  ribs 
broadly    diverging  ;     transparent    white,    partially 
stained  within  with  rusty  black. 
Hab.  Island  of  Siquijor,  Philippines. 

A  flat  transparent  white  species,  witli  the  side  ribs 
broadly  diverging,  and  the  interior  partially  stained  with 

Species  28.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
SiPHONAKIA  COCHLEARIFORMIS.   Sijih.  testd  ovatd,  pluiw- 
convexd,   subirregidan,  profuse  radiatm   corrufjato- 
liratd,  sinu  laterali  lata,  cocJdeariformi ;  albidd,  intus 
aurantio-fusco  tinctd. 
The   spoon-shaped  Siphonaria.      Shell   ovate,  flatly 
convex,  rather  irregular,  profusely  radiately  wrinkle- 
ridged,  lateral  sinus  broad,  spoon-shaped;    whitish, 
stained  within  with  orange-brown. 
Ilab.  Isle  of  Hainan,  coast  of  China. 

Of    an   irregular  convexly    flattened    growth,    closely 
wrinkle-ridged,  with  a  broad  spoon-shaped  sinus. 

Species  29.  (Kg.  «,  b,  i\Ius.  Cuming.) 
Siphonaria   Luzonica.     Siph.  testd  suborbicidari,  de- 
press coHvexd,  radiatim  costaid,  costis  distanlibiis, 
aiigustis,  prominentibus,  interstitiis  nitide  elevato-stri- 
ntis ;  pellucido-albd,  ferrugineo-nigro  partim  tinctd. 

The  Luzon  Siphonaria.  Shell  suborbicular,  depressly 
convex,  radiately  ribbed,  ribs  distant,  narrow,  pro- 
minent, interstices  neatly  clevately  striated ;  trans- 
parent white,  partially  stained  with  rust-black. 

Hab.  Pntcao,  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines. 

Characterized    by   strong  distant    ribs,   the   interstices 

being  neatly  sculptured  with  close-.set,  raised  stri;e. 

Species  30.  (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Su'iloNAHIA  Baooni.  Sipli.  testd  convexo-pland,  nitide 
radiatim  liratd,  interstitiis  tennistriatis ;  albd,ferr%i- 
gineo-iiigro  pallide  mactdatd,  intus  aurautio  tinctd. 
Bacon's  Siphonahia.  Shell  convexly  flattened,  neatly 
radiately  ridged,  interstices  finely  striated ;  white, 
iaintly  spotted  with  rust-black,  tinged  with  orange 
Hab.  Swan  Eiver,  New  Holland  ;  Bacon. 

Distinguished  by  a  particularly  neat  and  delicate  pat- 
tern of  rayed  sculpture. 

Species  3L   (I?ig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Siphonaria  corrugata.  Siph.  testd  suboblongo-ovvMi, 
ilj-r^  -v",  ,■,'■,/;„/,  rostatd,  interstitiis  nitide  slriatis, 
(■:>:'  .         iiiVdms  late  divergeHtihus ;  albd, pal- 

Ji,lrj„.r.  ,.-„;■'  inictd. 

The  puckered  Siphonaria.  Shell  somewhat  oblong- 
ovate,  depressed,  radiately  ribbed,  interstices  neatly 
striated,  the  anterior  lateral  ribs  broadly  diverging ; 
white,  tinged  with  pale  brown. 

Hab.  Puteao,  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines ;  Cuming. 
Distinguished  chiefly  by  its  more  oblong  form  : 

rainently  developed  ribs. 


May,  18.5G. 

Stphmaria  PL  VIL 






Species  32.  (Fig.  a,  b.  Mils.  Cuming.) 
SiPiiONAKiA  SPINOSA.      S'qtli.   testd  ovatd,   mbdepresm, 
(I [dee  lateraliter  unciuato,  radiatim  coalatd,  costis  siih- 
(iii^Hntis,  jirofiise  squamato-sphtosis ;  lutesceiite-albd. 
The  spined  Siphonama.   Shell  ovate,  rather  depressed, 
apes  laterally  uncinate,  radiately  ribbed,  ribs  rather 
narrow,    profusely    squamately    spined;    yellowish- 
Ilfib.  New  Zealand. 

Distinguished  in  a  characteristic  manner  from  all  other 
sjK'cics  by  its  squaniate  spines. 

Species  33.  (Fig.  <(,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Si  phonama  amaka.  S'qih.  lestd  ovaid,  dqirfsm-conoidcd, 
apice  antke  unciuato,  radiatim  dense  cosiatd  et  linitd ; 
iiifjrd,  albo  fasciatim  radiatd. 

The  liLACKisn  Siphonaria.  Shell  ovate,  depressly  co- 
noid, apes  anteriorly  uncinate,  radiately  closely  rilibcd 
and  ridged  ;  black,  rayed  with  white  bands. 

Nuttall,  MS.,  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hab.  California. 

Chiefly  to  be  recognized 
cinder-black  ground. 


Species  34.  (Fig.  a,  b,  JIus.  Cuming.) 
SiPHONAttiA  FULiGiNATA.     Siji/i.  fedd  orbiciiiari,  ovatd, 

mbdepressd,  obscure  radiatim  fimbriato-costatd,  costis 

versus  apicem  obsoletis ;  sordide  albd,  ferrngineo-nii/n 

sjmrsim  macidatd. 
The  sooted  Siphonaeia.    Shell  orbicularly  ovate,  rather 

depressed,  obscurely  radiately  fimbriatcly  ribbed,  ribs 

obsolete  towards   the    apex ;    dull    white,   spar 
blotched  with  rusty-black. 

The  ribs  of  this  species  have  a  furbelowed  appearance 
ear  the  margin,  and  arc  obsolete  towards  the  apes. 

Species  35.  (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Siphonaria  FUNICUL.4.TA.  Siph.  testd  omtd,  depresso- 
coiwided,  apice  aiitice  unciuato,  radiatim  dense  elevato- 
striatd ;  ctpndescente-nigrd,  striis  liindis. 

The  cokded  Siphonaria.  Shell  ovate,  depressly  co- 
noid, apes  anteriorly  uncinate,  radiately  densely  cle- 
vately  striated  ;  blue-black,  strisc  livid. 

JPab. ? 

A  somewhat  conoid  species,  densely  rayed  with  raised 

livid  stria!  upon  a  lilack  ground,  the  apex  being  slightly 

hooked  anteriorly. 

Species  36.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

SiPHONARl.A  MATJEA.  SipA.  testd  ovatd,  subdepressd,  apice 
lateraliter  unciuato,  radiathn  liratd,  liris  snbdistanti- 
bns,  iulerstitiis  striatis ;  sordidH  fuscescente,  fascia 
nigra  JKxta  marginem,  intus  nitente  atrd. 

The  moor  Siphonaria.  Shell  ovate,  rather  depressed, 
apex  laterally  uncinate,  radiately  ridged,  ridges  rather 
distant,  with  the  interstices  striated;  dull  brown, 
with  a  black  band  nest  the  margin,  interior  shining 

SowERBY,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1835,  p.  7. 

Ilab.  Panama. 

A  little  shining  black   species,  rusty-brown  exteriorly 

escept  nest  the  margin. 


acuta,  Quoy   H- 

ajquilorata,  Reeve IV. 

alljicans,  Quoy II. 

amara,  NaUnll  VII. 

atra,  Quoy III. 

Eaconi,  Reeve VI. 

bifiircata.  Reeve V. 

Brasiliana,  Reeve I\^ 

cancer,  Reeve II. 

characteristica,  Reeve   II. 

cochleariformis,  Reeve VI. 

coiicinna,  Sowerby III. 

Coreensis,  Adams  and  Reeve  ...  III. 

coiTugata,  Reeve VI. 

costata,  Soicerby IV. 

crehriconlata,  Nuttall   II. 

clentieulata,  Quoij I. 

Diemenensis,  Quoy I. 

exiyua,  Sovverby   II. 

fen-uginea,  Reeve V. 

fuligiuata.  Reeve VII. 

funieulata,  Reeve II. 

lirata.  Reeve VII. 

gigas,  Sowerliy I. 

Kurracheensis,  Reeve V. 

Leuom,  Blainville V. 

kL'viuscula,  Blainville I. 

liueolata,  Sowerhy III. 

Luzonica,  Reeve    VI. 

Macgillivrayi,  Reeve V. 

maura,  Sowerby .  VI]. 

obliquata,  Sowerby III. 

palpebnim,  Reeve IV. 

pica,  Sowerby    IV. 

plana,  Quoy III. 

plicatu,  Quoy   II. 

punctata,  Quoy II. 

redimiculum,  Reeve V. 

scabra.  Reeve I. 

scutelliim,  Deshayes III. 

siplio,  Sowerby   II. 

Siquijorensis,  Reeve VI. 

spinosa.  Reeve VII. 

Tristensis,  Sowerby V. 

venosa,  Reeve  HI. 

zebra.  Reeve  V. 

Zelandica,  Quoy     II. 





N    E    R    I    T    A. 




dry  eld  ft,  \Ai 

N  E  R  I T  A. 

Plate  1. 

Genus  NEHITA,  Linndna. 
Testa  globoso-ovaia,  spird  raru  exserlu,  aiifractibus  siibcovi- 
presse  couvolutis,  interdum  lamgaiis,  plerumqne  spira- 
Uler  costatis  vel  liratis,  aperturd  semioriicidari,  labro 
intus  crenaio-lirato,  interdmn  ad  latirra  dcnticulato, 
area  colimiellari  subampld,  sape  granulatd  aid  corrii- 
gatd,  ad  marginem  plernmqne  dentatd ;  colore  raria, 
sapissime  vivide  picta  ;  operculo  iedaceo. 
Shell  globosely  ovate,  spire  rarely  exserted,  whorls  rather 
compressly  convoluted,  sometimes  smooth,  generally 
spirally  ribbed  or  ridged,  aperture  semiorbicular,  lip 
crenately  ridged  within,  sometimes  toothed  at   the 
sides,  coIumcUar  area  rather  large,  often  granulated 
or  wrinkled,  generally  toothed  at  the  margin ;  colour 
various,  mostly  brightly  painted ;  operculum  testa- 
The  Sea  Nerites  liave  always  been  a  favourite  tribe  of 
sheOs  among  eoUeetors,  on  account  of  their  pretty  varie- 
ties of  painting.     The  animal  of  the  Freshwater  Nerites, 
which  I  propose,  contrary  to  the  opinion  of  some  con- 
chologists,  to  associate  still  under  the  head  of  Neritbia,  is 
the  same,  but  the  shell  is  of  lighter  structure  and  of  more 
sombre  hue.     From  Natica  the  shell  of  Nerifa  dill'ers  in 
being  more  sculptured  and  more  brilliantly  coloured,  and 
the  columellar  area  is,  with  few  exceptions,  toothed,  and 
either  grained  or  wrinkled.     The  genus  has  been  well  ex- 
amined by  M.  Eecluz,  but  severa'  of  his  species  I  have 
been  unable  to  identify  for  want         );ures.     Fortunately 
the  types  of  most  of  this  French  concliologist's  species  are 
in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Cuming,  who  confided  his  'speci- 
mens to  him  about  fifteen  years  since  for  description.   The 
species  which  are  named  for  the  first  time  in  the  following 
Monograph  have  accumulated  since  that  period. 

The  Nerilte  are  most  abundant  in  the  ^Molucca  and 
Philippine  Islands,  and  New  Zealand  and  Australia  con- 
tribute some  fine  species.  A  few  species  inhabit  the  shores 
of  Central  America  and  the  West  Indies,  but  the  genus  is 
not  represented  generally  in  the  New  World.  The  species 
are  less  numerous  than  those  of  Neritiiia,  and  there  are 
few  of  small  size. 

Species  1.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
ITA  EXUVIA.     Ner.  testa  ovald,  crussd,  subfm  plano- 
excavatd,  spird  minuld,  laterali,  superjiciariu,  apice 

acuta,  nnfract.ibus  sviatigusie  roiimdaiis,  spiralUcr 
costatis,  codis  aiigirstis,  elevatis,  sidcis  intermediis 
latis,  conspicue  excavatis,  lird  pared  centrali  percnr- 
rente,  aperturm  fauce  liratd,  columella  latissime  coii- 
caod,  granulatd,  ad  marginem  medio  minute  denticii- 
latd ;  costis  caruleo-nigris,  sparsim  albo-Uneatis,mlcis 
albidis  caruleo-nigro  macidatis,  area  colmnellari fnho 

The  snake-skin  Nerite.  Shell  ovate,  thick,  flatly  ex- 
cavated beueath,  spire  minute,  lateral,  superficial, 
sharp  at  the  apex,  whorls  rather  narrowly  rounded, 
spirally  ribbed,  ribs  narrow,  raised,  intermediate 
grooves  broad,  conspicuously  excavated,  with  a  small 
central  ridge  running  through  them,  interior  of  the 
aperture  ridged,  columella  very  broadly  concave,  gra- 
nulated, and  minutely  toothed  in  the  middle  at  the 
edge ;  ribs  blue-black,  sparingly  marked  with  white 
lines,  grooves  whitish,  spotted  with  blue-black,  colu- 
mellar area  fulvous-tinged. 

LiNX.EDS  (not  of  Lamarck),  Mus.  reg.  Ulricte,  p.  682. 
Ncrita  Malaccensis,  Lamarck. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Much  confusion  has  arisen  through  confounding  the 
well-known  N.  plexa  of  Chemnitz  with  the  Linna'an 
'N.  exuvia;  but  the  description  "  nigricans  lineis  transversis 
albidis  "  in  the  careful  diagnose  above  referred  to,  does 
not  apply  to  that  species. 

Species  3.  (Fig.  a  to  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Xerita  polita.  Ner.  tesid  oblif/iie  ovatd,  subtus  plano- 
convexd,  crassd,  spird  minutd,  obtuse  plunatd,  anfrav- 
tibiis  angusle  rotnndatis,  spiram  versiis  lateraliter  com- 
prcssis,  livvigaiis  vel  corriiffalo-striatis,  apertura  fauce 
tix  obsolete  liratd,  area  coliimellari  ad  marginem  rude 
tetme  dentatd ;  varie  iniiide  eoloratd,  subtus  alba,  po- 
The  polished  Nerite.  Shell  obliquely  ovate,  flatly 
convex  beneath,  thick,  spire  minute,  obtusely  flat- 
tened, whorls  narrowly  rounded,  laterally  compressed 
towards  the  spire,  smooth  or  wrinkle-striated,  in- 
terior of  the  aperture  scarcely  obsoletely  ridged,  co- 
lumellar area  rudely  finely  toothed  at  the  edge ;  va- 
riously brightly  coloured,  wliite  and  polished  beueatli. 
LiNN.n;s,'Syst.  Nat.  (lOlh  edit.)  p.  778. 

August,  l!i 

NEEITA.— Plate  I. 

Neritm  nigra,  favescens,  and  kkroglyphka,  Chemnitz. 

Ner'dcB  bidens  and  bifaselata,  Gmelin. 
Ea/i.  Philippine  Islands,  Mauritius,  etc. 

Extremely  variable  in  colouring  and  marking,  but  al- 
ways characterized  by  its  peculiar  pinched  form  next  the 

Species  3.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nekita  ornata.      Xer.  testa  globoso-turbinatd,  soliiUs- 
sima,  sptrd  exsertd,  promirmld,  anfraclibus   superne 
decUvibus,  deinde  roimidatis,  undique  dense  spiralUer 
cosfatis,  eostis  regidariiits,  subplanatk,  aperturd  intm 
i/icrassatd  et  serraid,  area  columellari  corrngatd  et 
rude  dentatd;    albidd,  eostis  plus  minus  interrwpte 
The  adorned  Nekite.     Shell  globosely  turbinated,  very 
solid,  spire  exserted,  rather  prominent,  whorls  slant- 
ing at  the   upper  part,  then  rounded,  everywhere 
closely  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  regular,  rather  flat,  aper- 
ture inwardly  thickened  and  serrated,  columellar  area 
wrinkled  and  rudely  toothed ;  whitish,  ribs  more  or 
less  interruptedly  blue-black. 
SowERBY,  Genera  of  Shells,  No.  10. 
Hab.  Panama  and  Gallapagos  Islands  (on  the  rocks  at 
low  water) ;  Cuming. 
The  largest  and  most  solid  species  of  the  genus,  spi- 
rally ilatly  ribbed  throughout ;  the  ribs  being  of  moderate 

width,  regular,  and  close-set,  and  coloured  with  blue-black 
promiscuously  interrupted  with  white. 

Species  4.  (ilus.  Cuming.) 
Neetta  quadricolor.  Ner.  testd  siihglobosd,  solidius- 
culd,  spird  subexsertd,  anfraclibus  superne  decUvibus, 
deinde  convexis,  spiraliter  costatis,  eostis  parviusciilis, 
mcmerosis,  suhirregularibus,  aperturm  fauce  tenuiter 
serratd,  ared  columellari  sparsim  granulatd  et  corrn- 
gatd, ad  marginem  conspicue  dentatd ;  pallide  roseo- 
violaced,  eostis  irregulariter  nigro  maculatis,  apice 
The  four-coloured  Nerite.  Shell  subglobose,  rather 
solid,  spire  somewhat  exserted,  whorls  slanting  round 
the  upper  part,  then  convex,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs 
rather  small,  numerous,  somewhat  irregular,  interior 
of  the  aperture  finely  serrated,  columellar  area;  spar- 
ingly granulated  and  wrinkled,  conspicuously  toothed 
at  the  edge;  pale  pinkish-violet,  ribs  irregularly 
spotted  with  black,  apex  yellowish. 
Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  (I3th  edit.)  p.  3684. 

Nerita  maris  rubri,  Chemnitz. 
Hab.  Eed  Sea. 

Colour,  which  in  the  preceding  species  is  too  variable 
to  be  of  any  specific  value,  is  in  this  species  very  charac- 
teristic, the  specimens  being  always  of  the  same  pinkish- 
violet  hue  with  yellow  apex. 



ti        -^x 

'-^    ".dsf^     / 

Scwa:l!V     dr]  ft.  lilh 

^eeni-    &ioaks    Imp. 


Plate  II. 

Species  5.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  antiquata.  Ner.  testa  globosd,  soUdd,  compactd, 
spird  plano-depressd,  anfractUnis  rotundatis,  coiicen- 
trice  dense  lirato-striatis,  aperturd  intus  iucrassatd, 
obsok'te  serratd,  ared  colmnellari  leviter  comgatd, 
bideiidatd ;  griseo-albd,  palllde  nigricantc  varie  nebu- 
losd  et  lenfiginosd,  colmnelld  viteUind. 

The  antiquated  Nerite.  Shell  globose,  solid,  compact, 
spii-e  flatly  depressed,  whorls  rounded,  concentrically 
closely  ridge-striated,  aperture  thickened  inwardly, 
obsoletely  serrated,  columellar  area  faintly  wrinkled, 
two-toothed ;  greyish-white,  variously  clouded  and 
freckled  with  pale  black,  columella  yelk-yellow. 

Eecluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  18H,  p.  106. 

Hab.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

A  particularly  rounded  solid  shell,  compressed  towards 
the  spire,  sculptured  throughout  with  close-set  concentric 
ridge-like  striae,  with  a  characteristic  yelk -yellow  stain 
across  the  toothed  edge  of  the  columella. 

Species  6.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  costata.  Ner.  testd  globosd,  solidd,  spird  ob- 
tuse planatd,  spiraliter  costatd,  costis  rotundatis,  re- 
gularibus,  interstitiis  nitide  excavatis,  aperturd  iu- 
crassatd, fortiter  serratd  et  dentatd,  ared  colmnellari 
convexd,  corrugatd,  fortiter  dentatd;  costis  conspicne 
carbonario-nigris,  interstitiis  fulvis,  ared  coluntellari 
miperne  luteo  tinctd. 

The  ribbed  Nerite.  Shell  globose,  solid,  spire  ob- 
tusely flattened,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  rounded,  re- 
gular, the  interstices  neatly  excavated,  aperture  thick- 
ened, strongly  serrated  and  toothed,  columellar  area 
convex,  wrinkled,  strongly  toothed ;  ribs  conspicu- 
ously coal-black,  interstices  yellowish,  columellar  area 
stained  with  yellow  at  the  upper  part. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  299.  pi.  191.  f.  1906, 

Hab.  Island  of  Nicobar. 

A  compressly  rounded  solid  shell,  conspicuously  dis- 
tinguished by  its  bold  symmetrical  coal-black  ribs,  yel- 
lowish in  the  interstices. 

[  Species  7.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

I  Nerita  Deshayesii.  Ner.  testa  globoso  -  turbinata, 
cra.'isd,  spird  subexsertd,  anfractibus  superne  subde- 
clivibiis,  deihde  rotundatis,  spiraliter  costatis,  costis 
t.eHuibus,  Humerosis,  valde  irregularibns,  siibserratis, 
aperturd  incrassatd,  obscure  serratd,  dentatd,  ared 
cohnni-Uari  promiscue  corriigutd,  rudissime  fortiter 
lU'ittaid :  hiii'Hccute-alhd,  ccenileo-nigro  sparsim  im- 
diitd,  cohiiuelld  inter  denies  viieUind. 
Deshayes'  Nerite.  Shell  globosely  turbinated,  thick, 
spii-e  rather  exserted,  whorls  rather  slanting  at  the 
upper  part,  then  rounded,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  thin, 
numerous,  very  irregular,  subserrated,  aperture  thick- 
ened, faintly  serrated,  toothed,  columellar  area  pro- 
I  miscuously  wrinkled,  very  rudely  strongly  toothed  ; 

I  yellowish -white,  sparingly  waved   with   blue-black, 

columella  yelk-yellow  between  the  teeth. 
I   Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  101-. 
i   Ilab.  Panama. 

Closely  allied  to  N.  ornata,  from  the  same  locality,  but 
distinguished  slightly  and  characteristically  from  that  spe- 
cies in  all  particulars.  It  is  turbinated,  with  the  spire  less 
exserted ;  the  ribs  are  narrower  and  more  irregular,  and 
serrated ;  the  colouring  is  waved,  and  the  teeth  are  much 
more  rudely  developed. 

Species  8.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  peloronta.  Ner.  testa  oblongo-globosd,  spird 
subexsertd,  anfractibus  superne  coucavo-declivibus, 
(1,'inde  rotiindis,  spiraliter  costatis,  costis  mediocribus, 
conferlis,  aperturd  intus  incrassatd,  vix  serratd,  ared 
colmnellari  concavo-excamtd,  subirregulariter  dentatd; 
Intescente-albd,  nigra  et  roseo  varie  flexuose  maciilatd, 
ared  colmnellari  et  inter  denies  sanguineo  tinctd. 

The  bleeding-tooth  Nerite.  Shell  oblong-globose, 
spire  somewhat  exserted,  whorls  concavely  slanting 
at  the  upper  part,  then  rounded,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs 
middling,  close-set,  aperture  thickened  inwardly, 
scarcely  serrated,  columellar  area  concavely  exca- 
vated, somewhat  iiTegularly  toothed;  yellowish- 
white,  variously  flexuously  spotted  with  black  and 
crimson,  columellar  area  and  between  the  teeth  blood- 

LiNN.EUs,  Syst.  Nat.  (10th  edit.),  p.  778. 

NERITA.— Plate  II. 

Hnlj.  West  Indies. 

This  well-known  species  is  distinguished  from  all  others 
by  the  remarkable  blood-stain  on  the  columellar  area. 

Species  9.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  funiculata.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  solidd,  spird  sub- 
exsei-td,  anfractibus  rotmidatis,  liris  tenuibus  confertis 
spiraliter  funiculat'is,  aperturd  subincrassatd,  vix  ser- 
ratd,  subampliter  expansd,  ared  columellari  promises 
rorrngatd,  dentatd ;  purpiirascente-nigrd,  inter  liras 

The  coeded  Nerite.  Shell  ovate,  solid,  spire  slightly 
exserted,  whorls  rounded,  spirally  corded  with  fine 
close-set  ridges,  aperture  rather  thickened,  scarcely 
serrated,  rather  largely  expanded,  columellar  area 
])romiscuously  wrinkled ;  purple-black,  pale  between 
the  ridges. 

Hah. ? 

The  sculpture  of  this  species  resembles  that  of  N.  U- 

iieata,  except  that  the  ridges  are  closer  set.     In  the  broad 

expanded  aperture  and  wrinkled  columellar  area,  it  differ.* 

from  that  species  materially. 



N  " 

Sowcrb^   dd  *  tti 

Yjmrnt   Broofo    Imp 


Plate  III. 

Species  10.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  grossa.  Ner.  testa  ohliqne  ovatd,  solidd,  spl)-d 
parvd,  vix  exsertd,  spiraliter  costatd,  costis  rotundatis, 
elevatis,  interstitiis  suhprofande  excavatis,  lira  inter- 
media prope  aperturam,  aperturd  iutiis  incrassatd  et 
serratd,  ared  columellari  corrugatd  et  rude  dentatd  j 
citiereo-grised,  nigricante-olivaceo  irregulariter  articii- 
latd,  iipice  lutescente. 

The  stout  Nerite.  Shell  obliquely  ovate,  solid,  spire 
small,  scarcely  exserted,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  round, 
elevated,  interstices  rather  deeply  excavated,  with  an 
intermediate  ridge  next  the  apertm-e,  aperture  thick- 
ened and  serrated  inwardly,  columellar  area  wrinkled 
and  rudely  toothed  ;  ash-grey,  irregularly  articulated 
with  blackish-olive,  apex  yellowish. 

LiNNiEUs,  Syst.  Nat.  (10th  edit.),  p.  778.  Deshayes, 
Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  61 1. 

Hab.  Island  of  Burias,  Philippiucs  (on  the  reefs  at  low 
water) ;  Cuming. 

Distinguished  by  its  raised  rounded  ribs  and  excavateil 
interstices,  articulated  with  a  characteristic  olive-brown 
tone  of  colouring. 

Species  11.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  nigekuima.  Nir.  testa  ovato-globosd,  crassd, 
spird  parvd,  subexsertd,  anfraetibm  supente  concavo- 
planatis,  deinde  conveys,  lavibus,  spiraliter  sulcato- 
striatis,  striis  versus  aperturam  gradatim  obsoletis, 
aperturd  intus  incrassatd,  tenue  serratd,  peculiariter 
expansd,  ared  columellari  subobscure  corrugatd,  leviter 
denticulatd ;  intense  caruleo-nigrd,  interdum  albipunc- 
tatd,  ad  aperturam  lutescente. 

The  very  black  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  globose,  thick, 
spire  small,  rather  exserted,  whorls  concavely  flat- 
tened at  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  smooth,  spirally 
groove-striated,  strife  gradually  obsolete  towards  the 
aperture,  aperture  thickened  inwardly,  finely  ser- 
rated, jjeculiarly  expanded,  columellar  area  obscurely 
wrinkled,  slightly  toothed;  deep  blue-black,  some- 
times white-dotted,  yellowish  at  the  aperture. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  309,  pi.  193.  f.  1985. 
Nerita  atcrrimu,  Gmelin. 

A  solid  blue-black  species,  spirally  groove-striated,  the 
strife  becoming  gradually  fainter  as  they  approach  the 
aperture,  which  is  peculiarly  rotundately  expanded. 

Species  13.    (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  plexa.     Ner.  testd  ovato-glohosd,  spird  plano- 
compressd,  anfraetibm  spiraliter  costatd,  costis  alter- 
t/ritim  latis  et  angtistis,  subirregularibiis,  undique  ru- 
goso-serratis,  aperturd  intus  sub  incrassatd,  liratd,  ared 
columelhiri  plano-excavatd,  granuhitd,  vix  dentata ; 
albd,  macuUs  carnleo-nigris  subremote  tessellatd,  (tpice 
et  ared  columelhiri  luteo  tinctis,fauce  luted. 
The  platted  Nerite.   Shell  ovately  globose,  flatly  com- 
pressed at  the  spire,  whorls  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  al- 
ternately broad  and  narrow,  rather  irregular,  rugosely 
serrated  throughout,  aperture  slightly  thickened  with- 
in, ridged,  columellar  area  flatly  excavated,  granu- 
lated, scarcely  toothed;  white,  rather  distantly  tes- 
sellated with  blue-black  spots,  apex  and  columellar 
area  tinged  with  yellow,  interior  yellow. 
Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  190.  f.  19-14,  1945. 
Nerita  textiUs,  Gmelin. 
Nerita  exuvia,  Lamarck  (not  of  Liuna?us). 
Hub.  Philippine  Islands;  Cuming. 

In  this  well-known  species  the  dark  spots  are  blue- 
shaded  and  rather  distant,  on  white  ribs,  which  are  alter- 
nately broader  and  narrower,  wliile  the  apex  is  impressly 
flattened  and  yellowish. 

Species  13.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  lineat\.  Ner.  testa  oblongo-oraid,  siibglohosd, 
apice  Idlcrali.  piinim  exsertd,  anfractibus  rotiindutis, 
.■iiibiiiiyii^Ha,  iiiliili  dense  spiraliter  tenuiliratis,  aper- 
turd subinerassatd,  serratd,  ared  columellari  pland, 
Icevigatd,  rude  minute  denticulatd ;  roseo-cinered,  liris 
piirpureo-nigris,  ared  columellari  luteo  tinctd. 

The  lineated  Nerite.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  subglobose, 
apex  lateral,  but  little  exserted,  whoris  rounded, 
rather  narrow,  neatly  closely  finely  spirally  ridged, 
aperture  slightly  thickened,  serrated,  columellar  area 
flat,  smooth,  rudely  minutely  toothed ;  pink-ash, 
ridges  purple-black,  columellar  area  stained  with 

June,  1855. 

NERITA.— Plate  III. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  pi.  191.  f.  1958,  1959. 
Hah.  Port  Essington,  North  Australia.  Philippine  Is- 
Of  an  elegant  oblong  narrowly  globose  form,  closely 
sculptured  throughout  with  neat  puiijle-black  linear  ridges 
upon  a  pink-ash  ground,  the  columellar  area  being  con- 
spicuously stained  with  yellow. 

Species  l-l.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Ascensionis.  Ner.  testa  ovato-turbinatd,  spird 
subexsertd,  mifractilms  mperm  concavo-impresm,  spi- 
raliter  cosfatis,  costis  rotundatis,  subelevatis,  undique 
tenuiserratis,  interstitiis  excavatis,  aperturd  vix  in- 
crassatd,  area  columdlari   obsolete  corriujatd,  biden- 

tatd;  lutescente-albd,  costis  maculis  griseo-nigricaitli- 
bus  dense  tessellatis,  area  columellari  lutesceute. 

Tub  Ascension  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  turbinated,  spire 
rather  exserted,  whorls  concavely  impressed  at  the 
upper  part,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  rounded,  rather  ele- 
vated, finely  serrated  throughout,  interstices  exca- 
vated, aperture  scarcely  thickened,  columellar  area 
obsoletely  wrinkled,  two-toothed ;  yellowish-white, 
ribs  thickly  tessellated  with  grey-black  s])ots,  colu- 
mellar area  yellowish. 

Hab.  Island  of  Ascension. 

Of  rather  light  growth,  speckled  throughout  on  the  ribs 

with  clouded  blue-black  or  grey  spots,  the  interstices  being 

of  a  yellowish  or  pinkish  hue. 




N  l]  K  I  r  A 


Species  15.  (Mas.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Le  Guillouan.\.  Ner.  testa  mbovnto-globosd, 
crassd,  spird  subuxsertd,  anfracti/iii-i  declivi-cnnvexis, 
spiraliter  costatis,  costis  coiifer/ix,  /jam's,  ,,/n/io  H 
juxta  suturam  majoribws,  ttpniiurd  i.imi.ssnlil  ,7  si-r- 
ratd,  area  columellari  incrnsmtd  d  jiromiM-ih-  cor- 
rugntd,  dentatd;  cinereo-albd,  ynseo-olwaceu  macn- 
latd  et  variegatd,  apice  luteo. 
Le  GuiLLOu's  Nerite.  Shell  subovately  globose,  lliick, 
spire  a  little  exserted,  wbovls  slantingly  convex,  spi- 
rally ribbed,  ribs  close-set,  small,  larger  in  the  middle 
and  next  the  suture,  aperture  thickened  and  serrated, 
columellar  area  thickened  and  promiscuously  wrinkled, 
toothed  ;  ash-white,  mottled  and  variegated  with  grey 
olive,  apex  yellow. 
Uechjz,  Rev.  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienue,  18-t2,  p.  17S. 
Ihib.  Philippine  Islands. 

A  solid  finely-ribbed  species,  ricidy  mottled  and  \  nric- 
gated  throughout  with  greyish-olive,  the  apex  being  yel- 
low, and  the  columellar  area  much  swollen  and  wrinkled. 

compressed  towards  the  spire,  spire  seai'cely  exserted, 
whorls  spirally  grooved,  grooves  linear,  rather  close- 
set,  aperture  thickened  and  slightly  serrated,  largely 
expanded,  columellar  area  obsoletely  wart-wrinkled, 
toothed;  grey-black,  sparingly  interrupted  with  ash- 
white,  columella  faintly  yellowish. 

Eecli;/,,  Eev.  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1843,  p.  170. 

H(d}.  Australia. 

An  nliloiig  solid  shell,  ratlier  compressed  near  the  spire, 

and  lioUllv  exiianded  at  the  aijcrture. 

Species  16.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  atrata.  Ner.  teaf/i  semif/lobond,  crassd,  spird 
viv  exscrld,  (iiifriiclihus  rolntidnl'ix^  jiixia  spi.ram  com- 
pressis,  spiniViler  i'I,'nilo-\lriiilis,  nperturd  vaUle  iii- 
crassald,  levilrr  si'rruh!,  rol u iidnto-expansd,  ared  co- 
Inmellari  coitrard,  iniitiiti  denluld;  carboiiarlo-atrd, 
inter  slr'ws  jmllidd. 

The  rlack  Nerite.  Shell  .semiglobosc,  thick,  spire 
scarcely  exserted,  whoris  rounded,  compressed  next 
the  spire,  spirally  elevately  striated,  aperture  much 
thickened,  slightly  serrated,  rotundately  expanded, 
columellar  area  concave,  minutely  toothed  ;  coal- 
black,  pale  between  the  stride. 

Chemnitz,  Couch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  pi.  19i».  p.  296,  f.  i:).-jt, 

Hab.  Bay  of  Islands,  New  Zealand. 

The  surface  of  this  species  is  not  dcprcssly  grooved,  as 

described  by  Lamarck,  but  merely  finely  linearly  impressed, 

or,  as  Chemnitz  characterizes  it,  "  lineis  obsoletis  vi\  nia- 

nifestis  in  fundo  nijierrimo  circumdata." 

Species  17.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Madra.  Ner.  tesld  oblonyo-ovald,  crassd,  solidd, 
spiram  versus  compressd,  spird  vix  exsertd,  anfractl- 
biis  spiraliter  suJcatis,  sulcis  linearibus,  sicbcot/fertis, 
nperturd  incrassaid  et  leviler  serratd,  amplitir  cr- 
pausd,  ared  columellari  obsolete  verrucoso-corriujnld, 
dentatd ;  grlsm-iiiijrivinilf,  ciin'rco-allio  uparsiui  inter- 

riiptd,  Cohtwelhl  lialVnli-  1,,1,'srriilr. 

The  Moor  Nerite.     Shell  obloii'^-ovate,   thick,   solid, 

Species  IS.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita    ciirysostoma.     Ner.  lesld  orutd,  Tnrhiuifonni, 

siilciitil,  s/i/cis  liiimriiiii.K,  siihirnyiilarihiix,  iiprrliird 
iiicra.sxdtd  I'l  xi'rrnld,  siiliexpaiisd,  ared  culnvirlliin 
proiiiixriii^  corritgntd,  di'iilald ;  sordide  httescente-albd, 
iiiiiriciiiite-oliriu'eojh'xiinso-variegatd,  ared  columellari 
et  aperturd  rHelUuis. 

The  oolden-mouthed  Nerite.  Shell  ovate,  Turbo- 
shaped,  thick,  spire  exserted,  whorls  convex,  spirally 
grooved,  grooves  linear,  rather  irregular,  aperture 
thickened  and  serrated,  rather  expanded,  columellar 
areapromiseuniisly  wrinkled,  toothed  ;  dull  yellowish- 
white,  flexnnu-l\  \;irie'j:iii  (1  with  blackish-olive,  aper- 
ture and  columellar  are.i  tinged  with  yclk-ycllow. 

Recluz,  Rev.  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  ]).  10-t. 

Hab.  Island  of  Burias,  Philippines  (on  the  reefs  at  low 
water) ;  Cuming. 
This   species  when  laid  upon  the  aperture  has,   moi-e 

than  any  other,  the  aspect  of  a  Tnrhn,  having  externally 

the  typical  form,  sculpture,  and  marking  of  that  genus. 

Species  19.   (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  semikigosa.  Ner.  testa  oblougn-globosd,  solidd. 
spird  phiiin-rniiciiri!,  apice  r.rserld,  inifnirl'dius  liris 
coiijcrlis  iiilidi'  yiiraliirr  fiiiiiriditlis.  iiprrlnrd  iii- 
crassntd  id  srrrald,  ared  cohimidUiri  xvuiiriKjiisd,  d,-n- 
tatd;  olivaceo-ciiiered,  Jlammis  ut/datis  ro.iaceis  el  ui- 
gris  oblique  iiebulatis,  apice  Inteo. 

The  half-wrinkled  Nerite.  Shell  oblong-globose, 
solid,  spire  flatly  concave,  with  the  apex  exserted, 
whorls  neatly  spirally  corded  witli  close-set  ridges, 
aperture  thickened  and  serrated,  columellar  area  half- 
wrinkled,  toothed;  olive-ash,  obliquely  clouded  with 
waved  pink  and  black  flames,  apex  yellow. 

Reclu/,,  Rev.  Zool.  Soc.  Cuviei  ieiiui'.  IsH,  ]).  102. 
Eadem  var.  Nerita  Ql,e.n,i!:,i .  IJ.vlnz. 

Hab.  Island  of  Tcrnate,  Moluccas. 

Distinguished   by    the    neat    regularity    of   its    corded 

ridges  and  oblifjuc  flame-clouded  colouring. 

Nmra,?/.  V. 




Species  30.  (Pig.  IG,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Arabica.     Ner.  testa  compresse  glohosa,  soUdd, 
spird  vix  exsertd,  anfractibus   rotundatis,   spiraliter 
Uneari-sulcatis,  siilcis  superficiariis,  aperturd  incras- 
said  et  tenuiserratd,  area  columellari  verrucoso-rugosd 
et  dentatd ;  olkaceo-mridi,  rosea  tinctd,  pimctis  et  ma- 
c/ilis  nigris  undique  tesseUatd. 
The  Arabic  Nekite.     Shell  compressly  globose,  solid, 
spire  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  rounded,  spirally  li- 
nearly grooved,  grooves  rather  superficial,  aperture 
thickened  and  finely  sen-ated,  columellar  area  wart- 
wrinkled  and  toothed ;  olive-green,  tinged  with  rose, 
tessellated  throughout  with  black  dots  and  spots. 
Hab.  Aden,  Arabia. 

A  compressly  globose  species,  superficially  linearly 
grooved,  of  a  rose-stained  olivc-grcen  hue,  tessellated  in 
a  characteristic  manner  with  black  dots  and  spots. 

Species  21.  (Fig.  17,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Neritinoides.     Ner.  testa   ovaid,  siibangustd, 
solidd,  sjjird  leviter  obtuse  exsertd,  anfractibus  superne 
concavo-declivibus,  lavigatis,  aperturd  simplici,  ared 
columellari  concavo-planatd,  obsolete  minute  denticu- 
latd ;    intense  nitente-atrd,  ared  columellari  pallide 
The  Neritina-like  Nerite.     Shell  ovate,  rather  nar- 
row, solid,  spire  slightly  obtusely  exserted,  whorls 
concavcly  slanting  at  the  upper  part,  smooth,  aper- 
ture simple,  columellar  area  concavcly  flattened,  ob- 
solotely  minutely   toothed;    intense    shining    black, 
columellar  area  pale  orange. 
llab. ? 

A  smooth  shining  black  species,  partaking  in  a  striking 
manner  of  the  characters  of  Neritimi. 

Species  32.  (Fig.  18,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  maxima.  Ner.  testd  oblongd,  couijjm.sil  xnlidi!, 
subcontcrtd,  spird  vix  exsertd,  anfruclilms  sHji,riir 
concavo-planatis,  deinde  rotmidatis,  obsolcl!-  xpinilili-r 
lineari-sulcatd,  lesvigntd,  nitente,  aperturd  mcrassald 
et  tenuiserratd,  ared  columellari  politd,  dentatd ;  nigro 
et  albo  undato-nebulatd,  nigro  preevalente. 
The  very  large  Nerite.  Shell  oblong,  compressed, 
solid,  somewhat  twisted,  spire  scarcely  exserted, 
whorls  concavcly  flattened  at  the  upper  part,  tlicn 
rounded,  obsoletely  linearly  spirally  grooved,  smootli, 

shining,  aperture  thickened  and  finely  serrated,  colu- 
mellar area  polished,  toothed;    wave-clouded  black 
and  white,  the  black  predominating. 
Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  v.  p.  287.  pi  190.  f.  1942, 

This  fine  species,  though  faintly  linearly  grooved,  is 
smootli  and  shining  througiiout,  clouded  profusely  with 
waved  black,  so  as  almost  to  obscure  tlie  white. 

Species  23.  (Fig.  19,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  grisea.  Ner.  testd  oblongo-ovatd,  spird  sube.v- 
sertd,  anfractibus  superne  concavo-impressis,  deinde  ro- 
tundatis, dense  spiraliter  sulcatis,  aperturd  partim  in- 
crassatd,  subserratd,  ared  columellari  subobsolete  cor- 
rugato-Uratd,  denticulatd ;  albidd,  griseo  maculatd  et 
obscure  trifascintd,  apice  pallide  lutescente. 

The  grey  Nerite.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  spire  slightly 
exserted,  whorls  concavcly  impressed  round  the  upper 
part,  then  rounded,  closely  spirally  grooved,  aperture 
but  little  thickened,  faintly  serrated,  columellar  area 
rather  obsoletely  wrinkle-ridged,  toothed;  whitish, 
spotted  and  obscurely  three-banded  with  grey,  apex 
pale  yellow. 

Hab.  Island  of  Samar,  Philippines  ;  Cuming. 

The  surface  of  this  species,  having  a  more  or  less  eroded 

appearance,  is   promiscuously  spottctl   and    three-ljanded 

with  grey. 

Species  24.  (Fig.  20,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  picea.  Ner.  tesin  ovalii,  mliiliiisnihl,  Nrritinrp- 
formi,  spird  sube.rscrld,  <iiiJ);irHiiiis  .^/^/n-r/ir  cniicKCO- 
impressis,  deinde  ro//rt/(fii//.s,  x/nm/i/i'r  /n/niri-\ulni(/,s, 
sulcis  leviter  umlulatis,  aperturd  vix  iricrassatd,  nitide 
Viratci,  area  cohimelhtri  plano-concavd,  minute  den- 
tatd;  Intense  carnleo-alrd. 

The  pitchy  Nerite.  Shell  ovate,  rather  solid,  Neri- 
tina- shaped,  spire  slightly  exserted,  whorls  con- 
eavely  impressed  round  the  upper  part,  then  rounded, 
spirally  linearly  grooved,  grooves  slightly  waved, 
apertnre  scarcely  thickened,  neatly  ridged,  columellar 
area  flatly  concave,  minutely  toothed ;  deep  blue- 

Eecluz,  Kev.  Zool.  Soe.  Cuvieriennc,  1841,  p.  1.51. 

Hah.  Sandwich  Islands. 

This  shell,  of  a  dark  blue-black,  engraved  throughout 

with  fine  linear  grooves,  slightly  waved,   partakes    very 

much  of  the  characters  of  NerUlna. 



Xmta.PI  VI. 


•rtv  aj  d.  lull 

'v^ncent   Bro^ 


Species  25.  (Tig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  atramentosa.  Ner.  testa  semiglohosii,  crassd, 
solidd,  spird  vix  exsertd,  anfractihns  convexis,  siiban- 
gustis,  lavibus  vel  teniie  spiraliter  striatk,  striis  siib- 
midwlatis,  labro  intics  incrassato,  dente  imico,  colu- 
mella platio-concavd,  margine  niinuti  denticulato ; 
cceruleo-nigrd,  punctk  albidis  spiraUtei-  lentighiosd. 

The  inky  Nerite.  Shell  semiglobose,  thick,  solid,  spire 
scarcely  exserted,  whorls  convex,  rather  narrow, 
smooth  or  finely  spirally  striated,  strife  being  a  little 
waved,  lip  thickened  inwardly,  with  a  single  tooth, 
columella  flatly  couoave,  minutely  toothed  at  the 
edge ;  blue-black,  spirally  freckled  with  white  dots. 

Hah.  Swan  River,  Australia ;  Bacon. 

A  solid  blue-black  shell,  spii-ally  striated  with  slightly 

waved  lines  of  whitish  punctures. 

Species  26.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Hindsii.     Ner.  testd  semiglobosd,  solidd,  spird 
vix  exsertd,  mifractibus  subangusiis,  spiraliter  costatis 
et  s/dcatis,  labro  intus  dentato-lirato,  columelld  leviter 
granulatd,  margine  minute  deuticulatd;  citiereo-grised, 
costis  nigro  et  alio  promiseue  articiilatis,  apice  lutes- 
Hinds'  Nerite.     Shell  semiglobose,  solid,  spire  scarcely 
exserted,  whorls  rather  narrow,  spirally  ribbed  and 
grooved,    lip    dentately   ridged     within,    columella 
slightly  granulated,  miuutely  toothed  at  the  edge; 
ash-grey,  ribs  promiscuously  articulated  with  black 
and  white,  apex  yellowish. 
Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  201. 
Hah.  Island  of  Panay,  Philippines  (under  stones  at  low 
water) ;  Cuming. 
A  rather  spirally  ribbed  grey  shell,  promiscuously  ar- 
ticulated with  black  and  white,  the  black  predominating, 
with  a  characteristic  yellow  apex. 

Species  27.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  histrio.  Ner.  testd  ovato-semiglohosd,  crassd, 
spird  concavo-plaud,  vix  exsertd,  anfractihns  angustis, 
obsolete  planicostatis,  aperturd  suheffusd,  labro  iiUiis 
teuue  denticulato,  columelld  dense  callosd,  politd,  ob- 
scure corrugatd,  margine  deniatd;  griseo-albd,  nigro 
undique  articidatd. 
The  HAULEauiN  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  semiglobose, 
thick,  spire  concavely  flattened,  scarcely  exserted, 
whorls  narrow,  obsoletely  flatly  ribbed,  aperture 
rather  eff'used,  lip  finely  denticulated  within,  colu- 

mella thickly  callous,  polished,  obscurely  wrinkled, 
toothed  at  the  edge ;  greyish-white,  articulated  witii 
black  throughout. 

LiNN^us,  Syst.  Nat.  (12th  edit.)  p.  1254. 

Hah.  Australia. 

A  solid  superficially  ribbed  shell,  articulated  regularly 
and  tbronghout  with  black,  with  tlie  whorls  somewhat 
pinched  towards  the  apex  and  eft'uscd  towards  the  aper- 

Species  28.  (I'ig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

N"erita  balteata.  Ner.  testd  ovato-snbglobosd,  solidd, 
spird  declivi,  vi.r  exsertd,  anfractihns  suhangiistis,  spi- 
raliler  tira/i.i,  liris  teiiiiihiix,  fitniculatis,  labro  intus 
ii/rrti.fsn/o,  iiiiniiti  linifo,  cnlimii-Ud  Imoigatd,  superne 
eorrngald,  margine  obsolete,  deidiculatd;  ccendescente- 
nigrd,  liris  hie  Ulic  alho  sparsini.  articulatis. 

The  belted  Nerite.  Shell  ovate -subglobose,  solid, 
spire  slanting,  scarcely  exserted,  whorls  rather  nar- 
row, spirally  ridged,  ridges  fine,  corded,  lip  in- 
wardly thickened,  minutely  ridged,  columella  smootli, 
wrinkled  at  the  upper  part,  obsoletely  toothed  at  the 
edge ;  blue-black,  ridges  here  and  there  sparingly 
articulated  with  white. 

Hah. ? 

A  dark  blue-black  shell,  finely  spirally  corded  through- 
out, the  cords  being  sparingly  articulated  here  and  there 
with  white. 

Species  29.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Essingtoni.  Ner.  testd  ohlongo-globosd,  spird 
sidiexsertd,  anfractihns  snperne  concavo  -  inipres.iis, 
delude  conve.i:is,  undique  spiraliter  lirat.o-funiculuti.\, 
Inhro  iiiluspariiiu  i,ivrassi,tn.dnilihu>i  lateral ilii's  ,1m,. 
hu.s,  rolai.irlhl  l,-r'iler  cnrnn,ala,  uianjine  uciili'  ,lr„l,- 
culatd ;  ciiu-reo-ynscd,  iiigricaute  obscure  fascuild  it 
cariegatd,  punctis  albidis  aspersd. 
The  Port  Essington  Nerite.  Shell  oblong-globose, 
spire  rather  exserted,  whorls  concavely  impressed  at 
the  upper  part,  then  convex,  everywhere  spirally 
ridge-corded,  lip  but  little  thickened  inwardly,  with 
two  lateral  teeth,  columella  faintly  wrinkled,  sharply 
toothed  at  the  edge ;  ash-gTey,  obscurely  banded  and 
variegated  with  pale  black,  sprinkled  with  white  dots. 
Recluz,  Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  i.  pi.  11.  f  9. 
Hab.  Port  Essington,  Australia. 

Of  a  grey  ground-tint,  s]n-inkled  throughout  with  mi- 
nute whitish  dots,  and  obscurely  banded  with  pale  black. 

August,  1855. 




Species  30.  ("Fig.  «,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  rE.EcoGNiTA.  Ner.  testa  mihglobosd,  spird  vix 
exsertd,  anfractibtis  dense  spiralller  costatk,  coslis 
crenulatu,  labro  iiitits  subinerassato,  lirato,  columella 
suiexcavatd,  gramiUs  perpauck,  margine  deiitatd ;  al- 
hidd,fiilco  et  nigra  prof  use  maculatd,  apice  lii/esccu/e. 

Tut.  known  Neeite.  Shell  subglobose,  spire  scarcely 
cxserted,  whorls  closely  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  creiiu- 
Inted,  lip  a  little  thickened  inwardly,  ridged,  colu- 
mella rather  excavated,  with  a  few  granules,  toothed 
at  the  edge ;  whitish,  profusely  spotted  with  black 
and  fulvous,  apex  yellowish. 

(.'.  B.  Adams,  MS.  JIus.  Cuming. 

//„/,. ? 

A  very  characteristic  species,  densely  sculptured  with 
spiral  crenulated  ribs,  mottled  throughout  with  black  and 
fulvous-rust,  the  apex  being  of  a  yellowish  tinge. 

Species  31.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  scalpta.     Ner.  testd  globosd,  solidiusciild,  spird 
mbexsertd,  anfractibtis  lavibus,  lineis  impressis  subdis- 
tnniibns  spiraliter  incisis,  labro  intus  lirato,  columelld 
granulatd,  margine  teniie  denlatd ;  nigra,  lineis  im- 
pressis albidis,  area  columellari  pallidissime   lutes- 
TuK  SCEATCHED  Nerite.     Shell  globose,  rather  solid, 
spire  somewhat  exserted,  whorls  smooth,  spirally  en- 
graved with  rather  distant  impressed  lines,  lip  ridged 
within,  columella  granulated,  finely  toothed  at  the 
edge  ;  black,  impressed  lines  whitish,  coluraellar  area 
faintly  yellowish. 
I[„l,, ? 

.\  coal-black  shell,  well  distinguished  by  its  rather  dis- 
iant  impressed  whitish  lines. 

Species  33.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
.Vf.rita  chloeostoma.  Ner.  testa  subtrigono-globosd, 
crassiusculd,  spird  concavo-impressd,  anfractibus  for- 
titer  spiraliter  costatis,  costis  rotundatis,  interstitiis 
excavatis,  interdum  lira  parvd  intercurrente,  labro  in- 
tus fortiter  lirato,  columelld  concavd,  profuse  granu- 
latd, margine  tenue  bidentatd ;  fulm-alhidd,  coslis 
nigro  tessellatis,  ared  columellari  lufescente. 
The  yellow-modtu  Nerite.  Shell  somewhat  trian- 
gularly globose,  rather  thick,  spire  concavely  im- 
pressed, whorls  strongly  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  rounded, 

interstices  excavated,  sometimes  with  a  small  ridge 
running  between,  lip  strongly  ridged  within,  colu- 
mella concave,  profusely  granuled,  finely  two-toothed 
at  the  edge ;  fulvous-white,  ribs  tessellated  with 
white,  columellar  area  yellowish. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  viii.  p.  603. 

Ilab.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

Distinguished  by  the  roundness  of  the  ribs  and  hollowed 

interstices,  and  by  the  thickly-set  granules  of  the  columella. 

Species  33.   (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Geayana.  Ner.  testa  ocato-globosd,  spird  snh- 
exserld,  anfractibus  subangustis,  spiraliter  finiinilato- 
liratis,  liris  suhtiliter  crenulatis,  labro  intus  subcre- 
nulato,  colmnelld  tenue  corrugatd,  margine  denticu- 
latd;  cinereo-grised,  liris  nigricantibus  hie  illic  albi- 

Gray's  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  globose,  spire  a  little  ex- 
serted, whorls  rather  naiTow,  spirally  corded  with 
ridges,  ridges  finely  crenulated,  lip  faintly  crenulated 
within,  columella  finely  wrinkled,  finely  toothed  at 
the  ridge ;  ash-grey,  ridges  black,  here  and  there 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1843,  p.  200. 

Hub.  Province  of  Ilocos,  Island  of  Luzon,  Philippines  ; 

A  dark  grey  species,  spirally  sculptured  with  black 
cord-like  ridges  articulated  here  and  there  with  white 

Species  34.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  haustkum.     Ner.  testd  ovato-globosd,  spird  vix 
e.vsertd,  anfractibus  lemter  liueari-sulcatis,  labro  intus 
lirato,   colunielld  concavo-planatd,   margine   obsolete 
denticulatd ;    olivaceo-nigrd,  lutescente-aJbo  hie   illic 
iuterruptd,  columelld  pallidissime  roseo-tiucid. 
The  scoop  Nerite.    Shell  ovately  globose,  spire  scarcely 
exserted,    whorls    faintly   linearly   grooved,    lip    in- 
wardly ridged,  coliuuella  concavely  flattened,  obso- 
letely  toothed  at  the   edge;    olive-black,  here  and 
there    interrupted   with    yeUowish-whitc,    columella 
faintly  tinged  with  rose. 
Hab.  Eed  Sea. 

Distinguished  by  a  rather  contracted  hollowed  aperture, 
the  outer  surface  of  the  shell  being  olive-black,  opening 
out  here  and  there  on  a  yellowish-white  ground. 

AuKUst,  1855. 

.yaila.  PI.  Yin. 






Plate  YIII. 

Species  35.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Senegalensis.  Ner.  iesfd  semiglobosd,  solidiiis- 
culd,  spird  stihexsertd,  anfractibtm  spiraliter  Uneari- 
sulcaiis,  suhcompresso-expanm,  lahro  inb(s  leviter  Vi- 
rato,  columelldplano-excavatd,  ijrmmlatd  et  Indent atd ; 
olivaced,  interdmn  faiciatd  et  varieijald,  area  columel- 
lari  medio  aurantio  tinetd. 

The  Senegal  Nekite.  Shell  semiglobose,  rather  solid, 
spire  a  little  exserted,  whorls  spirally  linearly  grooved, 
rather  compressly  expanded,  lip  faintly  ridged  with- 
in, colnmella  flatly  exeavated,  granulated  and  two- 
toothed  ;  olive,  sometimes  banded  and  variegated, 
columellar  area  orange-stained  in  the  middle. 

(iMELix,  Syst.  Nat.  p.  3686. 

Hab.    Senegal. 

This  shell,  distinguished  among  other  characters  by  a 

granulated  orange  stain  on  the  columellar  area,  is  not  N. 

alrata,  as  indicated  by  !M.  Deshayes,  but  N.  Seneguleum 

of  Gmelin,  and  Le  Bunar  of  Adauson. 

Species  36.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

NEraTA  Listeki.  Ner.  tedd  semiglobosd,  spird  siihex- 
serld,  anfractibus  spiraliter  liratis  et  costatis,  aper- 
tvrd  mtblate  expansd,  labro  iutii-s  incrassato,  teiiue  cre- 
nulato,  columelld  plano-excavatd,  bidentatd ;  intense 
crtruleo-nigrd,  costis  punctis  parvis  albis  Iiic  illic  no- 

Lister's  Nerite.  Shell  semiglobose,  spire  rather  ex- 
serted, whorls  spirally  grooved  and  ribbed,  aperture 
rather  broadly  expanded,  lip  thickened  inwardly, 
finely  crenulated,  columella  flatly  excavated,  two- 
toothed  ;  deep  blue-black,  ribs  here  and  there  marked 
with  small  white  dots. 

Eecluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  277. 

Bab.  West  Indies. 

A  shilling  bhie-black  ribbed  shell,  sprinkled  in  a  ver\' 
characteristic  manner  on  the  ribs  with  a  few  white  dots. 

Species  37.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Savieana.  Ner.  testd globosd,  crassissimd,  spird 
c'xsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  latiusculis,  spiraliter  ele- 
vaio-striatis  et  liratis,  labro  intns  valde  incrassato, 
dvntato  et  crenulato,  columelld  tumidimculd,  granato- 
corrugatd,  et  dentatd;  cceruleo-Higrd,  interdnm  fulvo 
obscure  variegatd,  intusfluvicante. 
The  Saviean  Nerite.  Shell  globose,  very  thick,  spire 
exserted,  whorls  convex,  rather  broad,  spirally  cle- 
vately  striated  and  ridged,  lip  inwardly  much  thick- 

ened, toothed  and  crenulated,  columella  somewhat 
swollen,  grauulately  wrinkled  and  toothed ;  blue- 
black,  sometimes  faintly  ftdvous-varicgated,  interior 

Eecluz,  MS.  Mus.  Cuming. 

Hah.  New  Ireland. 

A  swollen  and  very  solid  globular  shell,  grain-wrinkled 
across  the  columellar  area. 

Species  38.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  ateo-pdrpueea.  Ner.  testd  trigouo-semiglobosd, 
spird  minutd,  plano-impres-id,  anfractibus  attgustis,  ad 
spiram  compressis,  ad  aperturam  late  expansis,  spira- 
liter dense  costatis  et  liratis,  labro  incrassato  et  late 
effiiso,  columelld  plana,  medio  granatd,  dentatd,  su- 
perne  sinuatd ;  atro-purpured,  purpurascente-albo  un- 
dulatd,  aperturdfulvd. 

The  dark  purple  Nekite.  Shell  angularly  semiglo- 
bose, spire  very  small,  flatly  impressed,  whorls  nar- 
row, compressed  at  the  spire,  broadly  expanded  at 
the  aperture,  spirally  densely  ribbed  and  ridged,  lip 
thickened  and  broadly  effused,  columella  fiat,  gra- 
mded  in  the  middle,  toothed,  sinuated  at  the  upper 
part ;  dark  purple,  waved  with  purple-white,  aper- 
ture fulvous. 

Eecluz,  Eev.  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  ISll,  p.  107. 

Hab.  Island  of  Negros,  Philippines ;  Cuming. 

A  very  characteristic  pinched  shell,  stained  with  intense 

purple,  broken  up  over  the  spire  into  pale  wave  streaks. 

Species  39.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  bisecta.  Ner.  testa  snbglobosd,  snbexpansn,  spird 
non  exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  spiraliter  costatis, 
costis  regularibus,  subdistantibus,  sulco  undique  bi- 
sectis,  labro  intus  effuso,  minute  crenulato,  columelld 
pland,  vix  denticulatd ;  caruleo-nigrd,  area  colutnel- 
lari  vitellind,  nitente. 

The  divided  Nerite.  Shell  subglobose,  rather  ex- 
panded, spu-e  not  exserted,  whorls  convex,  spirally 
ribbed,  ribs  regular,  rather  distant,  divided  through- 
out by  a  groove,  lip  effused  within,  minutely  crenu- 
lated, columella  fiat,  scarcely  toothed ;  blue-black, 
columellar  area  yelk-yellow,  shining. 

Hab.  West  Africa ;  Fraser. 

Curiously  spirally  sculptured  with  a  regular  series  of 

ribs,  each  of  which  is  divided  by  a  linear  groove.     The 

columellar  area  is  of  a  shining  yelk-yellow. 

August,  1855. 





Xrrila   n.a 

"Sm^^  ^A  <■:>■  IrJi 

'■'incent  Brooks  Imp 


Plate  IX. 

Species  40.  (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Xeiuta  gemml'lata.  Ner.  testa  ovato-semiglobosd,  teinii- 
culd,  spird  subexsertd,  apice  mucronatd,  anfractibus 
convexis,  spiraliter  Ihieari-Urntis,  Uris  creuidato-gi'M- 
matis,  coliwielld  piano  -  excavatd,  margiiif  iiitegro ; 
griseo-albidd,  Uris  c<sride.o-nigro  et  opaco-albo  teniii 
articulatis,  apice  lutescente. 
The  gemmed  Neeite.  Shell  ovately  semiglobose,  rather 
thin,  spire  slightly  exserted,  sharp-pointed  at  the 
apex,  whorls  convex,  spirally  linearly  ridged,  ridges 
crenulately  gemmed,  columella  flatly  excavated,  with 
the  margin  entire ;  greyish-white,  ridges  finely  arti- 
culated throughout  with  blue-black  and  opake-white, 
apex  yellowish. 


shell  of  light   substance  with  elegantly  crenulated 
»,  articulated  with  blue-black  and  opake-white. 

Species  41.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Xehita  fragcm.  Ner.  testd  glohom,  spird  vix  exsertd, 
anfractibus  rotundatis,  spiraliter  teuui  confertini  cos- 
taid,  lahro  intus  incrassato,  tenue  lirato,  colmnelld  de- 
cUvi-excavatd,  granatd  et  corrugatd ;  ccsruleo-tiiyrd, 
sirigis perpaitcis  liiteis  erosis  iiotaid,  arm  columdlari 

The  ste.^wberey  Neeite.  Shell  globose,  spire  scarcely 
exserted,  whorls  rounded,  spirally  finely  closely  rib- 
bed, lip  thickened  inwardly,  finely  ridged,  columella 
slantingly  excavated,  grained  and  wrinkled;  blue- 
black,  marked  with  a  few  yellowish  eroded  streaks, 
coluraellar  area  stained  with  a  blood  spot. 

Hab. ? 

Chiefly  distinguished  by  a  characteristic  blood  spot  on 
the  granulated  area  of  the  columella. 

Species  43.    (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  plicata.  Ner.  testd  globosd,  solidd,  spird  de- 
clivi-exsertd,  apice  iiineronutd,  aiifractibns  convexis, 
spiraliter  costuln-prirnlis,  mlerstitiis  excavatis,  labro 
intus  incrassato,  (inipldrr  drntalo  et  lirato,  colmnelld 
tumidd,  verrucoso-corrugatd,  et  dentatd ;  albidd,  ma- 
c/ilis  nigris  et  olivaceis  interdum  fasciatd. 

The  pleated  Neeite.  Shell  globose,  solid,  spire  slant- 
ingly exserted,  pointed  at  the  apex,  whorls  convex, 
spirally  rib-pleated,  interstices  excavated,  lip  thick- 
ened inwardly,  largely  toothed  and  ridged,  columella 
swollen,  wart-wrinkled,  and  toothed ;  whitish,  some- 
times banded  with  black  and  olive  spots. 

LiNN^us,  Syst.  Nat.  (10th  edit.)  p.  779. 

Hab.  West  Indies. 

A  very  characteristic  species,  of  Monodonta-liks  form, 

remarkable  for  its  strong  development  of  ribs,  teeth,  and 


Species  43.   (Fig.  o,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  tessellata.  Ner.  testd  ovato-subglobosd,  spird 
pariini  exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  fortiter  spiraliter 
costatis,  costis  irregularibus,  confertis,  snperne  angu- 
latis,  labro  intus  tentie  crenulato,  colmnelld  plano-ex- 
caeatd,  tenue  granulatd,  margine  arcuatd ;  caruleo- 
nigro  el  albo  undique  tessellald. 

The  tessellated  Neeite.  Shell  ovately  subglobose, 
spire  slightly  exserted,  whorls  convex,  strongly  spi- 
rally ribbed,  ribs  irregular,  close-set,  and  at  the  upper 
part  angled,  lip  faintly  crenulated  within,  columella 
flatly  excavated,  finely  granuled,  arched  at  the  edge  ; 
everywhere  tessellated  blue-black  and  white. 

Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  p.  3685. 
Le  Tadin,  Adanson. 

Hab.  Senegal. 

Encircled  throughout  with  close-set  strongly  tessellated 

ribs,  which  towards  the  spire  are  broader  and  augulated. 

August,  185 

Jry/Vw./y  X 



sncCT.t    Srooks  It.} 


Species  44.  (Pig.  n,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  signata.  Ner.  tesid  dejn-esw-semiglobosd,  sjiini 
sitliexsertd,  sed  impressd,  anfractibus  superiie  coiicnrii-, 
deinde  convexis,  spiraliter  costatis  et  strlalis,  costis 
striisqne  nodidatis  et  tetme  crenulatis,  aperturd  sub- 
expansd,  columella  plano-excavatd,  verrucoso-corni- 
gatd,  tentte  denticulatd ;  ceerulesceiite-albd,  costis  stri- 
isqne caruleo-ni(ji-o  et  fidoo-roseo  temdler  articulafis, 
ared  colmnellari  sangvineo-iinctd. 

The  makked  Nerite.  Shell  depressly  semiglobose,  spire 
a  little  exserted  but  impressed,  whorls  concave  round 
the  upper  part,  then  convex,  spirally  ribbed  and  stri- 
ated, ribs  and  striiE  noduled  and  finely  crenulateil, 
aperture  rather  expanded,  columella  flatly  excavated, 
wart-wrinkled,  finely  toothed ;  bluish-white,  ribs  and 
stria3  finely  articulated  with  blue-black  and  fulvous- 
rose,  coluraellar  area  blood-stained. 

Macleay,  Lamarck,  Anim.  saus  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  (ilO. 

Hab.  New  Holland ;  Macleay.  Island  of  Jlasbate,  I'hi- 
lippines;  Cuming. 

A  very  beautifully  sculptured  and  prettily  painted  ^w- 
cies,  with  a  deep  blood-stain  on  the  columellar  area. 

Fig-.  45.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

This  shell,  from  the  IMauritius,  proves  to  be  a  variety 
of  N.  bisecta  from  West  Africa,  described  at  Plate  Vlll. 
Sp.  39,  without  the  bright  yellow  columella  which  distiu- 
ffuishes  that  variety. 

Species  46.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  oryzarum.  Ner.  tesid  globosd,  solidiuscidd,  spird 
obtmd,  paruni  exsertd,  anfractibus  convexis,  interdiim 
leviter  liratis,  interdum  retuse  costatis,  labro  iiitu.t  iii- 
crassato,  et  lirato,  columella  corrugatd  et  grnnulald, 
tentte  denticulatd;  nigricante-olivaced,  macidis  albin 
subdistantibus  pecidiariier  variegatd  et  tessellatd. 
The  rice-marked  Nerite.  Shell  globose,  rather  solid, 
spire  obtuse,  but  little  exserted,  whorls  convex,  some- 
times faintly  ridged,  and  sometimes  bluntly  ribbed, 
lip  thickened  inwardly  and  ridged,  columella  wrinkled 
and  granuled,  faintly  toothed ;  blackish-olive,  pecu- 
liarly mottled  and  tessellated  with  distant  white 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  178. 
llab.  Bombay  and  Slalacca. 

Of  this  characteristic  white-mottled  species,  Mr.  Cuming 
possesses  a  ribbed  variety  from  Malacca,  and  a  variety  in 
which  the  ribs  are  almost  obsolete  from  Bombay. 

Species  47.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  oleagina.  Ner.  testd  ovato-globosd,  spird  ex- 
sertd, miicronntd,  anfractibus  convexis,  spiraliter  ele- 
vato-striatis,  labro  iiitus  incrassato,  vix  crennlato, 
deute  miico  laterali,  columelld  couvexiusculd,  promk- 
cue  verrucoso-corrtigatd,  fortiter  denlatd ;  nigricante- 
olivaced,  interdum  nigro-fastiatd,  maculis  albidis  mi- 
daiis  nigro-umbratis  oblique  variegatd. 
The  olive  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  globose,  spire  ex- 
serted, pointed,  whorls  convex,  spirally  elevately 
striated,  lip  thickened  inwardly,  scarcely  crenulated, 
with  a  single  lateral  tooth,  columella  rather  convex, 
promiscuously  wart  -  wrinkled,  strongly  toothed  ; 
blackish-olive,  sometimes  banded  with  black,  ob- 
liquely mottled  with  black-shaded  waved  white  spots. 
Hub. "? 

Slightly  resembling  the  preceding  species  in  its  peculiar 
style  of  painting,  but  distinct  in  form  and  sculpture. 

Species  48.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  filosa.  Ner.  testd  globoso-turbinatd,  spird  ex- 
sertd, iiiiicronatd,  anfractibus  superne  decliribiis,  deinde 
convexis,  /iris  minute  bi^ectis  spiraliter  filosis,  labro 
inl/fs  incrassato,  minute  crenulato,  dente  laterali  acuta 
utrinque  arniato,  columelld  Iwvigatd,  denticulatd ;  fer- 
rngineo-spadiced,  liris  eximie  ceBruleo-nigricantibus. 
The  threaded  Nerite.  Shell  globosely  turbinated, 
spire  exserted,  sharp-pointed,  whorls  slanting  at  the 
upper  part,  then  convex,  spirally  threaded  with  mi- 
nutely divided  ridges,  lip  inwardly  thickened,  mi- 
nutely crenulated,  with  a  sharp  lateral  tooth  on  each 
side,  columella  smooth,  finely  toothed ;  rusty  fawn- 
colour,  ridges  delicately  blue-black. 

Ihb. ? 

An  extremely  delicate  and  neatly  sculptured  species, 
being  encircled  with  dark  thread-like  ribs,  which  are 
nevertheless  minutely  bisected  by  a  groove,  upon  a  rust- 
fawn  ground. 

ymia  ri.xi. 






Species  49.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  aurantia.  Ner.  testa  semiglobosd,  soUdiuscidd, 
spird  parvd,  exscrtd,  miicniintd,  mifractibus  convens, 
spiraliter  coiifertim  /ini/i\,  iiiterstitiis  regulariter  con- 
cavis,  labro  in/iis  miilto  uicrassato,  effuso,  niinufe  cre- 
iiulato,  dentibus  diiobiis  lateraUbus,  cohtmelld  subcon- 
vexd,  subobsolete  corriigald,  fortiter  dentatd ;  rufo- 
auratttld,  Uris  liic  illic  niyncante  tindatis. 

The  orange  Nerite.  Shell  seraiglobose,  rather  solid, 
spire  small,  exserted,  sharp-pointed,  whorls  convex, 
spirally  closely  ridged,  interstices  regularly  concave, 
lip  much  thickened  interiorly,  effused,  minutely  cre- 
n  dated  with  two  lateral  teeth,  columella  slightly 
convex,  rather  obsoletely  wrinkled,  strongly  toothed  ; 
reddish-orange,  ridges  here  and  there  waved  with 

Kecluz,  Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  i.  pi.  11.  f.  11. 

Hab.  Island  of  Bohol,  Philippines ;  Cuming. 

Distinguished  by  its  small  pointed  spire,  and  very  re- 
gular series  of  close-set  spiral  ridges,  faintly  waved  with 
black  upon  a  rich  reddish-orange  ground. 

Species  50.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  fdliginata.     Ner.  tedd  ovato-semiglobosd,  spira 
iubexsertd,  anfractlbus   convexis,  spiralUer  dense  li- 
neari-siclcatis,  columella  plano-excavatd,  feniie  denti- 
culatd;  earned,  lineis  riifis  widulatis  confert'm  varie- 
gatd,  intense  nigro  m/diqne pins  minus  iniininatd. 
The  sooty  Nerite.      Shell  ovately  semiglobose,   spire 
rather  exserted,  whorls  convex,  spirally  densely  li- 
nearly   grooved,   columella    flatly  excavated,    finely 
toothed ;  flesh-tinged,  variegated  with  waved  red  lines, 
close-set,  more  or  less  smeared  over  with  inky-black. 
Ilab. ? 

A  peculiarly  red-waved  shell,  almost  entirely  besmeared 
with  inky-black. 

Species  51.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  fulgurans.  Ner.  testa  globosd,  crassd,  spird 
plano-depressd,  anfractibus  convexis,  dense  spiraliler 
Uratis,  Uris  obsolete  cremilatis,  interstltiis  linearibus, 
labro  intus  fortiter  crenato,  dentibus  duobiis  laterali- 
bus  utrinqne  armato,  columelld  gramdatd,  tenue  denti- 
culatd;  carulescente-albd,  ccendeo-iiigro  profuse  un- 
The  lightning-marked  Nerite.  Shell  globose,  thick, 
spire  flatly  depressed,  whorls  convex,  densely  spi- 
rally ridged,  ridges  obsoletely  crenulated,  interstices 

linear,  lip  strongly  crenated  within,  with  two  lateral 
teeth  on    each    side,  columella   granulated,    faintly 
toothed;    bluish-white,     profusely    wave -variegated 
with  blue-black. 
Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat. 
Hab.  Honduras  (on  the  rocks) ;  Dyson. 

Very  characteristic  both  in  sculpture  and  painting,  the 
whorls  Ijeing  marked  throughout  with  regular  ridges,  so 
close-set,  that  the  interstices  between  them  are  merely 
linear ;  the  painting  consists  of  a  promiscuous  splasliing 
of  deep  indigo  upon  a  blue-white  ground. 

Species  52.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Longii.  Ner.  testa  globosd,  solidd,  spird  sitbex- 
sertd,  anfractibus  concavo-deelivibus,  deinde  convexis, 
spiraUter  Vmeari-sulcatis,  interstitiis  convexo-planatis, 
labro  intus  crenulato,  dente  valido  laterali,  columelld 
verrncoso-corrngatd,  dentatd;  lutescente-albd,  olivaceo- 
viridi  tinctd,  pnrpureo-nigro  nebulatd  et  articulatd. 

Long's  Nerite.  Shell  globose,  solid,  spire  slightly  ex- 
serted, whorls  concavely  slanting  at  the  upper  part, 
then  convex,  spirally  linearly  grooved  throughout,  in- 
terstices convexly  flattened,  lip  crenulated  within, 
with  a  strong  lateral  tooth,  columella  wart-wrinkled, 
toothed;  yellowish-white,  stained  with  olive-green, 
clouded  and  articulated  with  puqjle-black. 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1842,  p.  178. 

Hab.  Bombay. 

A  solid  shell,  of  pale  greenish  hue,  much  darkened  with 

clouded  purple-black  articulated  blotches. 

Species  53.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Argus.  Ner.  testd  semiglobosd,  depressiusculd, 
spird  pland,  fere  obsoletd,  anfractibus  angustis,  deinde 
lalioribus,  expansis,  svperne  et  inferne  lineari-sulcatis, 
medio  lavigatis,  columelld  plano-concavd,  tenne  granu- 
latd,  minute  denticnlatd ;  intense  caruleo-nigrd,  punc- 
tis  albidis  obsolete  lentiginosd. 

The  Argus  Nerite.  Shell  semiglobose,  rather  de- 
pressed, spire  flat,  almost  obsolete,  whorls  nan'ow, 
then  broader  and  expanded,  above  and  below  linearly 
grooved,  smooth  in  the  middle,  columella  flatly  con- 
cave, finely  granulated,  minutely  toothed  ;  dark  blue- 
black,  obsoletely  speckled  with  white  dots. 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne  1841,  p.  150. 

Hab.  Island  of  JIasbate,  Philippines ;  Cuming.    Fernando 
Po,  West  Africa  ;  Fraser. 
The  speckling  of  white  dots,  which  has  suggested  the 

name  of  this  species,  is  somewhat  indistinctly  portrayed. 

August,  1855. 

Sam.  ri.  XII. 



;  «t  •      «-    •<  M.^ 


Plate  XII. 

Species  54.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  erdbescens.  Ner. testa glohoso-ti(rblnatd,crassd, 
spird  prominuld,  aiifractibiis  eonvexis,  spiraliter  lira- 
tis  et  striatis,  labi-o  derde  acuto  laterali,  columelld  le- 
viter  corriigatd  et  dentatd;  pallide  riifd,  aut  carneo- 
albd,  punctk  rufescentibus  aspersd  etfa-wiatd. 

The  blushing  Nerite.  Shell  globosely  turbinated, 
thick,  spire  prominent,  whorls  convex,  spirally  ridged 
and  striated,  lip  with  a  sharp  lateral  tooth,  columella 
faintly  wrinkled  and  toothed ;  ])ale  red,  or  flesh- 
white,  sprinkled  and  banded  with  reddisli  dots. 


A  solid  shell,  stained  with  pale  bright  red  or  sprinkled 

with  pinkish  dots,  having  somewhat  the  appearance  of  a 


Fig.  55.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
The  shell  here  figured  proves  to  be  an  immature  speci- 
men of  N.  bi-secia,  described  at  Plate  VIII.  Sp.  39,  but  it 
is  important  to  note  that  the  ribs  are  more  prominently 
developed  and  more  distinctly  bisected. 

Species  5G.  (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  versicolor.  Ner.  testd  ovato-globom,  crassd, 
■ipird  subexsertd,  anfractibits  superne  declivi-depressis, 
deinde  cotivexk,  spiraliter  costatis,  interstitiis  inter- 
dum  sitperficiariis,  interdum  excavatis,  colunielld  tu- 
midd  et  corrugatd,  fortiter  dentatd;  albidd,  macdk 
nigrk  et  rosek plus  mimis  fasciatd  et  tessellatd,  hiter- 
diim  oinnino  interrnpte  grkm-nigrd. 
The  vaki-coloured  Nerite.      Shell  ovately  globose, 

thick,  spire  rather  exserted,  whorls  slantingly  de- 
pressed round  the  upper  part,  then  convex,  spirally 
ribbed,  interstices  sometimes  superficial,  sometime.-; 
excavated,  columella  swollen  and  wrinkled,  strongly 
toothed ;  whitish,  more  or  less  banded  and  tessel- 
lated with  black  and  pink  spots,  ^sometimes  alto- 
gether interrupted  grey-black. 

Lamarck,  Anim.  sans  vert.  vol.  vii.  p.  006. 

Hub.  West  Indies. 

This  species  varies  in  being  more   banded  with   piiik 
spots  than  in  the  specimens  here  represented. 

Species  57.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Bernharui.    JSier.  testd  seiuiglobosd,  subdepres-id, 
spird  obtuse  planatd,  anfractibus   couvexk,  subcuin- 
pressk,  versus   aperturam   expansk,  spiraliter  dense 
lirntis,  liris  obscure  cremdatis,  labro  efftiso,  forlitrr 
crenato  et  dentato,  columelld  plano-excavoM,  grunu- 
latd,  vix  denticnlatd ;    nigra,  virescente  aut  pimclix 
httescentibus  variegatd. 
Bernhard's  Nerite.      Shell  semiglobose,  rather  de- 
pressed, spire  obtusely  flattened,  whorls  convex,  sub- 
compressed,  expanded  towards  the  aperture,  spirally 
closely  ridged,  ridges  obscurely  crenulated,  lip  i-l- 
fused,  strongly  crenated  and  toothed,  columella  flatly 
excavated,  granulated,  scarcely  toothed ;  black,  varie- 
gated with  pale  green,  or  yellowish  dots. 
Recluz,  Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  385. 
Hai.  Peru. 

A  small  depressly  globose  shell,  with  expanded  aper- 
ture and  granulated  columella,  strongly  toothed  williiii 
the  lip. 

August,  1855. 



Xmia  .ri.m. 


Y;ncerit  &ooks   iTnp 

N  E  R  I T  A. 

Species  58.   (Fig.  a,  h,  Mus.  Cuiniu;;.) 

Nr.RiTA  Orbignyana.  Ner.  testa  ohlongo-ovaid,  spird 
obtuse  plmiatd,  anfractibim  siibangustis,  concentrice 
striatis,  labro  tenuiculo,  cojumclld  pla)in-oxcavatd, 
medio  obsolete  corrngatd;  semiiiiAliinitft-iilhd,  pnnclis 
ctBruleo-nigris,  in  strigis  aciile  uiiiiulix,  ujiuco-nlljo 
margiiiatis,  dispositis,  promiscite  iiota/d. 

Orisigny's  Neeite.  Shell  oblong-ovate,  spire  obtusely 
flattened,  whorls  rather  narrow,  concentrically  stri- 
ated, lip  rather  thin,  columella  flatly  excavated,  ob- 
soletely  wrinkled  in  the  middle ;  semitransparent- 
white,  promiscuously  marked  with  blue-black  dots, 
disposed  in  zigzag  waves,  edged  with  opake-white. 

Recluz,  Ecvue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  18-11,  p.  108. 

Ifab. ? 

A  shell  of  rather  light  and  narrow  structure,  marked 
with  characteristic  zigzag  waves  of  opakc-white,  promis- 
cuously charged  with  blue-black  dots. 

Species  59.  (Tig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Nov.E-GuiNEiE.  Ner.  testa  semiglobosd,  de- 
pix'ssa,  spird  parum  exsertd,  mucronatd,  anfractibus 
convexis,  versus  aperturaw,  expansis,  spiraliter  confcr- 
tim  Jiloso-liratis,  columella  late  corrugatd,  dentatd ; 
caruleo-niyrd,  Urarum  interstitiis  pallidioribus. 

The  New  Guinea  Neeite.  Shell  semiglobose, depressed, 
spire  but  little  exserted,  pointed,  whorls  convex,  ex- 
panded towards  the  aperture,  spirally  closely  thread- 
ribbed,  columella  broadly  wi-inkled,  toothed;  blue- 
black,  interstices  between  the  ridges  lighter. 

Lesson,  Petit,  Journ.  Conch,  vol.  i.  p.  383. 

Hnb.  New  Guinea. 

Of  a  dark  unspotted  blue-black  colour,  encircled  with 
regular  thread-like  ridges. 

Species  CO.  (Fig.  a,  //,  c,  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neeita  STELLA.  Ner.  testa  subglobosd,  crassd,  spird pa- 
rmn  e.vsertd,  obtusd,  anfractibus  convexis,  .spiraliter 
costatis,  costis  irregiilnriliKs,  intcrduui  obtuse  angiilatis, 
labro  inlits  fnrtiler  rreiiain,  a,Im,,vlld  .jra.iulata,  ,M- 
UHte  ob.solele  de,tl„;,l,ild  ■  alhnld,  nifo  id  cireseeiite 
variegatd,  olivaceo-nigro  radiatd  et  reticulata. 

The  STAR  Neeite.  Shell  subglobose,  thick,  spire  but 
little  exserted,  obtuse,  whorls  convex,  spirally  ribbed, 
ribs  irregular,  sometimes  obtusely  angled,  lip  strongly 
crenated  within,  columella  granulated,  minutely  ob- 
soletely  toothed ;  whitish,  variegated  with  green  and 
red,  rayed  and  reticulated  with  olive-black. 

Chemnitz,  Conch.  Cab.  vol.  xi.  pi.  197.  f.  1907,  1908. 

Ilab.  Philippines. 

A  beautifully  painted  species,  named  after  the  star-like 
pattern  which  is  sometimes  formed  on  the  spire  by  the 
dark  radiating  blotches. 

Species  Gl.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Neeita  albipunctata.  Ner.  testa  ovato-semiglobosd, 
spird  .mbexsertd,  obtusd,  anfractibus  augmtis,  superne,  spiraliter  liratis,  liris  rude  crenu- 
latis,  iuters/i/iis  piiiicldlis.  cohi„i(dld  pinno-excavatd,  (jnuiiihild.  olimdrle  hiiniilissiiiie  deuticulatd ; 
crcruleo-iiigrd,  Ururuni  iiilerstilds  albipnitctutis. 
The  white-pun ctueed  Neeite.  SheD  ovately  semi- 
globose,  spire  rather  exserted,  obtuse,  whorls  narrow, 
concavely  depressed  at  the  upper  part,  spirally  ridged, 
ridges  rudely  crenulated,  interstices  punctured,  colu- 
mella flatly  excavated,  sparingly  granidated,  obso- 
letely  very  minutely  toothed  ;  blue-black,  interstices 
between  the  ridges  white  dotted. 

Unb. ? 

A  dark   blue-black  spirally  ridged   shell,   marked    be- 
tween the  ridges  with  white-eroded  punctures. 

August,  1855. 

Nmta.PI.  UV. 



YmcCTt  Brooks   Tmp 

lly  id  «.  lit 


Plate  XIV. 

Species  62.  (Fig.  a  to  /■,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neuita  Rumphii.  Ner.  testa  oblongo-globosd,  crasdus- 
culli,  politd,  spird  oltiise  impressd,  aiifmctibus  siihan- 
gristis,  convexis,  concentrice  striatis,  labro  intus  in- 
crassato,  vix  cremdato,  columella  concavo-pland,  in- 
terdmn  paucis  gramdis,  minute  denticulatd,  dentibus 
interdmn  obsoletis ;  colore  varid. 

lluMPHius'  Nerite.  Shell  oblong-globose,  rather  thick, 
polished,  spii'e  obtusely  impressed,  whorls  rather 
narrow,  convex,  concentrically  striated,  lip  thickened 
inwardly,  scarcely  crenulated,  columella  concavely 
flattened,  sometimes  with  a  few  granules,  minutely 
toothed,  teeth  sometimes  obsolete ;  colour  various. 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienne,  1841,  p.  147. 
Neriia  poUta  pars,  Chemnitz. 

Hah.  Philippine  Islands ;  Cuming. 

So  extremely  variable  is  this  species  in  its  painting,  that 

it  has  been  thought  necessary  to  devote  a  plate  to  a  selec- 
tion of  its  most  characteristic  states.  Fig.  a,  a  uniform 
bright  orange ;  fig.  i,  ivory-white,  with  a  broad  band  of 
interrupted  dark  ash-black  blotches ;  fig.  c,  encircled  with 
three  rose  bands  upon  a  greyish-white  ground,  sprinkled 
with  minute  black  and  white  dots ;  fig.  d,  sprinkled  with 
Ijlack  white-splashed  dots  upon  an  olive-grey  ground ; 
fig.  (',  encircled  with  four  bright  orange  bands,  sprinkled 
with  black  dots  upon  a  bright  green  ground  ;  fig./i  clouded 
with  crimson  bauds  and  blotches  upon  a  dark  oliv^-gi-ey 
ground,  freckled  in  the  interstices  with  black  dots,  here 
and  there  splashed  with  white;  fig.  ^,  grey  and  white, 
freckled  with  broad  interrupted  bands  of  light  orange- 
fawn  blotches ;  fig.  h,  flesh-pink,  encircled  with  yeUowish- 
white  stripes ;  fig.  /',  dark  grey,  freckled  with  black  and 
white-splashed  dots,  encircled  round  the  middle  with  a 
light  band  ;  fig.  k,  regularly  encircled  with  broad  equal 
clearly  defined  l)ands  of  black  and  white. 

AuOTst,  1855. 

Xrrilu.l'L  XW 


-■■-#       ^ 


owlv    Id  d  \A 

V;yi>.e:it.  Srooks  Imp 


Plate  XV. 

Species  63.  (Fig.  a  to/,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita   sauAMULATA.     Nat.  tedd  mborbicnlari,  late  dc- 
pressd,  spird  obtiixe  pJatiatd,  avfractihiis  convexis,  ver- 
sm  aperturam  lafi  expands,  dense  spiraliter  liratd, 
liris  irregnlarihus,  plus  mimis  squamulatis,  labro  am- 
pliter  effiiso,  iritus  crenato,  colnmelld  concavd,  medio 
tenue  granulatd,  minute  denticulatd;  colore  varid. 
The   SCALY   Nekite.     Shell   suborbicular,  broadly  de- 
pressed,  spire    obtusely   flattened,   whorls    convex, 
broadly  expanded  towards  the  aperture,  densely  spi- 
rally ridged,  ridges  in-egular,  more  or  less  scaly,  lip 
largely  eff'used,  crenated  within,  columella  concave, 
finely  granulated  in  the  middle,  miiuitely  toothed ; 
colour  various. 
l^E  GriLLOU,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvicrienne. 
Hah.  Philippine  Islands  and  Singapore  ;  Cuming. 

An  interesting  species,  well  characterized  by  its  broadly 
eft'used  aperture  and  pinched  spire,  and  scaly  sculpture. 
In  colour  it  is  almost  as  variable  as  the  species  of  the  pre- 
ceding plate.  Fig.  a,  a  bright  uniform  crimson-orange ; 
fig.  i,  c,  an  orange-yellow,  broadly  splashed  and  wave- 
clouded  with  black ;  fig.  d,  e,  opakc-white,  very  delicately 
obliquely  wave-sprinkled  with  minute  grey  dots;  fig./, 
pink,  with  the  ridges  conspicuously  picked  out  in  white, 
encircled  with  three  bands  of  open  black  network. 

Species  64.  (Fig.  a  to  d,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nekita  albicilla.     Ner.  testa  subtrigono-ovatd,  depres- 
sissimd,  spird  obtuse  pland,  fere  obsoktd,  anfractibus 
angustis,  versus  aperturam-  gradathn  expansis,  spira- 
liter costatis,  costis  confertis,  plus  minus  obtusis,  in- 
terdum  obsoletis,  labro  late  effuso,  ititus  multo  incras- 
sato,  vix  erenulato,  ared  colnmellari  ampld,  undique 
granulatd,  mimitissime  denticulatd ;  colore  varid. 
The  ox-palate  Nekite.     Shell  somewhat  triangularly 
ovate,  very  depressed,  spire  obtusely  flattened,  almost 
obsolete,  whorls  narrow,  gradually  expanded  towards 
the  aperture,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  close-set,  more  or 
less  obtuse,  and  sometimes  obsolete,  Up  broadly  ef- 
fused, much  thickened  inwardly,  scarcely  erenidated, 
columellar  area  large,  granulated   throughout,  very 
minutely  toothed ;  colour  various. 
LiNNiEUs,  Syst.  Nat.  (10th  edit.)  p.  778. 
Ilah.  Philippine  Islands  and  Mauritius ;  Cuming. 

This  species  is  well  distinguished  from  all  others  by  its 
very  depressed  oblong-ovate  form,  and  narrow  pinched 
spire,  the  columellar  area  being  unusually  large  and  pro- 
fusely granulated.  In  colour  it  is  extremely  variable ; 
fig.  a,  d,  a  dark  purple-black,  freckled  and  clouded  with 
greyish-white  ;  fig.  b,  c,  a  brilliant  crimson-orange,  banded 
with  a  light  sprinkling  of  irregular  grey-black  dots. 

August,  1855. 

.V< /•//./  .PI.MJ. 


^'^f^'^^i^  * 


Vraoent    Eroots    Imp 


Plate  XYI. 

Species  65.  (Fig.  «,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  vesillum.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird  suiexsertd, 
anfradiLiis  rotundatis,  jvxta  siituram  impressis,  spi- 
raliter  regtdariter  liratis,  columelld  concavo-pland, 
acute  denticulatd ;  fascik  latis  nigris  et  luieis  ciugii- 
latd,  nigra  luteo-pimctato. 

The  flag  Neeite.  Shell  ovate,  spire  rather  exserted, 
whorls  rounded,  impressed  next  the  suture,  spirally 
regularly  ridged,  columella  concavely  flattened,  sharply 
toothed;  encircled  with  broad  black  and  yellow  bands, 
the  black  yellow-dotted. 

Ha/j. ? 

Encircled  in  a  very  characteristic  niamier  with  broad 

black  and  yellow  bands,  the  black  bauds  Ijeiug  interriiptctl 

with  yellow  dots. 

Species  66.  (Fig.  a,  It,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerit.a  NivosA.     Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird  subexsertd,  an- 
fractibus  jttxta  spiram  decUvi&us,  deinde  convexis,  spi- 
raliter  impressis  et  lineari-sulcaiis,  siilcis  valde  irre- 
gularibtis,  labro  intns  suhincrassato,  dente  miico  la- 
terali,  columelld  declivi,  obsolete  corrugatd,  denfafd  ; 
hitense  caruleo-viridi,  albo  sparsim  nebulatd. 
The  sxowy  Neeite.     Shell  ovate,  spire  rather  exsertcd, 
whorls  slanting  next  the  spii'e,  then  convex,  spirally 
ridged  and  linearly  grooved,  grooves  very  irregular, 
lip  slightly  thickened  inwardly,  with  a  single  lateral 
tooth, columella  slanting,  obsoletely  wrinkled,  toothed ; 
dark  blue-green,  sparingly  clouded  with  white. 
Ilab. ? 

A  very  dark  green  shell,  sparingly  and  somewhat  ob- 
scurely clouded  with  white  spots  or  small  blotches. 

Species  G7.  (Fig.  (?,  A,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  marmorata.  Ner.  testa  orbiculari-depressd, 
crassiusculd,  spird  obtuse  impressd,  anfractibus  con- 
vexis, versus  aperturam  latis,  irregulariter  spiraliter 
liratis  et  Uneari-sulcatis,  aperlnrd  e.rpansd,  labro  ef- 
fuso,  columelld  decliri,  iiitrr^'r..i  i./iii/ite  denticulatd; 
carulesceiite-albd,  ccpndeo-nigro  sparsim.  marmorata. 
The  marbled  Nebite.  Shell  orbicularly  depressed, 
rather  thick,  spu'e  obtusely  impressed,  whorls  con- 
vex, broad  towards  the  aperture,  irregularly  spirally 

ridged,  and  linearly  grooved,  aperture  expanded, 
lip  effused,  columella  slanting,  sometimes  minutely 
toothed ;  bluish-white,  sparingly  mottled  with  blue- 

Hab. ? 

A  veiy  characteristic  broadly  expanded  species,  with 
the  spire  impressly  flattened,  mottled  here  and  there  in 
obscure  bands  with  blue-blaek  upon  a  bluish-white  gi'ound. 

Species  68.   (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  acuatina.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird  subexsertd, 
anfractibus  angustis,  convexis,  versus  aperturam-  lati- 
oribus.  iiiipmse  lineari-sulcatis,  sidcis  valde  irregula- 
rib/is.  hihro  iiiliis  lirato,  cohmdld  declivi,  obsolete 
gniiinhilti,  ih'iitutd;  carbonario-ttigrd,  nitente,  -mlcis 
liiwaribii-i  pallidis. 

The  agate  Nerite.  Shell  ovate,  spire  slightly  exserted, 
whorls  narrow,  convex,  broader  towards  the  aperture, 
impressly  linearly  grooved,  grooves  very  inegular,  lip 
ridged  within,  columella  slanting,  obsoletely  gi-anuled, 
toothed  ;  coal-black,  shining,  with  the  linear  grooves 

Hab. ? 

A  characteristic  shining  coal-black  shell,  encircled  at 

very  irregular  intervals  with  pale  impressed  linear  grooves. 

Species  69.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Neritopsoides.  Ner.  testa  ovatu-liirhinuta. 
spird  exsertd,  mncronatd,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  con- 
spicue  dense  spiraliter  liratis,  labro  intiis  iiicrussuto, 
minute  crenulato,  dente  minute  laterali,  columelld  tu- 
midiusculd,  oblique  corrugatd,  fortiter  dentatd;  pallide 

The  Neritopsis-like  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  turbinated, 
spire  exserted,  pointed,  whorls  rounded,  conspicu- 
ously closely  spirally  ridged,  lip  thickened  within, 
minutely  crenulated,  with  a  minute  lateral  tooth,  co- 
lumella rather  swollen,  obliquely  wrinkled,  strongly 
toothed ;  pale  straw-colour. 

Hab. ? 

A  solid  turbinated  species,  very  closely  spii-ally  ridged, 

of  a  pale  straw-colour,  reminding  one  somewhat  of  a  Neri- 




Vmoffll  Broob  imp 


Plate  XVII. 

Species  70.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Neeita  electrina.  Ner.  fedd  suborhicidari,  (Jt']iremi!, 
spird  siibexsertd,  uucronaid,  anfracfibiin  coiiccxis,  deiiii: 
spiraliter  liratis,  interstitvis  obsolete  pvnduratis,  colu- 
melld  temie  clenticnlatd ;  lutesceHte-aurmitia,  imma- 

The  amber  Nekite.  Shell  suborbicular,  depressed,  spire 
slightly  exserted,  pointed,  whorls  couvex,  densely 
spirally  ridged,  interstices  obsoletely  punctured,  co- 
lumella finely  toothed ;  yellowish-orange,  unspotted. 

Hab.  Isle  of  Panay,  Philippines ;   Cuming. 

A  delicate   clear   orange-yellow   shell,  closely  spirally 

ridged    throughout,    the   interstices    between    the    ridges 

being  obsoletely  punctured. 

Species  71.  (Pig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Dombeyi.  Ner.  testa  suborbieulari,  spird  obfnsii 
planatd,  arifractibus  angustis,  deinde  laiioribns,  dense 
spiraliter  liratis,  liris  Unearibus,  valde  irregnlarihus, 
apertitrd  effusd,  colmnelld  concavo-excavatd,  medio 
grannlatd,  edentidatd ;  ccerulescenfe-plmnbed. 

Dombey's  Nerite.  Shell  somewhat  orbicular,  spire  ob- 
tusely flattened,  whorls  narrow,  then  broader,  densely 
spirally  ridged,  ridges  linear,  very  in-egular,  aperture 
effused,  columella  concavely  excavated,  granulated  in 
the  middle,  edentulate  ;  bluish  lead-colour. 

Kecluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1841,  p.  1 1'J. 

Hab.  Bombay. 

A  dull  slate-coloured  species,  witli  a  rather  broad  ef- 
fused aperture,  having  the  columellar  area  gently  excavated 
and  granulated  in  the  middle. 

Species  72.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  co>rMA-NOTATA.  Ner.  testa  ovatd,  spird  obtuse 
exsertd,  aiij'ractibns  subaiigustis,  superiie  declicibi/s, 
spiraliter  dense  liratis  et  sidcatis,  colnmelld  lievigatd, 
leviter  denticulatd ;  Cferuleo-nigrd,  punctis  albis  coin- 
maformibus  aspersd. 

The  comma-marked  Nerite.  Shell  ovate,  spire  ob- 
tusely exserted,  whorls  rather  narrow,  slanting  at  the 
upper  part,  spirally  closely  ridged  and  grooved,  colu- 
mella smooth,  slightly  toothed  ;  blue-black,  spriukled 
witli  white  comma-shaped  marks. 

Hab. ? 

An  extremely  characteristic  species,  of  dark  bkie-black 
colour,  sprinkled  throughout  with  opake-white  comma- 
shaped  dots. 

Species  73.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita    Spexgleriana.      Ner.  testa   orbicidari-ovutd, 
crassiiiscidd,  spird  siibexsertd,  mticronatd,  anfractibns 
cotirexis,  spiraliter  obsolete  liratis,  decitssatim  striatis, 
aperiv.rd  efj'usd,  colmnelld  callosd,  edentidatd ;  liites- 
cente-albd,  nigro  ititerrupte  fasciatd. 
Spexgler's   Nerite.      Shell   orbicularly   ovate,  rather 
thick,  spire  slightly  exserted,  pointed,  whorls  convex, 
spirally  obsoletely  ridged,  decussately  striated,  aper- 
ture effused,  columella  callous,  edentulate  ;  yellowish- 
white,  interruptedly  banded  with  black. 
Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  301. 
Hab.    Isle  of  Panay,   Philippines   (under  stones   at    low 
water);  Cuming. 
Nearly  smooth,  with  a  callous  effused  eiientulate  aper- 
ture, stained  in  a  very  interrupted  manner  with  a  smeary 
black  band. 

Species  74.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerit.a  Georgina.  Ner.  iestd  ovatd,  depressiusmdd,  spird 
plimo-iiiipressd,  pand,  miicronatd,  avfractibus  suban- 
giistis,  .Hpiralilcr  coxlnlix,  tenidbus,  subdistanti- 
biis,  iiiter.di/ii'<  >:lriis  cinicnilricis  dense  cancellatis, 
area  cohiiiiclhiri  iii,iplii,  hrrigidd,  edentidatd ;  sordide 
rosc'o-lutesvente,  nigro  tessellatd. 

The  George  Nerite.  Shell  ovate,  rather  depressed, 
spire  flatly  impressed,  small,  pointed,  whorls  rather 
narrow,  spirally  ribbed,  ribs  thin,  rather  distant,  in- 
terstices densely  cancellated  with  concentric  striae,  co- 
lumellar area  large,  smooth,  edentulate ;  dull  pinkish- 
yellow,  tessellated  with  black. 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1841,  p.  180. 

llab.  King  George's  Island. 

A  light  rather  depressed  shell,  sculptured  with  thin 
rather  distant  ribs,  having  the  interstices  densely  latticed 
witli  crossed  stria;. 

NEKITA.— Plate  XVII, 

Species  75.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cumiug.) 
Nerita  eingens.  Ner.  testa  glohosd,  parvd,  solidd,  spird 
leviter  exsei'td,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  spiraliter  regu- 
lariter  cosiatis,  labro  et  columella  fortudnie  denta- 
tis,  area  columellari  tumidd  et  corrugatd ;  intense 
The  grinning  Nerite.    Shell  globose,  small,  solid,  spire 

slightly  exserted,  whorls  rouuded,  spii-ally  regularly 
ribbed,  lip  and  columella  very  strongly  toothed,  co- 
lumeUar  area  swoUeu  and  wrinkled ;  dark  lead- 

Tlab. ? 

A  small  globose  pea-Uke  shell,  distinguished    by  the 

strongly  developed  teeth  of  the  lip  and  columella. 

Smid  ,P{.JU1I. 


Zc-.-.'vssj  del  el  lith 


Species  70.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerit.\  BiiLLULA.  Ner.  testa,  ovatd,  spird  obtiisd,  vtj- 
exsertd,  anfmctibns  suhangttstU,  lavibus  vel  spiraUter 
striafis,  columella  excmato-pland,  subnngiistd,  tcnnis- 
sime  obsolete  dentieulatd ;  carbonario-nigrd. 

The  bubble  Nekite.  Shell  ovate,  spire  obtuse,  scarcely 
exserted,  whorls  rather  narrow,  smooth  or  spirally 
striated,  columella  excavately  flattened,  rather  nar- 
row, finely  obsoletely  toothed  ;  coal-black. 

Hah. ? 

.\  small  .shining  black  species,  with  the  whorls  rather 

nan'ow,  and  the  spire  slightly  slantingly  exserted. 

Species  77.  (Fig-  ",  4,  Mns.  Cuming.) 

Nekita  genuana.  Ner.  testa  orbiculari-ovatd,  icpres- 
siusciiJu,  spird  impresso-pland,  anfractiius  subangustis, 
versus  aperturam  lat'wribus,  spiraliter  temdliratis, 
labro  iiitus  fortiter  crenato,  columelld  declim-excavatu, 
profuse  grawulatd,  edentulatd;  intense  nigra,  soiiis 
duabits  latis  luleis  atd  roseis  ciugulatd. 

The  gartered  Nerite.  Shell  orbicidarly  ovate,  rather 
depressed,  spire  impressly  flattened,  whorls  rather 
narrow,  broader  towards  the  aperture,  spirally  finely 
ridged,  lip  strongly  crenated  within,  columella  slant- 
ingly excavated,  profusely  granuled,  edentulatc  ;  in- 
tense black,  encircled  with  broad  reddish  or  yellow 

Ilah. ? 

A  jet-black  species,   encircled    below  and  around  the 

suture   with   a  very  characteristic  broad   yellow  or  rose 


Species  7S.  (Fig.  a,  b,  iMus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  aknulata.  Ner.  testa  suborbicidari,  depressiiis- 
ciild,  crassd,  spird  leviter  exsertd,  mncronatd,  anfrac- 
tibus  superiie  depressis,  deinde  obsolete  aiigulatis,  con- 
vexis,  spirdlilur  annul ato-costatis,  aperturd  expansd, 
labro  effum,  in/us  crciiiilato,  columelld  superne  obscure 
corngatd,  snbdeatatd ;  nigra,  punctis  paucis  luteis 
variegatd,  inferne  fasciis  duaJms  albis  latis  cinctd. 

The  ringed  Nebite.  Shell  somewhat  orbicular,  rather 
depressed,    thick,    spire    slightly    exserted,   pointed. 

whorls  depressed  at  the  upper  part,  then  obsoletely 
angled,  convex,  spirally  annulately  ribbed,  aperture 
expanded,  lip  effused,  crenulated  within,  columella 
obscurely  wrinkled  at  the  upper  part,  faintly  toothed  ; 
black,  variegated  with  a  few  yellow  dots,  encircled 
round  the  upper  part  with  two  broad  white  bands. 
TTab. •? 

A  soliil  orbicularly  expanded  shell,  encircled  throughout 
with  ring-like  ribs. 

Species  79.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  granolata.  Ner.  testd  depresso-globosd,  solidi- 
uscnhl,  spird  plam-impressd,  anfractibus  spiraliter  li- 
ratis,  aperturd  expansd,  labro  intus  crenato,  columelld 
■profuse  grauiilatd;  caruleo-nigrd,  columelld pallidis- 
sime  anruntio-tinctd. 

The  granulated  Nekite.  Shell  depressly  globose, 
rather  solid,  spire  flatly  impressed,  whorls  spirally 
ridged,  aperture  expanded,  lip  crenulated  within,  co- 
lumella profusely  grandated;  blue-black,  columella 
fiiintly  tinged  with  orange. 

IM. ? 

An  orbicularly  solid  blue-black  shell,  distinguished  in 

having  the  columellar  area  more  than  usually  grauidated. 

Species  80.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Helicinoides.  Ner.  testd  omto-turbinatd,  spird 
siibainpld,  exsertd,  anfractibus  juxta  spiram  depres- 
sinsculis,  rotundatis,  subangustis,  versus  aperturam 
contractis,  spiraliter  tenuicostatis,  aperturd  parvd, 
labro  (ffuso,  columelld  declivi,  obscure  dentieulatd;  lu- 
tescenle,  waculis  nigris  et  roseis  alternatim  fasciatd. 

The  Helicina-like  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  turbinated, 
spire  rather  large,  exserted,  whorls  somewhat  de- 
pressed next  the  spire,  rounded,  rather  narrow,  con- 
tracted, spirally  finely  ribbed  towards  the  aperture, 
aperture  small,  lip  ett'used,  columella  slanting,  ob- 
scurely toothed  ;  yellowish,  encircled  with  alternate 
bands  of  black  and  red  spots. 

llah. ? 

Of  a  peculiar  contracted  ovately  turbinated  form,  be- 

'■einracd   with   alternate  bands   of  black  spots   and   rose 

August,  185 


spots,  reminding  one  of  the  IleVwl 

Tanliervilii  or  2>"l- 

!:?pecies  81.  (Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  affinis.  Ner.  tesid  ovato-turl'maid,  spim  valdi 
exiertd,  anfractibus  siiperne  coucavis,  deinde  rotun- 
datis,  mhangudk,  versus  aperturam  contractu,  spira- 
liter  subobsolete  liratis,  aperturd  parvd,  columella  de- 
clivi,  edentulatd ;  grheo-albd,  candeo-nigro  obscure 

The  allied  Nekite.  Sliell  ovately  turbinated,  spire 
much  exserted,  whorls  concave  round  the  upper 
part,  then  rounded,  rather  narrow,  contracted  to- 
wards the  aperture,  spirally  rather  obsoletely  ridged, 
aperture  small,  columella  slanting,  edentulate ;  grey- 
ish-white, faintly  streaked  with  blue-black. 

IM. •? 

Of  the  same  peculiar  contracted  turbinated  type  as  the 
preceding  species,  fiiiutly  ridged,  and  grey-mottled. 

jcrita.n.  m. 





A'mcen'..  ixodks    Imp 


Species  82.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 

Nerita  Yoldii.  Ner.  testa,  sendglobom,  depresdusadd, 
cTMsd,  spird  obtuse  pland,  anfractibiis  juxta  splrani 
deelivibus,  obtuse  obscure  liratis,  apertiird  expansd, 
labro  effuso,  intus  incrassato,  columella  obsolete  corru- 
ffutd  et  granulatd,  minute  denticulatd ;  nigra,  macuUs 
flammisqtie  angulato-flexnosis  notatd. 

YoLDi's  Nerite.  Shell  semiglobose,  rather  depressed, 
thick,  spire  obtusely  flattened,  whorls  slanting  next 
the  spire,  obtusely  faintly  ridged,  aperture  expanded, 
lip  effused,  thickened  within,  columeUa  obsoletely 
wrinkled  and  granulated,  minutely  toothed ;  black, 
marked  with  zigzag  spots  and  flames. 

Recluz,  Revue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierienue,  1841,  p.  1.51. 

Hab.  Red  Sea. 

A  thickened  obtusely  expanded  species,  distinguished 

!)y  a  characteristic  zigzag  style  of  marking  on  an  intensely 

Species  83.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nekita  pellis-sekpentis.  Ner.  testa  ovato-tarhhiatd, 
spird  exsertd,  rmicronatd,  anfractibus  rotundatis,  uii- 
dique  dense  liratis,  aperturd  pared,  columelld  obscure 
dentatd ;  albidd,  pnnctis  ntfis  dense  promiscue  tessel- 
The  snake-skin  Nerite.  Shell  ovately  turbinated, 
spire  cxserted,  pointed,  whorls  rounded,  closely 
ridged  throughout,  apertm-e  small,  columella  ob- 
scurely toothed ;  whitish,  thickly  promiscuously  tes- 
sellated with  red  dots. 

Hab. ? 

A  small  contractedly  turbinated  species,  densely  pro- 
miscuously tessellated  with  red  dots. 

spiraUtcr  liiieari-lira/is,  angustis,  gradatim  latioribus, 
aperturd  niiiiililrr  i-.i-pmisd,  columelld  plano-excavatd, 
medio  graniiliifo-c(irriig(itd,  edentuld ;  purpurascente- 
rosed,  lineis  fasciisque  nigris  albipunctatis  cingulatd, 
columelld  dilute  aurantid,  rugis  nigrescentibus. 

The  open  Nerite.  Shell  depressly  semiglobose,  more 
or  less  hlated,  spire  minute,  impressed,  whorls  spi- 
rally linearly  ridged,  naiTow,  gradually  broader,  aper- 
ture largely  expanded,  columella  flatly  excavated, 
granularly  wrinkled  in  the  middle,  edentulate;  pur- 
ple-rose, encircled  with  black  lines  and  bands  white- 
dotted,  columella  faintly  tinged  with  orauge,  wrinkles 

Recluz,  Eevue  Zool.  Soc.  Cuvierieune,  1841,  p.  148. 

Uub.  Dumaguete,  Island  of  Negros,  Philippines;  Cuming. 
\.  Light  CVe/)/V«/a-shaped  species,  prettily  painted  with 

white-dotted  lines  and  bands  upon  a  purple-rose  gi-ound. 

Species  84.  (Fig.  a,  b,  Mus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita    patula.      Ner.  testa  depresso-semiglobosd,  plus 
minus  dilatatd,  spird  minutd,  impressd,  anfractibus 

Species  85.   (Fig.  a,  b,  c,  d,  JIus.  Cuming.) 
Nerita  Beaniana.     Ner.  testa  depresso-ovatd,  spird  im- 
presso-planatd,  anfractibus  augusiis,  lavibus  vel  spira- 
liter  lineari-liratis,  aperturd  expansd,  columelld  con- 
cavo-excavatd,  tenue  corrugatd ;  cmruleo-'nigrd,fasciis 
roseis  punctisque  albis  cingulatd,  interdunt  lineis  albis, 
rugis  colmnellaribus  nigrescentibus. 
Bean's  Nerite.     Shell  depressly  ovate,  spire  impressly 
flattened,  whorls  narrow,  smooth  or  spirally  linearly 
ridged,  aperture  expanded,  columella  concavely  ex- 
cavated, finely  wrinkled ;  blue-black,  sometimes  en- 
circled with  rose  bands  and  white  dots,  sometimes 
with  white  lines,  columellar  wrinkles  black. 
Recluz,  Pro.  Zool.  Soc.  1843,  p.  200. 
Hab.  Island  of  Comgidor,  Philippines  (under  stones  at 
low  water) ;  Cuming. 
Allied  to  the  preceding  species,  but  narrower,  and  with 
the  aperture  less  dilated.     The  fine  black  wrinkles  on  the 
columellar  area  are  particularly  characteristic. 

August,  1835. 

N  E  II T  T  \ 

ncliatina,  Reeve  . 
nffiiiis.  Reeve  .  . . 
all)icilla,  Linnmus 
albipuiictata,  Ree-i 
annulata,  Reeve  . 
aiitiquata,  Recluz 
Arabioa,  Reeve . . 
Argils,  Recluz  . . 
Asceiisionis,  Chemnit. 
aterrima,  Gnielin 
atramentosa,  Reeve 
atrata,  Ckemnitz    . . 
atro-piirpurea,  Recluz 
aurantia,  Recluz  . 
balteata,  Reeve  . .  . 
Beaniana,  Recluz . 
l?ernhavfli,  Recluz 
biilens,  Gmelin  . .  . 
hifasciata,  Gmelin 
bisecta,  Reeve .... 
bullula,  Reeve .... 
Chemnitzii,  Recluz 
clilorostoma,  Lamarck 
chrysostoma,  Reclu. 
comma-notata,  Reeve 
costata,  ClienmUz . 
Deshayesii,  Recluz 
Dombeyi,  Recluz  . 
electrina,  Reeve  .  . 
erubescens,  Reeve . 
Essiiigtoni,  Recluz 
exuvia,  Liiinmis .  . 
ej-uvia,  Lamarck  . 

tilosa,  Reeve 

flavescem,  Chemnitz 
fi'agum,  Reeve  . .  . 
ftilgurans,  Gtnelin 
fuliginata,  Reeve. 
funioulata,  Reeve 
gemmulata,  Reeve 
geiuiaua,  Reeve  . 
Gcorgina,  Recluz 
granulata,  Reeve 
Grayana,  Recluz 
grisea,  Reeve  .  .  . 
grossa,  Liutueus  . 
Iiniistnim,  Reere . 







XI.  . 






























hiervylyjihica,  ('liomiiity, I. 

Heliciuoides,  Reeve XVI II 

Hindsii,  Recluz VI. 

liistrio,  LirmfPus VI. 

Le  Guillouana,  Recluz IV. 

lineata,  CkemnUz III. 

Listen,  Recluz VIII. 

Longii,  Recluz .XL 

Malaccensis,  Lamarck I. 

marmorata.  Reeve XVI. 

Maura,  Recluz IV. 

maxima,  Chemnitz V. 

Neritinoides,  Reeve V. 

Neritopsoides,  Reeve. XVI. 

nigei-rima,  CJmmtUz III. 

nii/ra,  Chemnitz I. 

nivosa,  Rveve XVI. 

Novae-Guinese,  Lesson XIII. 

oleagina,  Rwve X. 

Orbignyana,  Recluz XIII. 

ornata,  Sowerby I. 

oryzarum,  Recluz X. 

patula,  Recluz XIX. 

pellis'SeriJentis,  Reeve XIX. 

peloronta,  Linnmis II. 

picea,  Recluz V. 

plexa,  Chemnitz III. 

plicata,  Llnuaus IX. 

polita,  Lhinmis T. 

pra'cognita,  C.  B.  Adams  ......  VII. 

quadricolor,  Gmelin I. 

riugens,  Reeve XVII. 

Rumphii,  Recluz XIV. 

Savieana,  Recluz VIII. 

scalpta,  Reeve VII. 

semirugosa,  Recluz IV. 

Senegalensis,  Chnelin VIII. 

signata,   Macleay X. 

Spengleriana,  Recluz XVII. 

squamulata,  Le  Guillou  ...       .  .  XV. 

Stella,  Chemnitz .VII. 

tcssellata,  Gmelin IX. 

textilis,  Gmelin HI. 

versicolor,  Lamarck .KU. 

vexillum,  iJmv XVI. 

\^\A\\,  Recluz MX.